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Full text of "Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Gardens at Kew."

ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



1 8 9 4. 



Mo. Bot. Garden, 

1895. 




CONTENTS. 



CCCLIII. 


| Gummiug of 

De.ad.'s K.w 

I 'rod arts' 


CCCLIV. 
CCCLV. 
CCCLVI. 
CCCLVII. 

CCCLVIII. 
CCCLIX. 


CCCLX. 


Horticulture 


CCCLXII. 


hiatrihw- At, 
Miscellaneous 


CCCLXIII. 


Sugar-cane Di 


CCCLXV. 
CCCLXVI. 

CCCLX VII. 

CCCLX VII I. 
CCCLX1X. 


j Selection of 

A^uftureTn 
Decades Kewt 
Artificial Pro. 



CCCLXXVII. Liqm 



CCCLXXXI. 

< i ri,.\\xii 
CCCLXXXI I] 
! CCCLXXXI V 



ca Leaves 

■ I)i..,,.e (eon 



((( LXXXVI. 

CCCLXXXVII. 

.((■!. \XWIi! 

i CCCLXXXIX. 

CCCXC. 

CCCXCIL 

CCCXCIII. i 



,L-i U IV"«\>r XaV.ve'J 1, 






Date. 


j Article. 


Subject. 


Page. 


July" 


cccxcv. 


Supplementary Note to the Flora 


of 200 




, CCCXCVI. 


Cultivation of Vanilla in Tahiti - 






CCCXCV 1 1. 


Vanilla at Fiji - 






cccxcvi r i. 


Flora of the Solomon Islands - 






CCCXCIX. 


Methods of exterminating Locusts ic 


the 215 




CCCC. 


1 Preservation of Books in the Tropics 


- . 217 






Table )ils from Beech and Linden 


- 218 




CCCCII. 


Cultivation of Vegetables 


- 219 




CCCCIII. 


Production of Pure Turnip Seed 






CCCCIV. 


Miscellaneous Notes - 


- 22o 


August 


CCCCV. 


Species and Principal Varieties of i 


Ins:, 229 


Sep^Aer 


CCCC VI. 

CCCCVIH. 


Vegetable Resources of India - 
Botany of the Hadrainaut K\[>r<li::o 
Decades Kewenses: IX.- 


:.S 




CCCCIX. 


Miscellaneous Notes 


- :m 


October 


! CCCCX. 


Lathvrus Fodder (Lathyrus saticus 


- 349 




CCCCXI. 


Minor Industries in Jamaica and 





List of seed! 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS .INFORMATION. 

i.] JANUARY. [1894^ 



in the Kew 11 io-maiion. This i- contained in flu- 

Annual Report (lH'.t.T) of the Department of A-rieuliiive of the Colony 



imperfectly 

the flesh of t 

develops in 



nd « Peach Yellow- " have 
he action of bacteiia. 

The Department of A-r 



The disease so Utterly complained of turns out to be associated with tlr 
presence of a microbe in the sap-vessels of the cane. The presence^* 
the microbes is indicated to the eye by the exudation on fresh 1 -*- 

to cad the Gummhu/ of the Sugar-cane, never occurs without'* 
presence of this gummy matter. 

The gummy matter never occurs without the microbes, and is, in 

■clul and minute examination, I came to the 



c. 


, ft. 


i of theii 


• u'i'o 


ision 


tha 


t th.-i-L ■; 


liV V 


ppr» 


in- 


which I 


'!r.! 



,.;_■; ; r , ; 

[■ produced the di-ea>e, and such inoculation must, of course, have 
i made under the now well understood m.>i>vn precautions ai_oute-i. 
introduction of any other organism or disease-producing factor. 
• - have iitvn mail', and the result will in due time be 
;ded. Meanwhile, we know from these investigations much about 

he Clarence to put several checks on the losses they have hitherto 
Ted from it, 

hese methods of checking the disease were fully explained to arepre- 
na from all parts of the river, and were such 
o meet their approval. Chief among them was greater care in 
ring Inalthy sets. 

ot knowing the objectionable nature of this gum the farmers have 
i planting sets containing it, and the resulting crops have been 
ased in consequence. I was aide to show that the bud.- - 



plant-cane at a reasonable price, the same to be sold by him at a 

more than is ordinarily paid lor plant-cane (namely, 1/. per 
:' Ave set the expert's price at d(M. per ton, and reckon for the 

r one man in the business. He should charter a launch and 



variety in demand ; he should make himself familiar with the < 

My advice wa- thai i, ■ s! .mid furnish pi uit-cane of two sort 

1. Cane in stalks selected from as healthy crops as possib 
examination of stalk- from here ami thoiv all through ihe n Id 

2. Cane sets, i.e., already cut up, the same to he cmied in 
careful manner after rigid inspection, and to be as healthy 
from gum as possible. 

No. 1 could be sold at 30*. per ton— possibly less ; this won 
on the patronage of the growers. 

No. 2 would have to be sold at n much higher price, and 
ti-ed bv the -n-wiTs for unr->e:v purposes. 

The Lower Clarence would 'furnish. 1 believe, a living for c 



(a.) OntheChu nee Kiver. 
(b.) On the Richmond Eive 
(c.) In all probability in Qn 



2. Local on the Clarence. 
:ane is common all along the river, it is much more 

... : •;■ much worse 

: of Maclean. 



Judging from the account given by Dr. Cobb, the New South Wales 
sugar-cane disease appears to be very closely allied to, if not identical 
with, a disease called " gom/ickte," attacking the sugar-cane in Java, 
and which has been investigated by Kriiger,* Valeton,f and Janse.J 
The symptoms, also the general characteristics of the disease are 
identical, as is also the iinal result, the formation of gum in the fibro- 
vascular bundles, and the presence of a bacterium, which in the Java 
disease was called liarilhts s-arc/iari, Janse ; this has since been 
identified by Went with the « hay bacillus.- Um-illis .wbtilis. 



Dr. Cobb ha< 



investigation of 



' Gumming of the Sugar-cane" in the October number of thv^lr/rir///- 
ural Gazette of New South Wales (pp. 777-708). 



CCCLIV.— DECADES KEWENSES. 
: Novabum in Herbario Horti Regii Coxsi 



DECAS VII. 
61. Cochlearia Conwayi, Htmtl. (Crucif. 



Ruta (§Haplophylfum) Gilesii, II r> 



KmnUra-n: u r ,,r branch ol the V, 
Jln-havwrVA circiter pedalis. / 

63. Pilocarpus microphyllus, Stq 



. lloribus parvi= 



l,y Kv.-.msS- 
perfectly wit 



Dusly known specie 
Cassipourea verticillata 



65. Rhododendron Fordii, 
It. Fortunei <M A', brarlnjcav 

laniulis iior ii't -ris tortuosis irl.'i 



W.~- Lantao Island. Kwan-tung, China; C. Ford's native 

cum pstiolo 2-3:\ poll, longa et \-\\ poll. lata. Peduneuli 
33mipollicares. Flores circiter 1^ poll, diametro. 
rdisia inegaphylla, Hemsl. [Myrsinacene] ; frutex caule 

(fide Home) undique glaber, i'oliis amnli — imis brevissime 
a coriaceia angp - obtnsis basi rotumlato- 

"gin:ili anastomosantibus, paniculis angustis pseudo-termina- 
n-ibus breviter pedicellatis, ealycis segmentis erectis deltoideis 
is, corolla stam in if .usque i<rnotis, fnictu magno globoso. 
fa*.— Rambi or Rabi, Fiji. J. Home, 429, and Viti Levu, 



in bv his native collectors from about one 
ic south side of Viti Levu; and he contin 

it u'rows to 100 feet straight ui>. almost wit i 
sll it •' Dacea.' Mv specimens were taken f 
ai about in. in by mv a 

-me mistake here, and Mr. Yeoward's lii.a 
-nous. Mr. Rome describes it as a shrub ^ 
i in the forests of Rabi. 



pedicellatis nmbelhi 



lentornm pubeseenti, staminibus 5 subnet) 


uaiibus corolla 


is, filamentis lre\issimis, stylo stamini 


bus requilongo 






'araguay (cultivated in Monte Video), C 


ribert, 56 and 



other four. To/ji:m^' from (lie driod -pcciniois, S, 
showy free flowering species, aud likely to prov< 
summer bedding. 

68. Aniba perutilis, Henul. [Laurace»] ; ramulis 



2 


tis lobis erassis 
ata perianthii 


,t 


'olombia. If. & 


'"in 


\-Z\ poll, longa 
nter semipollice 


of 


Laurel bearing 



70. Lomaria egenolfioid.es, Baker [Polypodia 



CCCLV.— WEST AFRICAN MAHOGANY. 

For some time past a considerable amount of attention has been 
directed to the timber resources of Tropical Africa ( see K< ir Bulletin for 
February 1891, p. 41), and under the name of African Mahogany, a dark 
reddish coloured wood, having some of the characters of true mahogany, 
lias appeared in the English market. This timber has been proved to 

commerce to other woods than thai furni-hed 1>\ K/iui/a sfm'f/alcn.sis. 
and, in reference lo this subject, Mr. dames Irvine, of the firm of Irvine 



;;ui Mahogany 
t Oak or Teak 
aely heavy and 

1 Uook, f. It 
Kac Bulletin, 

West Africa," 

Mahogany], 



; oi ,{11,1,1 



dies a height of fully 200 feet, 



CCCLVL— TUBEROUS LABIATiE. 

It has long been known that certain specie of l^thUitai liave tuberous 
jotstocks, and also that two or three of them were cultivated in the 
last for the sake of their tubers, but it is only during the last ten years 
iat Europeans have given much attention to these plants as a possible 
jurce of food. An enumeration of those species of the two principal 
cncr.t yielding tubers, viz., Coleus and Plectranthus, will be useful 
- indicating what species might be found worthy of expi rinienfal 





is. by Kumphius in his llrrbarniu Amhoiitcist, vol. .5, 
ed in I 7-50. although wnlten uwr ,ji) ve;r-< 
le authors prelace. which is dated l(>9o). Lluu.phius 
:< plant under the name of •• (Pans terrvstris 
\<j that it was cultivated in Java, Amboiua, ea\, and the 


oi "/V.<r/ 


// c S. tuberii'eni Xat/d). in Js<o, which is closely allied 
S. pnln.i/ris. liesides these there are several other 




: ' ; '" V'::, i'.vV'V": 



Coleus barbatus, lieu th. in Wall. PI. Asiat. Par. ii., p. 1.5 and ill 
DC. Prod xii.. p. 71 ; Dah. a,,d (Phs. Ilnn.hai) 11. p. 205. 

Pleetranthus Forskolad. Willd. Sjj. Pi. iih. p. KJi) ; Bot. Mac/, 
t. 203G. 

Plectrauthus bnrbatns, Andr. Pot. Rep. t. 594. 

A native of India, Arabia and V.n<\ Tropical Africa. 

Aceordinsr to Dal/ell and CJihson's Flora, and a label of Dr. Ritchie's 
in the Kew Herbarium, this plant is cultivated in the Deccan for the 
sake of its fleshy roots, which are pickled by the natives. 

Coleus dysentericus, Pah,r. — h'adice tuberosa glohosa, caulibus 
olliptiris basi cuneatis paiioierenatis carnods ? glabris subtus nigro- 



3 fleshy, and the cells are densely filled with starch. 



Iau.— Niger regi 


" "'/&!;■ 


tarter makes the J 
foot. This is ( 
lame ' Krodyn.' " 


d'he t 



Coleus eiulis, Vatkc in Linnce 
A native of Abvssinia, where 



Coleus tllberOSUS, Benlh. Labiatcr, ]). ."/.'. Mini in 1)( . /'ran. xi 
. 79 ; Miqiiel 11. hid. Bat. ii., p. 9.3:5 ; G7/,y7. r/ m;;i . 18i>3, xix.,p. IS 

C. parvinorus, Benth. in DC. Brad, xii., p. 72 ; Hooli.jiL, 77. /?,-, 
W. iv., P . 625. 

s tuWosus, 7>7«w 7J//V/-. p. S38; T/ncaitcs Bum 

itriscostensis, ito/jtpA. 77cr£. Amboin, v., p. 37 

Tlie naiis country of this plant is Miinowhai dnubitnl. It 

nltiv:itcd in Java, Ainboina, and other islands of tin- Malay Arc!! 

I 'eylon. where, a. ■cording to a note V>v Gardner in tl 
i>-\v ih rhv. [mil. it i- " cult ivat ed like potato- h 



X * • i t 1 u i • - i mot, however 

their work-. ..en- in tie- K 

by Wight, at Qn'ilon (Xo. 210o, Wight, KVw 



•vhlciiee that dole us tuberosum has been introduced into tin 
is cultivate! tlwiv,a.ul th<> name Wil 1 Potato. ,i,,.l,r whirl, 
)_ Paris, woul.l imply thai if is >mt a cultivated plant, but a 

; it may prove to he identical with the "Kaffir Potato" 
<is esculciittts, described below), ( ,r possibly with Calais 



-l\ poll, longi. Bractem H-2 lin. lon-;e. Pedicel li \-\ 
"uly.v 2-2.1 Hn. i l)n „ us . Corolla o lin. longa. 



Plectranthus esculentus, N. E. 



s oppo.sitis ollipticis obtusis scabridis 
oribns. calve campnuulato scabrido 



Mr. J. M.Wood. 



at Kew, they are at first quite e 
Plectranthus floribimdus, A./;. 






Hab.— Natal, Inan< 


la 1,800 feet all 


t., Wood, 610,3813. 




Caulis 2-4 pedalia 

longai, 1— 1| lin. lata;. 
Corolla 7 lin. longa. 


, parte florifera 
I. Racemi, l\ 
Pedicclli \\- 


1-H ped. longa. Folia 2-1 
-21 poll, lon-i. /W^ 1 
-2 lin. longi, f Wy r 8 lin. ]. 


1 poll. 


Var. longipes, N.l 
longioribns; corolla b 


mis alte ey nihil 


gfe3«l2; 


; ] u V i i i '; 


Har.— Tropical A 


frica : Manga 




alt , 



This species is closely allied to 1\ csc><l<nt us, l)iit ditVers in its more 
erect habit, taller stems, and closely sessile leaves, with broader rounded 
bases, rather rougher surface, and more prominent reticulation. The 
tropical variety longipes may prove to be a distinct species ndien the 
leaves aw known, but in everything except the length of the pedicel- it 

"^ in the ca>e'!,i several other Labial;.-, the corolla shows consider- 
able variation : two specimens collected by Meller at the same place and 



Plectranthus incanus, Li 



Plectranthiis madagascariensis, 



P. madagascarietms 
luvageov Ominu Mtard, which would imply that it is not cultivated. 
Plectranthus Sieberi, Benth. Lab. p. 710, and in DC. Prod. xii.. 
This is a native of Australia, and in the original description is stated 



Inch thick, and thick 



OCCLVII — VEITCH COLLECTION OF JAPANESE 
VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 

Through the liher.-ditv of Mb James n. Witch, F.L.S.. the Museum 

'•' I- •■■'! " i !»y tie- wly ; !c ef the 









■ur^The^feJ^o 


^V'. xn x'f 


selectee 


e the uses o! 
eh accompan 


iesthem? 






Nymphs 


LCEJS. 




- — 


S?MSS2 


, Willd.— Pre 


■ssed fruit head or l 


receptacle a«d 


pr^S 


y prepared from t 


v ft Z,._I)\ 
he wood. 


T^L, . „* 





Thjaceje. 

™<7 ' '<"/'• Mill.-(;e. ta oi- ahots made of the wood; also specimen 



Rhus wccdunra. L.— Samples of wax bought at Osaka va a-, 
follows :— 

1. Refined whit.^yax similar in appearance to beeswax^ used for 

Priet'^f-^o|.M- ! 10o7!>s\lap!Lsr J '" 

100 lbs Japanese. 

Lkguminos.e. 

bamboos to form windows Ibr summer-houses. 

Gh/vhu- kispU... M:.\in».-IIoi.. nair >ievo ih J in the manufacture 
of soy from the seeds of tins plant. 

Phaseolus Mnngn, L. var ,W,7/^.?.— Meal prepared from the pod 
used to make chocolate. 

Sophora japnni a. L.— Tray and -mail ornamental table made of the 

Rosacea. 
Pyrus Toringo, Sieb.— Sample of the bark which is employed as a 
yellow dye. 

Hydrangea pauiculata, Sieb— Tobacco pipes made of the wood. 
Lnjfa Petnla. Scr. — Vascular tissue of the fruit ieed as a sponge. 



and China, especially 



Urticace^e. 
Cannabis sativa, I,. — K-.wko hark made into i 
for sandals ; also samples of rope of various sizes. 



ide of r 

"ifordr, 

Moms nlixi. Xi. — Tray* made of the wood. The wood is brownish- 
yellow, hard, and used for turnery, dyeing, &c. ; the bark is made i 
paper. 

Fterocarya rhoifolia, S. & Z. — Box and trays made of the wood. 



bark used for making 
baskets and basket made of same. 

Alnusfirma, S. &. Z.— Ornamental box of the wood with carved lid. 
The wood is used for sledge?, mills, in.-ediiiiery. turnery, &c. 



"ryptnmt ria _/"/" >//'"/. 1 >on.- 



oyed in Japan for heavy ' 



Bamboo, the i 



CCCLV1IL— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, I. 



Government the tk.\<ir utility u) resuming work upon 
Tropical Africa." The following correspondence has 
i the subject: — 



Foreign Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 
Foreign Office, 
Slit, March 21, 1891. 

I AM directed by the Marques of Salisbury to statf to you that 
his attention has hern called to the fact that three volumes only of the 
; - Flora of Tropical Africa " have as yet been published, and that the 
want of a complete handbook describing known plants impedes their 
study by Her Majesty's officers in the different parts of Africa which are 
now being opened up to civilization. A knowledge of African botany is 
of great practical value, as was proved by the discoverv by Sir John 
Kirk, whilst emploved a- lie- Majesty'- Agent at Zanzibar, of a plant, 
Previously unknown, which now suppli-s annually 2< K).l)0()/. worth of 

.'"ub'eh'hav.'only icee. <\\tf * 

L .rd Salisbury is of opinion that a proper knowledge of the Flora of 
Tropical Africa would do much to aid the development of the territories 

would therefore suggest that the completion of the work in question 



Royal Garden-. K a-. 



Royal Gardens, Kew, to Foreign Office. 
Roval Gardens, Kew, 
Sir, March 28, 1891. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
March 2*1 respecting the completion of the Flora of Tropical Africa. 
This work, as you are no doubt aware, is published under the authority 
of the First Coiunn-sionei of Her Majesty's Works, and J have forwarded 
your letter to him with a request for instructions. 

2. Apart from an official dillieult\ whieh may arise, but which hi the 
face of Lord Sali-burv'- -trnii- opinio,; will no doubt be .visilv overcome, 
lam embarrassed by "the want of competent persons, with time at their 



APOCTNA.CEJE. 



Carpodinus calabaricus, Stapf: fn it ex altt 



Folia -2\-\\\ i 



Carpodinus parvifloi 



Calyx 1 lin. longus. Cn-vllu 'tnl.ii, :> lin. i .n.^is. /,\/,vr, 1 : V poll, lon-a' 
o. Clitandra MaiUlii, Stapf: senndcns, ulal.er. l'oliis ovatis \tI ollip- 



Clitandra Schweinfurthii, */«/>/ 






7. Clitandra Barteri, 



. loiijrus. Corollo- lulus 2 lin. Ion- 
Rauwolfia macrophylla, Siajf; 



3-5 lin., pedicelli \-\ 
9. Rauwolfia mon 



Mombasa, Hil 
Sbupanga, Kirk. 

Driipa 3-1 lin. lo 


iStc 


2011, rai 


*.- 1 


A'.- Zan 


/ibar (:), 


Ai 


: &: 


10. Rauwolfia 
superne quadrang 

oblongis vakle in 

12-16 (in foliis 1 
longe pedunculati 

obtusis, car pell is 1 

Gaboon, Sierra 

Folia majors 5 

a-1 poll, lata. 1 

Calyris lobi I lin 
Driipa 4-6 lin. Io 


flU-Xii <:ir. 


S/ajjf; fr 

,.-to, driipa 


utex glabe 
bus, foliis tc 


.!."iobi ( 


.pi; 


iternatia 
acumen 


'.''if'' 


..s"l" p.. U. 1, 
OwW/rr till 


l : 1 "nS 


11. Pleiocarpa 


bicarpellata, Stapf; 




s§ 






.''"'/.Mm'c 


collectis, cymis i 






ovatia acutia tube 


.fere 2-pl 


. i.i,.v;7.iil... 










ii:s,Ttis , f 



/>«*•* 12-15 ped. altus. /b/ia 
petiofus 2 lin. longua. Calyx \ 
longua. 

12. Voacanga Schweinfurthii, 

inlbrioribus abrupio contraotis sub 

giacilibus, l.ra.-teis ublungis mox de 



petiolus ad £ poll, longns. Pcdnnn'lin. 



i. Ca/y* 5-7 lin. long, 


■*■ rW/ " tU ' 


«a .3-7 lin., 


lobi f polh 


3. Voacanga bracteata, 


.SVftjo/; frntex 


[,',:, ulat'> lul.i 


ilibus, foliis 

'-' ..,!., iI.l--.T-- 

xtu.o calyci 


ngr.,0 River, Mann, 808 : 


; Old Calabar, 7' 


homson, 39. 





Tabernamontana nitida, 






15. Tabernsemontana brachyantha, Staff; 



FcriKiiMl 

3- J lin- Ion 

3 lin. longi 



SinilltigljIIKllll..: 



pachysiphc 



i.I-i!.. 



17. Tabernaemontana angole: 



Tabernseinontana 



Arbor 30-40 ped. alto. Folia 7-11 poll 
•6 lin. loncrus ; Pednnadus 4 poll., pedit 



20. Tabernaemontana durissima, Siapf .- arbor glabei-rimfi l : gn<< 

blongis basi attenuatis vol subrotundi.- ; , obtusis vel >,. 
trinque opacis subcoriaeeis, ncn is lateralibus utrinque 6-12 obliquis 
ubrectis petiolo brevi vol brevissimo, floribus corymbosis, pedunculo 
ro ratione florum subgra.-ili. \» , lis. issiuseulis < ilyce late cam - 

• imlatn ."-[. im,, |, ' ■« L.ti^ij,)^ ,. ati> b;>i intn> ;niJ:,_ 



-4r6or 50-70 pel. aba. /b/>V/ 6-9 poll, longa, 3-4 poll, lata, jptf« 
i poll, longus. Pi(ln,,n'!)is, ! poll., pcdicelli ad 1 poll, longi. i 
24 lin. longus. CVo/^ tubus 1 ; poll, longus, ad 2 lin. latus, lobi 
longi. 

and from the Lower C may belong also 



21. Tabernaemontana 


eglandulosa, 


TtftJ i 


'rut. 


a scs 


Ltidens glaber- 










fob;.. 


oblongis basi 




























i vel umbellis 




lensi-. ,-nlyc,. 


late eainpamih 


ito 5-par 






obovatis vel 


obi mgis 




ilosis, corolla 


alba hi 
















lanceolate 


vel linearibus 




ttibo paulobn 


■yionb-.s, >t;,n, 




ulo 


.":''"'" 


basin insertis 




. 






ban 




'antial'isovati' 
















Lower 


Niger, Kppal 


., />W/n-, 33 


06; Yor 






son, 12; Old 




River, M,:>,u, 


2253 ; Fern; 


m.b. To. 


.1/, 




239 ; Gaboon, 


Kongui, 


John River, 


Jfaim, 1794; 


Munda, 


Si! 


«nge 


farm, Soyait.r 


/b/w, 


5-6 poll., rariu 


s ad 8 poll, h 


)nga, 2-3 


pol 


1. lata 


, petiolm, |-| 


poll, lonj 


^us. Pednneiu 


his, -i-i poll. : 






, /// a. 


\ 3 lin. longi. 



Calyx, 14-34 lin. longus. rW/* tubus 1J- 
. longi. Drvpa \\ poll, longa. 



e of the calyx and ihe corolla varv considerably ; but I i 
. di»t:ii<:i:Mi\aiii-ti«- ,,pon ilu.-e diil. n-ncc- Flu habit, t 



Tabernaemontana elegans, stapf ',- fn 



brevi ter can 
solitario bih'du ..rn; ■..■ 
; 



. drnpifl geminatu oblique oratu 

piculatis. 

Lower Zambesi, between Senna and Lupata, and at Shupangii. Kirk : 
Delagoa Bay, Monteiro, 55. 

Frutex, 8-10 ped. alta. Folia, 4-5 poll, longa, 16-20 lin. fata, 
pctiolus, 5-7 lin. longus. Fcdunrnhrs, 1 poll, longus, pedicel I i ad 
6 lin. longi. Calyx, 1-1| lin. longus. Corolla tubus 3 lin., lobi 
H lin. longi. 

Very like T. p, r,icifnlia, Jaco., In habit, but differing in the larger 

the very short style. 



GEKTIAKE^. 

Auctore J. G. Baker. 

Belmontia zambesiaca, Baker; caulibus gracil 
b 

)-lanceolatis 

Zambesia, in the valley of the Leshumo, Holub. 

Folia 4-6 I'm. longa. Sepal a 4 lin. longa. Corolla lobi 2 lin. 
longi. 

Belmontia pumila. linker; caulibus gracilil 



infra nodos alatir, foliis 4-jugis 
;alyce sesqudongion, lobis perparv 


SES 


r;S 


cutis, pedicellis 


Swamps at Nape, near the mou 


lh of the Nig, 


sr, Bartt 




Folia 3-4 lin. longa. Sepala 1 


\ lin. longa. 






25. Belmontia platyptera, Bakt 

1-4-rloris, foliis pauoijuiiis ova 

longiori, lobis 5 obovatis perpai 


?r; caulibus g 


racilibus 
us supn 


creeds 4-alatis 

•ntis, pedieobis 










Angola, province olHuilla, We 


Iwitsch, 1524. 






Folia 3-4 lin. longa. Sepala 3 


lin. longa. 






26. Chironia laxiflora, Baker 

angulatis, folds remotis ovatis 
disposes, pedicelhs elougatis, 
xcuminatis, corolla* tubo calyee bre 


; caulibus j 


,£,:,':; 


spSSs 


Manganja Hills, Zambesia, alt. 1 


XXX) pod., Me 


Her. Kir 




Folia 6-9 lin. longa. Cahjx 3 1 


.in. longus. t 


Wall, 1 


old 4 lin. longi. 


27. Voyria primuloides, Bake 


r; caulibus 1 


lexoosb 


unifloris, foliis 



v-.'ltO-CII^. 


idatis, corollas tubo c\ 


■lin.lrico calv. 


:o 2-3- i 


.1.. l..in,'io. 




X^^rtsZl 




urn tubi insert 


!m8. 




Gaboon 








Caul is 


2-3 noil, longus. 


c 


a ///.i' 4 lin. Id 


ngus. 




ti. longns 


, limbus 6-9 lin. . 


ham. " 






28. Voyria platypetala, 


Ba 


iAer; caulibw 


; ilexuop 


:is uniflor 








s adn.v^ «, 




















ntlieris suprii med 




tubi'insci-tis. 






Banks c 


4 the River Xun, 


Ma 








(\l,(lis\ 


8-3-polHcari8. Ct 


'<fr 


! 3 lin. longi 


is. Corolla tubu 




ibus 4 lin. diam. 











29. Faroa Buchanani, llaker .- 

I'lllotis SCSsiii'..!!- lillriinlHK, i';i | lit ul is 0-15 

edicellis brevis-siinis, c,-ihci> tubo <-:n< nmnul 

Nyassa-land, Buchanan (1135 of 1891 set). 

Caulis ]''-i ili>. /)/■•/, : , ioi'i 1.1-2 }•• ! ! 
on gas. C< / ol ' 



Faroa graveolens, i 









lllhon. A ( 



longus. "cbro/to-aiiiU^L 

31. Faroa pusilla, Baker; caulibus bivvi.oimis, foliis oblongi 

calycis lobis ovatis tubo longioribo rparvis albidis 

fructu cnlyec a^quilongo. 

Sandy soil on the- i-dg«- of swamp?, Xur»r-, Louw Niger, Darter. 

32. Schultesia senegalensis, Baker; annua, caulibus eivctis .-im 

ills, foliis 4-6-jugis sessilibus ovi.to-laiircoiati- 
*.■■•■■■■! 
calyci requilongo, lobis obovatis. 

Senegal, Heudelot, 551 ; south bank of the Eiver Gambia, Brmcti 






BORAGINEJB. 

Auelore J. G. Bakee 
Baker ; arborea, 



dorso obscure pubescentibus. 



cymis in paniculas terminales aggregate, ramulis velutims, calyce 
fero oblongo velutino l()-sulcato, dentibus minutis, corolla? tubo < 
requilongo, limbo luteo lobis orbicularibu*. stylis c tubo cxsertis. 

Fernando Po, Haiti r. Mann .- (iaboon, Soyaux ; Congo, C. Si 
Angola, Golungo Alto, IVehcitsch 5430, 5466. 

Folia 4-6 poll, lonjra. 2-3 poll. lata. Calyx floriferus 5-6 lin. lo 
Corolla limbus 12-15 lin. diam. 

34. Cordia chrysocarpa, Baker ; arbofea, foliia ovatis longe peti 

cymis paucifloris, calyce fructifero campanulato baud sulcato, fi 
oblongo acuto splendide luteo. 

Angola, Golungo Alto, Weltcitsch 5461 . 

Folia 6-S poll, longa, petiolo 2-4 pollicari. Culyx iYuetifcrus 1 
diam. Frxrtns siccus 15-18 lin. longus. 

35. Cordia Heudelotii, Baker; ramulis glabris, foliia oblongis I 

Senegambia, Heudelot ; Lower Niger in forests at Yoruha, Hurler. 
Folia 3-4 poll, longa, petiolo 12-18 lin. longo. Calyx florifen 



36. Cordia platythyrsa, Baker : ai 


boron. 


ramuli, 


- pub 


-scentil.us. 


foliis oblongis acutis distincte petiolati 










pubescentibus, cymis in paniculam ampi 
infuudibulari tomentoso hand sulcato 1 


















oblongis. 










Banks of the Hngroo River, Mann. 










Folia 1-5 poll, longa. 2-3 poll. lata. 


Calyx 








Corolla- limbus 3 lin. diam. 










37. Cordia populifolia, Bmker; nmnli 


s apiee 


tomeo 


tosi S 


foliis sub- 








facie 




glabris dorso tomento pallide brunneo 


pnediti . 








amplam aggregatis, calyce infundibular! t« 


nuciitoso lohis 






tubo calyce breviori, lobis oblongis. 










Banks of the Bagroo River, Mann. 










Folia r>-6 poll, longa. Calyx llorifern 


,2 lin. 


longus 






38. Cordia Milleni, Baker ; arboro 


:. Foliu 


I cordato-orl 


>i<-ularibu< 












amplam a-gn-atK <■:<!;.. , 


... tui.., 


nldnllg 


o hvit 


,r .ulci.tn 



Angola, Wehcitsch, 5428. 

Folia 8-10 poll, longa et lata, petiolis 2-4 poll, longis. Calyx 3 lin. 
ongus. Corolla; limbus 4 lin. diam. 

40. Cordia Kirkii, llakcr ; rninulis pubosccntihn-, f.diis ovatis brcviter 
petiolatis ovatis repandis peiminerviis utriiique dense pubescentibus, 
ovinia densis terminalibus, calyce rlorifcro haud sulcato dense toinenfoso 
dentibus parvis ovatis, corolke tubo ealyci a-<|uil<>ngn, fructu oblongo 



Cordia pilosissima. linker ; ramulis dense pilosis, 
atis suborbioulnribus utrimpie dense pilosis e bas 



Fn'in matura baud visa. Calyx 3 lin. longus. Corolla;! 



Cordia obovata, Baker; arborea, ramulis pubescentibus, foliia 
ter petiolatis obovato-cuneatis nbtusis facie scabris dorso pubescenti- 
•yinis eompositis, onlyee ti^> . iabro lobis parvis 

senegalensis, Hochst. in Schimp. PI. Abyss, no. 2180, non Juss. 
yssinia, Schimper, 2180 (leaves erenate) ; 192 (leaves entire). 



Cordia somalieiisis. Ilakir .■ ar 
brevit.-r petiolatis oblaneeolato-. 
s dorso dense pubesentibus, cyn 



Folia 2-2^ po n. longa, 9-12 lin. lata. Calyx floriferus 2 lin. longus. 

41. Ehretia acutifolia, Baker; arborea, ramulis glabris, foliisdistincte 

tenninalem dispositis, pedieeilis brovibus, calyce glabro campanulato 

Ambae Bay, Mann. 

Folia 4-6 poll, longa, petiolo se-qui-pollicari. Calyx \\ lin. longus. 

4."). Ehretia divaricata, linker .- aib..iva, rainuli.- u muter pilots, foliis 



longus. Corolla: lobi 2 lin. 



46. Ehretia macrophylla, llahtr ,■ urlioi-ni. ramnlis -l.il.ii-, lolii- 
distinete pHiolatis ol,io„^ ;,nilN ba-d «M.n.-ati S ry.ni* parvb densis 

Dar Salam, A7r*. 

Folia 6-8 poll, longa, petiolo pollicari. Caly.v 1 lin. lon.irus. 1- met us 

■_ "*47. Ehretia angolensis, Pxilur; frutic«>sa. nmiulis glabris. fob is l-revitcr 

Angola, Monteiro, Welwitsch, 5441, 5463. 

Fo/*« 3-4 poll, longa, petiolo 3-6 lin. CWy.f 1 lin. longus. C V>,»//7/ 
2$ lin. longa. Fmctus 2 lin. diam. 

48. Trichodesma grandifolium, Baker; cauiibus berbacois >etis alias 

rotnndatis mfenoiibns breviter patialatis. rymis laxis multiflorb, p,-di- 
cellis hispidis, calycis lobi« ovatis euspidatis sfriirosis, corolla} lobis 
suborbicnlaribus, antheris parvia breviter eristatis. 

Somali land, at Adda Galla and Zafarag, James and Thrupp. 

Folia 5-6 poll, longa. Calyx floriferns 6 lin. longns. CorolU 



Trichodesma Medusa, 



Trichodesma paucifloru 



rigoso lobi 




"rC 




" 


ihom 


Folia sui 


-erior.1 12- 


18 lii 



Cynoglossum Johnstoni, 



52. Myosotis aeqiiinoctialis, />*//./ .- ain.ua. eauidms dense pilosis, 
bracteatis, pedieellis bivvi^imis aseendontibns, ealyce dense hirsuto 



lobis lineari-obloiigis tulx jpuullongis, corolla 1 tubo c:dyci avpiilongo, 

Kilimanjaro, alt. 13,000-li,000 ped., Johnston. 

(i/nti demum 1^-2 poll, longi. Calyx demum 2 lin. longus. Corollee 
limlms 1 lin. diam. 

53. Lobostemon cryptocephalum, Baker .- perennis. canlibus shupli- 
eibus liii-siiiis. foliis se — .ili bus linem i -ol.lougis hispidis, cymis dense 
ciipitjnis lohis supremis suboccultis, calves hispido lobis lanceolatis, 



(in <Tiitrali;i majnni subunri:di:i. Cali/.t ."> lin. longus. Corolla' 
Heliotropium phyllosepalum, llaher ; annuo, canlibus aseenden- 



Banks of the Riv.r Shin- at Monmik-dl;., Lawrence Scott. 
Folia l±-2 poll, longa. Cymi demum 2 poll, longi. Calyx 



This belongs to the group of //. europium. 



BIGNONIACEiE. 
Tecoma shirensis, llaher; frutieoNi, gl.i 



Dolichandrone platycalyx 



Dolichandrone Smithii, 



Kilimanjaro, Lieut. C. Smith. 

Foliola superior* 2 poll Calyx 3-4 lin. longus. Corolla 

2 poll, longa, tobi ore 6-9 lin. dnm. 

58. Dolichandrone hirsuta, /taker; r.-imulis .bm-v pub.^o mil. us. loiii.l;- 



/b/*Wr/ iramatWl 1-1$ poll, long*. Cta^tf 4 lin. longus. Corolla 
pollicaris, tubo ore 3-4 lin. diarn. 

59. Dolichandrone Hildebrandtii, Baker ; fruticosa, foliolis 2-3-jugi- 

Kitui, in Ukamba, Hildebrandt 2732. 

s. Corolla 2 poll. 

60. Dolichandrone latifolia, Baker; foliolis 5-7 oblongis acuminata 
labris, floribus in panicula- paw-itloras disposing ]>c.lic(dli- glabris 
alyce apiee inucronato recurvato, corolla e-alwo triple. L-niriori. tubo 
upra basin iniundilmlari, limb.. patulo lobis obovatis. 

Kyika Country, Wakefield. 

lolioln 3-0 noil, longa. Calyx 6 lin. longus. fW/a 15-1S lin. 
»nga, tube) ore 1 I lin. elinm. lobi- 6 lin. longis. 

61. Dolichandrone obtusifolia, fiafu-r ; i'rutiro>a \vl arborea, lblmlis 



. and Bagamoyo, Kirk; Shire Bigblands, 

4 poll, longa. Calyx 9-12 lin. longus Fructux bipedal is. 



63. Heterophragma longipes, Baker.- !.,...;;, ,-, c-j , L . obiomdx 



corolla ealyce triplo longiori lobis orb! ;, o tubo longe 

Lake Chidia, Kovuma, Zambesia, Kirk; Wakefield. 
Foliola 3 poll, longa. Pedicelli 2-3 poll, longi. Corolla 3 poll, longa, 
lobis 10-12 lin.diam. 

G4. Rhigozum zambesiacum, Baker; ramuMs virgatis glabris, foliis 
ininutis .Vo-foliolatis raehi alato. t'oliolis oliov.-itis tloribus 1-3-nis, 
pcdicellis brevibus glabris, calvee campanula^ glabro lobis tubo 
brevioribus, corolla ealyce 3-plo longiori, fructu oblongo baud rostrato. 
. Valley of the Zambesi, near Tette, Kirk. 

Calyx 2 lin. longus. Corolla 6-8 lin. longa. Fruchis 1^-2 poll. 



CCCLIX.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

living the year 1893. — The number of persons who \isited 
ie Royal Gardens during the year 1893 shows an increase of 379,229 
n the attendance for the preceding year, and is the largest as yet 
^corded, except for 1890, when it reached 1,839,906. The total 



The total attendance on Sundays was 07091 ; on week days 
1,050,492. The two totals used formerly almost to balance ; the present 
disparity is in part accounted for by bank holidays. The greatest monthly 
attendance (August) was 329,110; the smallest monthly attendance 
(January) was 16,40o. The greatest Sunday attendance (on June IS) 
was 29,891; the smallest (on December 10) was 31S. The greatest 

January 17) was 110. 



raveller, Richard 



The death of the veteran beta 


nist, Collector, and 


Spruce, took place on Decembei 




i red in tin* 'I'imcs it 




America on behalf of the Ru* 


al Gardens at Ke\ 


is an error ; yet he did so much 


i for Kew that son 



Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon.— The rich flora of the island of 
Ceylon found an early historian in Hermann (1717), followed by 

I.iniucus, who worked out Hermann's materials afresh in his " Flora 
Zeylauka? 1747. This was before the publication of his binominal 
system of nomenclature; and it was not until 182-1 that there was 
another substantial addition to tin- botanical literature ofthe island, when 
Moon's Catalogue appeared, ik for the use of the Singhalese." Then 
came Thwaites's line nu ratio Plunfarum ZiijlanifP, containing descrip- 
tions of a large number or previou.-lv undc.-cribed species. This was 
completed in 1864. Dr. H. Trimen succeeded Dr. Thwaites as 
Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon, in 1880, and he is now 
issuing, at the cost of the Ceylon Government, under the above title, 
the results of his unremitting studies of the flora since his appointment. 
This is called a " Handbook," but it is really a very elaborate work ; 
the first volume i: chiding only the natural ordc:», li'tttiunculucetc to 
Au(ic(i,-diin-«c. At this rate the vascular plants will occupy five 
volumes, to say nothing of the plates, of which twenty-live, of quarto 
</.e, accompany the lir-t volume. I>r. Trimen's work is of a most 
thorough character, written wholly in English, and on a most excellent 

botanist, a number ot species which were either !;;.; ei b ctly understood 
xv badly described, or even, perhaps, erroneously included in the Flora. 
And he has added many new species, the result of his prolonged 



Materials for a Flora of the Malay Peninsula. — Or. G. King, the 
upcrintendent of the Ih.val 1'otanic ( iarden-. Calcutta, has just corn- 
led from the ^,oW of //,, 

es described, many of them, 

3 are 61 sj ecies •:< fei red to 
1 genera; and 40 oi the spt eies were pre\ iously undescribed. 

Viticultnre in Malaga. — The following account is taken from Mr. 

iimate of this place. The Algeciras- liobadilla bine of Railway now 
(any foiehiuers come lure tor their health, and it deserves to be better 

rietors and farmers ot' ail son-. 1 have come to the conclusion that 
ither to spend the n< . cessary money for replanting their orchards, or 



'.sit, fie 1 


soiuty of 


lU„,jal (l!r.8y-93). 


.mpiete 


but he ha 


.e specially nott w orth\ 


ork is t 






jubtk=s. 




'ii.mercial value. The 


stains ■ 


tin- y ijittf 


""'■].i«,ol which the. 



late years been devasted by the | 
pasture ground for goats. Be t ; 



plentiful 



vledge, for l.nOii peseta 



uled. The cost, of planting a> 
■ ipariV(Ameri 



; at s luvtolit.es (or, s ( ,y 22 
depends upon its fruit-hearing 



Gum Tragacanth. — The principal source of this product is Asia 

. i; has long been known to have htvn yielded |>y a large 
res m Persia; ot late the latter source seems to have b 



KOYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

.] FEBRUARY. [1894. 



The British Commissi. 


jn for t 


hf Columbian K\]>o.-itioii at Chicago 






r of the Kew stall' would undertake 


e office of judge in In 




e. The First Commissioner of Her 


aie>tv-- Works and I> 




iihlings accordingly approved of the 


legation of Mr. 6. Nic 




LL.S., Curator of the IJoyal Gardens, 


r the task. 






Mr. Nicholson left K 






hicago „ n July 1, the d 




•inti'd for the commencement of his 








>le to devote some ti:n 


e to via 


its to Washington, St. Louis. Roan 



Massachusetts. 

the United State*. 

complete representati 
The notes, which c 



Holm Lea, near Br cltkk, M 188. 

Holm Lea is the residence of Professor C. S. Sargeat, the Director 

of the Arnold Arboretum. The extensive grounds (about loO acres) 
surrounding it are remarkable for lb effect* which 

have been produced by the Judicious removal of aboriginal forest, the 

U 79921. 1375.— 2/94. Wt. 134. A 



absence of tender (or bedding) plants for ornament. Xo flower garden 
proper occupies any portion of the extensive lawns, but herbaceous 
plants, many of them native N. American species, supply colour among 
the shrubberies. i'iie tine .-specimens ot Japanese flowering shrubs have 
been selected for definite spots, aud arranged, after careful study, for 
artistic effect. Some of the most beautiful pictures, however, have been 
produced by native shrubs and trees which are to be found in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood. My first visit to Holm Lea was on June 28th, 
and, except where otherwise stated, the plants mentioned below were 
Luted about that date. As a rule, deciduous flowering trees and shrubs 
grow with infinitely greater freedom here than in Britain; so great is 
the difference, indeed, that persons only acquainted with them in 
England sometime .- liud it difficult to recognise species with which they 
are perfectly familiar in this country. Syringa japonica, a Japanese 
specie*-, i- apparently a liner tree or shrub in the North-Eastern United 
States than in its native habitats ; at Holm Lea the finest specimen 
was about 18 feet high, and bore immense panicles of small creamy 
white flowers, which contrasted finely with the large dark green leaves. 
In this country there are no plants so large as the one above mentioned, 
and it is yet too early to form a definite judgment of the value of the 

Berberis Thunbergi is a very handsome low shrub, and is remarkable 
for the beauty of its fruits, which are produced in great profusion, and 
for the splendid colour — rich orange-red or crimson — assumed by the 
decaying leaves in autum. 

Lanicerm tatarica and its varieties at the end of Jun 
on account of their innumerable small fruits, yellow or brigh 
Judging from the quantity of berries, the bushes must have presented a 
fine sight when in flower. 

Lonuera ruprechtiana, an Asiatic species, is, however, the most 
handsome of the bush honeysuckles when laden with scarlet fruit ; the 
flowers are yellowish, and not particularly showy. 

Hypericum uureum, a native of the South- Eastern United States, was 
discovered more than a century ago by the younger Bart ram. but was 
practical!) unknown in cultivation until distributed from the Arnold 
Arboretum ■ few years ago. The largest specimen I have ever seen is 
at Holm Lea; it measures about 5 feet in height, and is about 6 feet 
through. The orange-yellow flowers (with golden coloured stamens) 
measure from l£ to 2 inches across ; there are few. dwarf shrubs better 
worth a place in the garden. 

Corn us fiorida, one of the most beautiful of deciduous flowering 
trees or shrubs, is just on the northern limit of its range at Boston ; it 
grows here very freely, flowers profusely, and a huge mass at Holm 
!ed with young fruit, which later on becomes scarlet, and 
is \eiv showy. The decaying leaves in autumn assume vivid colours. 
In Biitaiu we do not get sufficient summer heal to ripen the wood and 
produce flowers, although the species is hardy. The western repre- 



i few isolated localiti 



ian that of C. bignonioides, the individual 
>d they are produced from 10 to 14 days 
ifferent distribution from C. bignonioides, 
sippi Valley, and, as far as experiments have 
to be one of the most, promising trees for 



Lif/iistnnn TboUt. — The form of this species I have seen cultivated 
in Britain is a somewhat stiff-growing by no means striking bush, with 
erect panicles. The one grown in quantity for ornament by Profe-sor 
Sargent is a graceful, very rlorifenuis shrub, with pendulous panicles, 
and is decidedly one of the most desirable members of the genus; it 
only iequires to be seen in character to be fully appreciated by all 
growers of trees and shrubs. 

Hijdntnijiti nstita, \ar. puficsci «s a ( iiincse plant, is quite hardy 
here, and at the end of June was in full flower; it is a handsome bush, 

Acers. — The North-eastern American species, A. dasyatrpum aid 
A. rubrum, do well here, and form fine trees, the former being one of 
the commonest tree- for street planting. The sugar maple (A. saccha- 
rinum) also does well, and makes a fine object, either in streets or as a 
single specimens, on lawns ; one perfect specimen at Holm Lea. branched 
to the ground, was about 60 ieet high, and worthy in every way of the 
fine position in which it had hen placed. The European A.plnta <>i,/ f s % 
the common Xorwav maple, als > doe- well, grows fast, attains a large 

msatisiactory tie, n tin Has - I'nited State- H .1 anese 
oeeies thrive admirably, hut are generally short-lived ; the various 
forms of A. puhnatu,,, ;.n- e-p.-ciaUy conspicuous ; a cut leaved purple 
form measured 10 feet through, and was a splendid bush. A. cissi- 
folium was also represented by a huge hush, larger and finer than 
any seen in Japan by Profe— or Sargent during his travels in that 
country; the young shoots are purplish tinted, and the mature leaves 
turn a splendid orauge-crim-on in autumn. The Amurlaud A. Ginnata. 
too. thrive- better here than I have ever seen it else v. di- 
wa- do feet in height). It is the only maple known to Professor 



produced in Midi profusion as to make the bushes appear as if clothed 
with rose-coloured mist. -V pekinensis, a white- flowered species, is a 
slender tree-like shrub, with flexuous branches covered with a yellow- 
brown bark. S.japonica has been already mentioned at the comuoence- 

Vibui riums. — V. dilatatum appears to grow much more vigorously 
than in Britain, and is perl'eetlv hardy ; it is. perhaps, the finest of 

V. fomento, am, another Japanese species, perhaps better known in 
English gardens as V plicatum, is one of the besl of all white-flowering 

is useful on account of its white flowers, followed by scarlet fruit, and 
for the fine colour oi the foliage in autumn. 

Rhododendrons. — None of the -i h " ponticum " 

blood will stand the rigorous winters of Boston and its neighbourhood. 
Professor Sargent has, however, a wonderful series of " Catawbiense " 
seedlings which thrive, but apparently not so well as in the cooler, 
moister climate of Britain. 

The Ghent azaleas do well, and so do the seedlings and hvbrids of 
the Chinese and Japanese A. mollis. R. nn/rtifolimn (of Loddiges), 
a compact growing plant of garden origin, -tamls lis.- .-limate well. 

Conifers. — pre-emiuentjimoiigst conifers in tlie North-Eastern T. nited 
States are the white pine, Pinus Strobus, and the hemlock spruce, 
Tsnga canadensis. These two are the most beautiful as well as by far 
the most useful from a landscape point of view, and they are employed 
with great effect at Holm Lea. A weeping form of the latter was taken 
from the woods some score years ago by Professor Sargent; it now 
forms a striking mass about a yard high and about four yards through. 
Tin' Norway spruce is used as a hedge and kept cut in ; under these 
conditions it is attractive. As an ornamental tree it has been largely 
planted in many places in North- Pastern America, and is hardy and 
grows rapidly, but it soon Incomes uiisigl.tlv and cannot be depended 
on for more than 20 or 30 years; the same remarks apply to the Scotch 
tii- { Pit us sylvestris). 



Taxvs i 


:uspidata, var. breiifo 


/«/, a short- 


■leaved form < 


of the Japan* 




perfectly hardy at Boat 






Taxus baeca 










dwarf-growi 


bush it s 










The blue 


spruce (Piaapunae 






at Holm L, 


one specimen being about 2o feet 






iful silvery bl 


colour. Abies coucolor, about ' 








Colorado form of this species, 


though not 






Honed, was remarkable for the b 




; colour. Tl 




Douglas f 


ir (Pseudotsta/a Don 


,;/,/,„..,•." 














- at Post on a 












.•old. Th 


is Colorado plant shou 




in England 


in places win 


the comm. 


>n Douglas fir does not 


thrive. 







by spring frosts; it is the tirst to begin growth at Bo-ton. hut apparently 
Boston gardeners are not tried by late spring frosts. Amongst other 
noteworthy conifers was a line specimen of Pinns humjeann. bearing 
cones; it was a handsome plant, upwards of 12 feet high, and with a 
spread of branches at the base of about six feet. Primus pendida, at 
Holm Lea and elsewhere, is a remarkably handsome tree. Professor 



Sargent declares it to be one of the floral treasures of the world, and 
writes in "Garden and Forest" that it is one of the loveliest in flower 
and the most pleasing and graceful in habit of all the plants which have 
been transferred from the gardens of Japan to those of this country. 
When in flower (the blossoms precede the leaves) the tree presents the 
aspect of a pink fountain. Another Japanese Bpecies, I' tomcn/osa. 

Hints t,/phi,tti.\\w common stag's hern Mimaeh. a species found wild 
everywhere near Huston, is used with excellent effect near ornamental 
water, its large, handsome, pinnate leaves forming a fine mass of deep 
green. This clump, as well as many others, i- ''connected with the 
ground" by means of an irngc'.ir hand of A\ aromatica, a low-growing 
species which makes a natural and artistic outline. The young shoots 
of the latter arc purpli-h tinted, and the decaying leaves of both colour 

Wild Gardening.— The end of a moraine drift, covered with wild 
trees from 150 to 200 years old, has given opportunities for wild 
gardening on an extensive scale. Hickories, oaks, hop-hornbeams, &c, 
form the bulk of the native tree vegetation, and underneath native 
shrubs and herbaceous plants abound. Among these are Sa m bucu t 
canadensis, in flower at the end of June, Cornus alterrUfolia, Rhus 
typhina, with Vitis Lohntsca and Smihi.i lurbacea climbing at will 
over them. Trillivm (jra,uHti<'i'>'it> \- thorough!) at home, and has 
been planted in large quantities. Professor Sargent informs me that a 
beautiful contrast is furnished by Xurcissns posticus and Scilla cam- 
pan/data planted together ; they flower at the same time. A host of 
other plants, too numerous to mention, keep up the succession of flowers 
until late autumn, when the asters and golden rods appear. 

Bulbous and Tuberous Sumntvr-finn-trh,,, Plants,- -In the well-kept 
greenhouses, remarkable for the excellent cultivation displaved, were a 
large collection of tine gloxinia- and begonia-. As a rule, the latter 
are difficult to grow in the I'niod States, and are rarely seen in really 
good condition. In beds in the open ground Acidauthera bico/or, a 
beautiful irid from the mountains of Abvssinia and the Zambesi 

Gladiolus brencldt i/vnsis. but it makes an excellent pot plant, and only 
needs to be better known to become a favourite in gardens. Gladioli 
are raised in large quantities from -eed. and the indifferent or badly- 
coloured varieties ruthlessly destroyed as they came into flower. Both 
Acidauthera and gladioli were in full flower August 18th. Lycoris 
s-jutnnigcra, a Japane-* • , cultivation under the 

name of Amaryllis Hallii, was one of the most striking plants in the 
Rockery. In June there was a fine mass of leaves about 2 feet long: 
on August 18th these had already ripened off and disappeared, and a 
dozen inflorescences had tak.-n their place ; the s,-apes were 2.V to .'i feet 
in height, and bore on an average six flowers. 

The space at my dispo-al is too limited to mention ail the good plants 
noted in and around the greenhouses. Standard wistarias, kept pinched 
in and grown specially for flowering in tubs, were, however, particularly 
noticeable. Indian azaleas of all sizes were being turned out of pots 
and planted in the open at the end of June ; on August 18th the growth 
had been made and the buds were well set. At the end of September 
the plants would be repotted and placed in the houses for next spring's 
flowering. The roof of one house was covered with a splendid specimen 
of Quisqualis indica, which seemed to revel in full sunlight ; large 



flowers, white changiti 



Before entering into details respect it ig this unique establishment, it 
may be as well to give a short summary of its history. The following 
extract is from an article by Mrs. M. C- Robbins in the April number 
of "The Century" for the current year: — "About the year 1870, 
" Mr. James Arnold, of New Bedford, a native of Providence, Rhode 
" Island, an excellent merchant of Quaker origin, a man of marked 
" individuality of character, and of large wealth, .... left a 
" bequest of 100,000 dollars to three trustees, to be employed as seemed 
" good to them, for the improvement of agriculture or horticulture. 
M His friend and trustee, Mr. George B. Emerson, whose classical 
" report on the trees and shrubs of Massachusetts is well known, 
" recommended that this money should be devoted to founding an 

M Arboretum, to be called by Arnold's name 

" Accordingly it was agreed that if the Harvard corporation would set 
" aside 125 acres for the purpose, the sum should be allowed to 
" accumulate until it amounted to 150,000 dollars, and then be used 
•' for the purpose above named. Harvard University owned at that 

" time a tract of land of some 300 acres in Jamaica Plain 

" This land was partly peat-bog and meadow and partly scantily 
" wooded upland, where were a few fine trees, a stretch of pasture, and 
" a noble grove of hemlocks crowning a hill. One hundred and 



i <\*-m\ uw aeiH- ot i ,,.,{ to set apart 

" for this purpose, and by an agreement between the municipality of 
" Boston and the corporation of Harvard University, the city has 
" undertaken to build and care for the roads of the Arboretum, and to 
" police it, in exchange for the privilege of including it in its park 
" system, so that the public may have free access to the grounds." 

Professor C. S. Sargent, whose labours in the cause of forest 
preservation, and whose work in dendrology, are well known to all 
students of those subjects throughout the world, became Director, and 
the work of organising the Arboretum hae proceeded rapidly under his 
able administration. <• Thr. ugh t! ■• lih.M-.litv of Mr. H. II. Hunnewell. 
" one of the most generous patrons of horticulture in the United 
" States, a museum has been erected which contains the photographs, 
" the herbarium, and the scientific books collected by Professor Sargent 
" at great cost, through a long series of years, and given by him to the 
'' !;i<f;;,: -- .liable to students, who can learn 

" here in connexion with the living museum all that there is to be 
" known about trees, wi eh nowhere can be taught more completely" 
The upper Ho. i of this building contain* th< Hi bai u and Librarv. 
the latter in all probability the best working dendrological library in 
existence ; the lower is devoted to the purposes of a museum, in which 
will be arranged the specimens of timber, Ac. Here will be kept 
lur reference an extraordinary series of specimens, i.e., those which 
1 iru ^' ' '' ••'*:>• s • pi * i • ual sets of tables which appeared in 
the lenth Census Report on the Forests of North America (exclusive 
of Mex ' i 'dish.-d in 1884. The tables in question contain the 
".:•}-, the per-centage of ash, relative approximate fuel value, 
CO-efficient of elasticity, rn.v. -distance to longitudinal 

pr^saur* re-i-tamv to u ,;, , . , • t (>r , , ; }(1 t in , , 

of very nearly every species of tree i the United state-. It "ill aNo 



43 



contain specimens corresponding to those collected by Professor Sargent. 
and presented by Mr. .Morris K. desup to the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York — the most complete collection of the 
timbers of any great continent ever brought together. 

From the Report of the Arnold Arboretum for 1890-1 we learn that 
the experiment, which proved highly successful, was begun during that 
year of furnishing the public with popular instruction about trees and 
shrubs, Mr. J. G. Jack, an assistant in the Arboretum, being appointed 
uniwr-ity lecturer on arboriculture for that purpose. 

The area of the Arboretum is 168 acres, some 40 acres having been 
obtained by the City of Boston in addition to the original land. The 
ground was laid out by Mr. F. L. Olmsted, and, with the exception of a 
tract of low-lying swamp, which requires draining, the whole is in 
working order. The trees are planted in families in botanical sequence. 
on a definite plan. It is believed that more than sufficient space has 
been allowed for the possible full growth of every tree, native or exotic 
which is hardy in the neighbourhood of Boston, and no supplementary 
species, other than tics- expected to reach maturity, will be planted in 
the permanent collections. The ground which is, or will be, occupied 
by permanent trees has been prepared in the most thorough, and careful 
manner. The contract executed between the President and Fellows of 
Harvard College and the City of Boston provides that the Arboretum 
dhall be maintained where it now i- for a thousand years, and there is 
good reason to hope, therefore, that many of the trees now planted will 
be allowed to live out the full term of their existence. Trees have 
never been planted with b.-tter promise of undisturbed old age. In ths 
report for 1885-6 we are informed that none of the trees in the type 
groups have been planted in pits less than ten feet square, and all trees 
planted singly and intended to develop into specimens are planted in 
pits 25 feet square. Rock, gravel, and sandy soil have been 
removed from all pits to a uniform depth of three feet and replaced 
by a compost of loam and peat. The soil, as far as practicable, has been 
deepened and enriched over the whole surface planted. As the 
permanent specimen of no large growing tree is placed at a less distance 

study the species as a -ingle specimen, and to note its value in a mass 

On a carefully formed map the position o! every permanent tree 
is marked, and reference to the card catalogue will give a complete 
history of every plant, s,, that the student will know when the seed was 



also ape effects are 

themselves chosen 
of Betulo pumifu 



w feet high- 

i in all other 



of my visit, the end of June, the Dyer's Greenwood. Genista titicfnria, 
an European plant introduced into North America, where in some 
districts it has now taken possession of' thousands of acres of dry land, 
made a brave show with its yellow flowers. Some of the earlier golden- 
rods. Sf,/l,/(/f/n nt/tuf/cusis; &c, were also fine, and liosn hmniiis, a red 
flowering, dwarf-growing bush, was conspicuous. Berber is Thnnbcryi, 
various species of Rhus, Myrica ceriferu, ('omploniti usph nijh/itr. 
dwarf willows, dogwoods, viburnums, &c, with Clematis and litis 
and other climbers growing at will over their neighbours, formed a 
tangle which produced pert'ecilv natural and very beautiful effects. 
The knife is freely used in the neighbourhood of the trees which are 
intended to develop : in the meantime the undergrowth is very 
attractive, and it keeps the ground cool and moist round them. One 
of the most striking as well as beautiful features of the Arboretum is 
Hemlock Mount, a steep rocky hillside, the north side of which is 
clothed with fine hemlock spruces from two to three hundred years old. 
Two fine illustrations of this part of the grounds appear in "The 
Century " for April last. The table-land at the top of the hill just 
mentioned is covered with variou» native oaks and other trees self-sown, 
I affords a first-rate object 



are of three different ages a 


nd sizes, large 


- 


could be used for 


timb'T. a second growth to 


immediately take the place of the older ones 


when removed, and a third 


self-s 




es which a 


re ready to spring 


into the second rank. The a> 








damaging its neighbour, an 




! ground 


i- carpetee 


L with Vaccinhim 


pennsylvanicum, and other 




eshruU. 




erbaceous plants, a 


number of which are cultivated ii 


a English. 






The large trees on the 


low. 


•r "ti.uii 


if have "bee 


n rejuvenated by 


pruning, and it is surprising 








s been wrought in 


a few years by hard cutt 


ing-ii 






op-dressing of the 


surface .-Mil, and by the rem 










thick to allow sufficient Hull 










In the Hemlock wood" I 










brook the spikenard, Ara/i, 






stately heil 


.aceous plant, well 


known for its aromatic 1 








:abbage (Symplo- 


atrpm futidus), the lady fe 




e Indian 




ur»,a tnphyllrun), 


Buptisia tiHcforiff. Ash r e 








her species which 








rardens. 11 












can form of this 






good de 


al from the 




darker green, more leather 






ds. Maiau 


themnn, hifolimH, 


Smilacn.u racemosa, Des,l 




.//.■,/„,/,/ 


ense, and Hypoxis erecta, a 



beautiful hybrids between widely different roses. One series had for 
parents the Japanese rose, R. wu/ti flora, and the well-known old 
garden rose, " General Jacqueminot." Another set, perhaps destined 
to form a new race, is derived from R. tcichuraiana, a prostrate Japanese 
rose with dark green glossy leaves and white flowers, lirst introduced to 
cultivation through the Arnold Arboretum. 

No account of the Arnold Arboretum would be complete without 
mention of the " Silvn of North America," the most important con- 
the present 



already stated, is a mini kah! . 
j that the forest wealth of no other < 



i displayed so completely as that of J 
ltgrowth c " 



the outgrowth of an investigate oftm forest wealth . \ th \ icrica 
commenced many years ago by Professor Sargent, the results of which 
which were published in vol. ix. of the Reports of the " Tenth Census.' 
The i-iitiilo_.il.' of this i-illect- n. drawn up by l*i-»t'« "'>■' Sirgent, is a 
very useful publication, as t gi\ s th. _ _ lph'u 1 dis .ution each 
species, and it- physical prop it s fc. karg. eh ra tei -tic trunk 
specimens are exhibited, wit! ex. p -. n huge cabinets, arranged 

in the sequence of their botanical relationship. '• These specimen- are 
" cut in such a wuv as to display the bark, ;ind cross and hmg'f.idinal 
" sections of tin- wood, both polished and in its natural condition. 
" They are supplemented, in the case of trees of commercial importance, 
" by carefully selected plank- or burb, which often show better than 
" logs the true industrial value of the wood." They are about five feet 



■i-rtie- given. A map of the United St;. 

being coloured red, accompanies e.-o-h specimen. On svv 
size water-coloured drawings of many of the species, 1 
Sargent, are already in position. 


tes, with the 
n a wild state 

^MrtVs. 


Railway Gardening. 




stations of the Boston and Albany line. Probably nmvi: 


the different 

creels., in the 



general keep up of the grounds on each si. 
the stations. These grounds have been Is 
landscape gardeners in the world, Dr. Fre< 



the late H. II Richards.,. Wit -. ta.e-e m Boston are 

Anbiirndale and Chestnut Hill, two station- particularly worth study. 
A plan of the former, as well as a view of the station b f dim. ,.!. i part 
of the grounds, are given in " Garden and Forest," vol. ii . March 1.1. 
J889; those of the latter in vol. ii., April 3, 1S89. One striking 
characteristic of all the stations on the Boston and Albany road is the 
entire absence of M bedding " plants. 



4b' 



clothe the l>anks of their suburban lines). This, as well as the horti- 
cultural affaire of the Corporation, are under the management of Mr. 
E. L. Richardson. The grounds are all laid out with neatness and 
simplicity, and are easy and inexpensive to maintain. 

At the time of my visit a bank of a native rose (Rosa hum His) un- 
clothed with flowers, and a more beautiful sight it would be difficult to 
imagine. Bulbous plants and perennial- which require little care are 
allowed to grow amongst the shrubs. 

The boundary fences were hidden with masses of shrubs and climbers ; 
a few fine specimen- oi tree< ueeupy pn-itions on the fine lawns, and 
Ampelopsis Veitchi clothes the walls of the building, round which 
Forsy thins, Berbcris Thunbergi, and other ornamental shrubs form a 
charming fringe. 

A competent judge has remarked : — " It is not too much to say that 
" these stations of the Boston and Albany railroad, taking buildings 
" and grounds together, are the best of their class in the world." It is 
believed that the Company has found them a good business investment. 



:;-.:■ ... 



y, the Residence of Mr. H. H. Hunnewell. 

state consists of two hundred acres. About forty acres, 
, sandy, arid plain in 1851, was more or less coveted 
i tangled growth of dwarf pitch pine, scrub oak, and birch, all of 
Which were cut down and ploughed up." 

The Pinetum contains by far the most interesting collection of coni- 
ferous trees cultivated m America. A few of the more remarkable are 
Pieea p'ot yens (laden with cones at the time of my visit), a fine example 
of a blue form of P. alba, others of Abiei coneoior, beautiful specimens 
with bluish leaves, A. brarhyphylla, A. Veitchii, A. cilicica, P/cea 
ajanensis. P. polita, P. orientalis, Thvja Standishii, 15 feet high, &c. 
Mr. Hunnewell considers P. ajanensis as one of the most promising of 
all conifers. The Japanese Taxus cuspidata brevifolia does well here, 
and is as hardy as any native tree. One of the glories of Wellesley is a 
fine tree of Magnolia macrophylla, which one would hardly have 
expected to prove hardy so far north ; this has the largest flowers of 
any North American tree, the stately leaves are white beneath, some- 
times attaining three feet or more in length, and a blossom measured 
14 inches across ; in colour this was white, with a large purple blotch 
at the base of the inner petals. A bank of Kahnia latifolia was a 
magnificent mass of flowers; the late Dr. Asa Gray used to regard this 
species as the most beautiful of all flowering plants. Rhododendron 
catawbiense and it- progeny are largeh ^rown at Wellesley; R. pon Il- 
eum, and seedlings derived from it not being able to withstand the 
severe winters. Two rhododendrons of garden origin, viz., R. myrti- 
folium (not the myrtifolii'm of Schott and Kotschy, a near ally of 
%£tnugmemm) and R. Wilsoni, thrive well. 

The Japanese maples do well, and some of them (Acer japonicum, 
for example) are in late autumn am ongat the most brilliantly coloured 
of all trees or >hrub- ; the\ are later in donning their autumnal garb 
than the American species. Cornus Kousa, perhaps better known 
under the name of licnthnima japoitiitt, wa- -till in th.wer at the time 
of my visit. May.mlut hyp, Inint \s is in it lit. ' I must have been fine 
a short time before : this species has not yet produced flowers in 
Britain; it is a nohl.- n.liage plant. (Jaiulpa •>/>< .-/.■.■.>'./, already described 
in the notes of Prof, -,-r Sar^nf- garden, was in full flower. 

In a bog garden the Mocassin flow., < p put > spectabile, was 
thri\ dig iinely. A large ma-- ot it had produced a considerable number 



4-7 



of double-flowered stems. Near the house was a fine specimen of 
Magnolia acuminata, 60 feet high, which had been planted quite small 
in 1853. A large tree of the weeping form of our European beech was 
also a conspicuous object. Clematis /nnacitlata. a Japanese species 
nearly allied to the S. European C. Flammula, id ■ rapid grower, 
flowers most abundantly, and is one of ihe finest hardy climbers for this 
part of the world. 



From Boston to Washington. 

On the morning of July 4th I left Boston for Washington. Im- 
mediately the first named town was left behind, the hedges and borders 
of woods near the railway were gay with the flowers of Sambucus 
canadensis. Our British chicory Cic/mrium hit y bus) grew rigorously 
in bare spots along the railway, and varied in colour from turquoise- 
Ox-eye Daisy {Chrysanthemum Lent;, nth, mum .. and Milfoil i Achillea 
whitened the banks in many places; these with red and 
white clover I subsequently tracked for many hundreds of miles ; the 
former, indeed, was only lost sight of in the cotton-growing districts of 
the Southern State-. Snphar adrcna. the American representative of 
our yellow water-lib., was abundant in petals. In the woods, especially 
in clearings, the Ostrieh-Fern > Str»thia>tn m annamica) grew in 
profusion. The most striking deciduous !ree \va- the American Elm 
(limits americana) -. it attains a large si/e.and ha- a beautiful fountain- 
like disposition of branches. Mi/rica n rifera. the Stags-horn Sumach 
(Rhus typhina), Iv \a fmmilis, and species of (Crnus. were common ; 
and Onoclen n - Comuti, the latter in tine flower, 

were to be seen everywhere. The White Pine (Finns Struhns) make- 
a striking object seen either singly or in masses, and on dry banks and 
along hedgerows and roadsides the Red Cedar (Jtmipenu r, ram, ana). 
sometimes of considerable proportions, was conspicuous. 

Here and there a colony of Lilivm < ana-lot.se in flower made a fine 
display, and a fine composite, a species i l\>ull>, c/,ia. probably R.hirta, 
with orange-coloured ray florets and black-purple disk, was very 



kg.. { Cu,lu,obiloba)~ 
-the Kentucky Coffee 
rind*,,, lr<m tu!tp,f,ra\ 
■, the deciduous Cypress 



'tiST 



4.s 



bum), Paulownia imperial!*, f'trcis canadensis, 

i/ri/a-a, (dtalpa bignonioidcs, Ac. The European 

succeeds better in Washington than the American 

Sugar* Maple, and that form of the Eastern Plane known as Platanus 

acerifolia grows better, and is preferable ;is a street tree to the native 
American Button- wood (P. occidental is) both here and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Boston. As a rule in both places the latter is much 
disfigured by the attacks of a microscopic fungus (Glceosporium). 

The Silver Maple (Acer dasycarpum) grows rapidly, but soon gets 
thin in the middle; in order to keep it in a satisfactory condition it has 
to be kept cut back. The Box Elder (Acer Xegundo), A. Pseudo- 
platanus, and the Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum) are 
amongst the least satisfactory subjects. Mr. W. R. Smith, formerly of 
Kew, now the Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, is chairman of 
the Parks Committee. and to him is largely due the great success which 
has attended the efforts of this body. 

In some of the small squares flowering shrub- do wonderfully well; 1 
noted along Pennsylvania Avenue, Forsythias. Primus Pissardi. Pyrin 
juponicu. Chimonanthus fragrans. Hibiscus syriacus varicgatus, lier- 
heris Tlmnbergi, &c. Amongst trees were fine examples of Weeping 
Willow. Kentuekv Coffee. Tilia pi tiularis, >ome American Oaks, and 
Abele Poplar. 

Fuchsias do well from March to June ; after that the temperature 
becomes too high for them. As a rule, it is too hot also for the great 
majority of open-air herbaceous plants. Many semi-tropical or tropical 
plants do wonderfully well bedded out during the summer months ; 
among these I noted Crotons (Codhenm- }. finely coloured Pes mndium 
gyrans, the Telegraph plant, grows freely and ripens seed in the open. 
Antignnum /jpt/gtus al.-o grows \ igorously and tlowers profusely. 



Aniiu-r and Septemb.-r produce- a profusion of vellow flowers. 
Phrymum variegat.nn does well in shade, bedded out in full sun it 
burns. Other ~tove plants which do well in the open are Phyllanthus 
atropvrpunus and P. niveus, Cordyline (Dracaenas), Pandanus, Sir. 

and it- white flowered variety flower as profusely and grow as well, 
treated as bedding plants, as do scarlet geraniums in England. In a 
large unheated basin, about 120 feet in diameter, Nelumbium spen'nsum, 
tropical waterdillies, and Victoria rcgia, produce a fine effect. The 
latter had not fully developed at the time of my visit, but 1 was 
informed that last year a plant covered a space ol ti» feet in diameter, 



? Pampa> grass bad already 
in oeen miiea ny tne trost ot tne preceding winter. 
Cynodon Dactylon forms the bulk of the turf of the lawns, it stands 



drought well 


1, but 


turns bi 


■own 


and becomes 


disfigt 


ired when frost 
















The Soldi. 


-r,' II. 


»rne, siti 


mted 


on high ground outsi 


ide the city, is 


surrounded by fine - 






ining many re 




e specimens of 


native and a 


xotic t 


xees. On dr. 


y banks and s 


ilong ro 


adsides not far 














great quantity, 












i plant. 












, Pudaphylh,, 




turn, Goodyera 


Z^r7.\"\J 






L™. 


t!!'''ultivaZ 


a't' K,u 


• a A fin? mass 








,/H! „ 


■ "'• '■ '; ,j 






9 inches high 














Mght; ram 














this handsom. 


w 






) Roan Mom 






On the ev 


ening 


of July 


6th ; 


[ leftWashino 


;ton for 


Johnson Citv, 


Tennessee, a 


diM.-ui. 






s. After leav 


ing Pulaski, a 


summer reso; 




iie foot 


of the AUeghanies 


, I saw 


Iihoihxl'. ndran 



Kalmiu lati folia was alio conspicuous, and Itta virgntica \ 
racemes of whit. tl,..i«.>. < <u „„//„„ ,<„„ riva„m u-;'„ in tic 



weed introduced to and naturalised in tl 



oublesome weed. From Johi 
raubtTiy, through the Doe Riv 



luhtwi Intifolia grew everywhere 
Oxydendron urban inn, Mitt la II i 



>m Roan Mountain J 



Mo. Bot. Garden. 



•• MountJi in- which .separate the waters of the Atlantic side from those 
" of the Mississippi in North Carolina and the 

- adjacent borders of Tennessee, rise to their highest altitude, and take 
" on more picturesque forms. On their sides the Atlantic forest, 
" especially its deciduous leaved portion, is still to be seen to great 

- advantage, nearly [a • ! composed of a greater 
•■ variety of genera and species than In any other temperate region, 
'• excepting Japan. And in their shade are the greatest variety and 
-• abundance of shrubs, and a good .-bare of the most peculiar 
" herbaceous genera. This is the special home of our Bhododendrons, 
4< Azaleas and Kalmias— at least here they flourish in greater number 
" and in most luxurious growth. Rhododendron ma rimum, which is 
" found in a scattered way even as far north as the vicinity of 
" Montreal, ;n (both called Laurels), even become 
" forest trees in some places. More commonly they are shrubs, 
" forming dense thickets or steep mountain sides, through which the 
" traveller can make his ear paths, or by 
■• kfcpin^r strictly on the dividing crests of the leading ridges. Only 
" on the summits do we find Rhododendron catawbiense, parent to so 
" many handsome forms in English grounds, and on the higher wooded 
" slopes the yellow and the flame-coloured Azaha , aleudnlacea ; on 
" the lower, the pink A. nudvftora and the more showy A. arborescens, 
" along with the common and widespread A. viseosa." 

" On these mountain tops we meet with a curious anomaly in geo- 
graphical distribution. With rarest exceptions plants which are 
common to this country and Europe extend well northward. But on 
these summits from Southern Virginia to Carolina, yet nowhere else, 
we find, undoubtedly identical with the European species, the Lily of the 
Valley." 

There are three distinct zones of vegetation, the lower is fairly 
limited by maize, which is grown in small quantities in the forest 
openings; some of the trees and shi I were Jihodo- 

dt'itdron maximum, Kalmta latij'olxi. Ma (j ,o>! '/a acu mi „ata, M. Fraseri, 
Hydro, ii/eo arborescens, C'eanothus americanus, P run us peniisijiranica, 
Casta,, in am, ricnua, Tulip tree (twenty feet in girth), Aesculu* ■ Jiara. 

In the intermed ate \ r \r. which raises tr-.ii, the upper limit of maize 
cultivation to the lower limit of Rhod^di ml ',-,•„ cutau-biensc, many of 
the trees of the lower belt also occur, but as we ascend variou- birches, 
Nyssa, Bass-wood, enormous beeches, &c. take their places, becoming 
more stunted, untd the third zone is reached, and a sub-alpine flora 
obtains — Abies Fraseri, Pi<ea au/ra, Pyri/s amerieana, Crataegus 
coccinea, C. punctata. Aim's rina • alaicbunse 



old Arhos 

rotuniiijotnim. R. ( !r ,iosbati. A few of the herbaceous plants of this 
belt are Bluets ( llcmstonia serpyttifalia ), IPmstouia purpurea, 

Gra]/i~-u beautiful lily whieh uudei cultivation at Kew attains pro- 

Too much space would be neee-s;>rv to irive anvthin^ like a list of t\\f 
huge number of trees noted on Hoau Mountain. My best thanks for 

':;■.;.■.! ,i •■: ■•• ■ ■ ■ ■ ' .■■;■■■■■: ■..■.■■■■■.;■■■ ■ ■■-■•- 

1 should not other wit* have s c ,. T >,i, ■_ i few days sta\ in this 
neighbourhood..'!' d .. t • !,'• ■■•.>, Mi Eimei 



Johnson City to St. Louis. 
Quercus alba, the White Oak, is a very common tree about Johnson 

cut down both for their timber and for the bark which is in grail 
demand for tanning purposes. In Watausce Park, a piece of 

fine Black Walnuts and also Persimmons. About Chattanooga, on 
the left bank of the River Tennessee on the borders of the States of 
Tennessee and Georgia, Sweet Gums ( fjtpiiilmnbtir stijraciH.i«t'\ 
occurred in large numbers, also the Plane or Button-wood [Platanus 
o(<ia'( ■nftt/ia), and the Shingle or Laurel Oak (Quercus imbrit uria) 
On the banks of the Tennessee River, large trees of Silver Manic, 
Willow, Black Walnut, Sugarberry or Hackberry (Celtis orcidentalis) 
were clothed to their very tops in a dense mass of Virginian Creeper, 
Jristolochia, &c, and the long pendent liancdike hraiirhos gave quite a 
tropical aspect to the scene. The large red pods of the Honey Locust. 
(d/i (/itsc/iia triacanthos) were particularly conspicuous and easily 
recognised in the mas9 of greenery. Both apples and peaches were 
largely grown about here, and in the gardens near houses fine plants of 
Hibiscus syriacus, and here and there Lager •stromia indica. 

About Bridgport, in Alabama, the Trumpet-creeper {Tecoma 
radicans) was finely in flower on the railway banks, and high up the 
trees bordering the Railway was Bignonia capreolata also in flower. 
The Willow Oak {Quercus Phellos), the Post Oak (Q. obtusiloba), the 
Black Jack (Q. nigra), and Persimmon (Dia^pyru^ virgiuica) were 
conspicuous in the forests through which the railway passed. 
Belamcanda chinensis, or as it is more frequently called Pardanthus 
chineusis, the Blackberry Lily, a handsome Chinese bid, is naturalised 
in abundance on the dry railway banks and was finely in flower. 
Amongst the deciduous trees, in more or less swampy opening- in the 
forests" the Red Cedar (Jim i pen's rirginimun of considerable size was 

beautiful b-guminoiis plant wa- uroiv ing in !iiii»-r< on the railway banks : 
this was probably ('. 



ense cymes or ^tnnhucus eatui<!< use- weiv noi 
us everywhere. 

eaving Cairo for Du Quoin, in addition to ne 
e mentioned, I noticed masses of Aral/a spin 
fay, and gorgeous breaks of colour furnishe 
c.ulata — the parent of so many of our popula 



Asck-pitn 'uixrc *a, the butterfly-weed or Pleurisy-root, in dry spots 
furnished glowing masses of bright orange-red flowers ; the plant grows 
from one to two feet high, and is one of the showiest species of the 
genus. Red Birch (Betirfa nigra) of great size were noticed hero 
and there in swampy spots. In the backwaters of the Tennessee Eiver 
the yellow Lotus (NeluHtbi'm, !<>h tun i ". c;u red in large quantities ; this 
stately and beautiful plunt. cvhi -ear its native habitats, is difficult to 
establish, and in England we can never hope to see it growing and 
flowering so freely as it does under the burning sun of the Southern 
*>: .'-■- \ I i. banks, 1 noticed Rhus 

(jlabra and a charming Cassia, about a foot high with a wealth of large 
yellow flowers: this is the Partridge Pea, Cassia Chamcecrista. Here 
and there along the small streams flowing into the Mississippi, and in 
swamp-, I noticed the " Large ( 'ane," . \nn,<iio<ni(< tnacrospcnna making 
almost impenetrable u catiebrakes." 



Or. as it is mere commonly < ali< ■«!, Shan '- < .;n den, wa.- founded and 
endowed by Henry Shaw, an Kiiglishman. who went to America in 
1819, and settled at St. Louis, where he speedily amassed a fortune. 
Mr. Shaw \v; ; - :, great lover of plant-, and brought together a very con- 
siderable collection 10 which he freely admitted the public. About 1858 

garden into a seicntitio institution, somewhat after the model of Kew. 
Mr. Shaw died in 1889, and left. nearly the whole of his estate, appraised 
at about a million and a third dollars, as an endowment for the garden. 
This endowment consists almost entirely in real estate, some of which, 

in the business part of the city, yields a large revenue ; but the greater 



' garde 


n, and at 


and Tin 


ice a very 

hour after 
mksgiving 



year of their appn 


■uticeship the pupil 


director that it is 


sufficient ability in 



or otherwise us 


e it in case he should 








:iave established six 




o have passed a pre- 




'tor ; these pupils are 


sir board, and 


^^■"'J&S 







F.iclioriiiu speviusii {Po»t(<l< rin crassijn <s) do well, and were dowering 
lively in tanks or in tubs sunk in the ground outside. 

At St. Louis tuberous-rooted Begonias refuse to grow ; it is apparent ly 
too hot for them. Roses do not thrive so well as in England; a cover- 
ing of six inches of pine needle- is necessary to protect them from the 



:< rime i,. -■_'<) I'ahr. 



extremely hardy, and produces a profusion of flowers of < 
U 79921. 



ovate leav, 


s; thM 


:iowe 


r heads . 










)f the Prairie Dot 


high, bear 


paniele- 


i of small yei: 


low heads 



la order to give some idea of the • litii» -n t r i. '- encountered by tie .-e 
•ho fad to prepare Jackson Park, for the purposes of the " Columbian 
^position," it may be well to quote the following extract from a 

Report upon the Landscape Architecture of the Columbian 

Exposition," drawn up by Dr. Olmsted at the request of the American 

nstitute of Architects, and a resume of which wa< published in 

sandbars had been formed in the lake a few hundred feet from the 
-ii re, and parallel with it. The landward one of these, gradually 

water, and within this bar a pool or lagoon was formed. Gradually 

and had become marshes. Thus nine-tenths of the site, in fact, all 
1 of it, that had not been artiiicialfy made otherwise, consisted of three 
• ridges of beach sand, with intervening swales occupied by boggy 
vegetation. Upon the two inner ridges vegetable mould had gathered 
and scattered groups of oak- and other trees bad sprung up. . 
After all the operation- of draining, grading, and top-soiling the 
land, the great hulk of the planting operations had to be completed 
in one fall and spring, two years being the longest time at command 
at any part of the grounds, and vet it wn- necessary to avoid the 
weak and sicklv appearand so often -ecu in f:v-h!v mad.- plantations 
. . . Several miles of raw. newlv-mad.e -bote' luul to be covered 



• laced upon w: 


illows of the s 


hrubby sorts, in 


lame vi 


irietv. and BttCfi 


lerbaceous bog 














had to be ga 


thered ' 








of lakes and 






A'isconsin. In 


this work, 1 


00,000 willows : 




t-loads of her- 




140,000 othei 


p aquatic plant 


s, and 


nearly 300,003 




herbaeeoii- pi 


ants were used.' 


' To Dr. Olmsted and 


partner, the late Mr. Codm 


an, visitors to 1 


Chicago 


have been able 


« a perfect e: 


.atopic of true 


art in the man 


agemenl 


of the lagoons, 



The great Horticult 
features being a dome 
wings connecting the i 






h'Te, as well as el-ewhcre, I found :li;it el 

pen air during suinna r as with its. proUilih 

ingable to command sufficient moisture in Lb 

irla-s is the reason for thi> method of cultivat 

Cacti.— Remarkably Hue groups of cactaceous plants w. 

by Mexico, and by Mrs. Nickels Laredo, Texas. But! 

plants j : , eullivation in Europe eijuai them in si/.c and 1 
M.f caeti Avasthatuf A. Diane & Co.. of Phil 

■• ' ■ : • ■■,'"■■ ' : ; _ .■.■•'.:-. 



• of all 



Vaughan (.Chicago). Fierson (New 



ding Yucca U i>n>i>h >.\ . ;< <■! across, Erythet 

The Florida Slate bu 
St. Augustine, the oldest structure in Ameri< 
!..:■ sl of 1"- aloifolia of various sizes. 

Mexico, ami i >k!a.Ii..n a. there were some very 



Fovquiera splendent, «fce. 

ainding the reproduction of tin- Convent of La Rabida 
v treated from a i -rounds. II "re. 



Cineraria maritima, dwarf Opuntias, large Aga 

'combination. 
the Rosary, cov 



r them. The only good begonias I saw were in the gardens of Profei 
irgent, at Holm Lea. Phloxes, as might be expected, do well; sto< 






keeping an ordinary paraffin lamp burning 
for growing on the various aquatics, is onl} 
seems ji triumph of gardening skill to produ 
with such limited accommodation. At the e 
group of Oleanders, plunged in the turf, p 
plants are stored during winter in a dark she 
Lincoln Park. — This noble park, upwan 



Park. In 1889 advantage was taken of a depression between two 
dunes, and two ponds were made of irregular outline, with wall 

cultivation of Victoria regia and tropical water-lilies. This att 



us,' of 



-The nurseries of 

western shore of 






' i i.ulii- sir l< tiUa givwii In r Im-ely, the form from i 

lir<t seedling Vvt; -}»rr.< •. 1>h 

\pril ITtli. Is^h Th trn- ji.u (,n the north ~idr <>! \\v h'.irl 



:irborvit;v kno 
juniper (,/. »SbJ 
a golden form « 






staphylo.s Uva-nrsi, a much mo 



ll< lulu pu.mhi, Amarpha canescens, L 
i/'/nK Pr tnuts Virginia, ta, the choke 
amongst the shrubs noted. In damp 
numbers of Calopoffon pulc&ellw, :\ \>v 



nplu/Ila cover" 






merit. .Although so many varieties are grow n, comparatively few art- 
propagated, only tlv"i\ in fact, which, by actual observations spread 
over many years, have proved to be the- best of their respective classes. 
Amongst herbaceous plants the -.■■■ i-; phloxes are 

and duly proved, only the best being catalogued. Amongst herbaceous 
plants I was struck with a large plot of our birds' foot trefoil {Lotus 
con/ir»Iat»s), probably a greater number of plants than exist under 

An experiment.,: ■'.,_..,■: . - i'7, ,„. , '. u; ,^a linesi„ht. All the 
different varieties ot Vitn - w iiiHi ilirive in the open air here are ex- 
perimentally tested, and only those pr- ,-i'y the firm. 

Roses are represented by 15 acres of dwarf, own root, and budded 
plants. The M&netti ia < ording to the experience 

of Messrs. Ellwanger and Harry, many varieties grown on this stock 
adapt themselves to a » renter rat ,ge of climate and soil, bloom more 
profusely, .-ndure tho summer heat better, and make stronger plants than 

Elceagnus longipes is gro. vu in i i oofs, and so are 

many varieties of the Prairie 1.' -,■ /,»,„„ ^/it/rrn) />•'- jtijHnn,,,. in 
all the best sorts, is propagated from root-cuttings on a vast scale. 

Prunus Lauro-cerasvs var. schiphaensh, a\arietv of the Cherry 
Laurel, introduced from rl Si V k IVs In Sj ifh. ot Berlin, a tew 
years ago. is hardy at Rochester, and is north noting ;i s a valuable 
avergreen fhrnl : . ,... M . t f \ cU - 

York State. P 

In this neighbourhood Glctiittrhhi (riaemtthos, the Honey Locust, is 

largely used as a hedge pl;.r.\ and if prop, rlv ait, nd. d to make- an 

efficient fence. At Mount Hope Cemetery I noted the finest Ilihisn,* 

; -hes 18 feet high and as much 



of Long 



This i 




Island. Xew York. 


A Dana, its presei 
















he Bitted 


the sam 


e genus (C 




'„,/,,,,/>. 7 








'. •' ..///, , 


the But 


ton-Bush i 


(Morns alba), 




have, their i 



tm vnlgare (Matr 
, a Japanese spec 



61 

Perhaps the glory of Dosoris is the large collection of Coniferj. A 
number of these thrive which cannot withstand tin- severity of the 
winter about Boston. Perhaps the largest Wellingtoma {Sequoia 

gigantea) on the eastern side of the American continent is to be seen 
in Mr. Dana's garden ; a handsome Psevdolarix Ktrmpferi and a host 
of specimen pine*, and iir< too numerous re- mention. Unsparing use is 
made of the knife whenever a fir or nine diows the slightest temieiiev to 



I ever saw. Mulching is practised largely 



of its native land to er 
ie United States Mich fi 
here. The Silver Ma; 



are to be seen here Other -treet tree- noted are Tilia 
Ins, Knirlish Beeeli (Va,„,s -v/w/w), Norway Maple hirrr 
».v). Su-ar Maple ( A. surchuri'.mm ). andTulip tree. On -found 



ther choice Japanese shrubs 
logg, and other America, 



eFlu 




ries, and as a co 


nsequence there are finer specimen> 














high, i. ■, 






litis iiK-onstaiis (better km 








i) ha- 


climbed 


in 10 years 60 feet up an ol 




;'■';:; 


> b,lsh 0\'(. 




t!'T\L 


15 feet high, and as much tl 
species I ever saw. We ss 






1 a |ood ( 






Weeping Hemlock, and note 










Sophora. 


Tamarlv ehiacnsh, 35 feet 


high. 






.10 Ve 


et high (th 














:is a form of 31. amminaU 


t; Mr. 






'•;'/, 




■oiii seed). The trunk of a 


double 




1 eherr } o . 






near the ground, -.marat — 


a little 




up^intu .■! 


m 8 °| 


i^'LU 1 


ks, each as big as the stem 
is between 60 and 70 feet. 


°Ju"t 


';;;;' 


"■ Mr. IV,- 


It'tull 




, tine i'astigiate form of the 


Sugar 








here suffi< 


aent room is not available ! 


? or the 


i.iely 




ype- 












tluence of stock 


on scion may be of interest , 


Picea 


ientalis does w< 






on the Norway Spruce, and 




ich cc 




i Mr. 1 


J a." >n : -a;, 


rs, keeps clear of red spider, 


which 



th. -lit. h H.k- in the mm-i, - If, v. // I/. . f,y.t, , u> tl.m. ,, 

grounds all along the route. 

FainiiotuitPark. — ln thi- park was h-ld a few years airo 
P ila.h-Ipl a Kvhibii . , i Hon cultural Hall, one of the 



Kli-..ilo.l.-!i.lr«.i] 
England, nor a 
lord-,,},, n„his 



ubs. Of th.- riow.-ring 
Ni.-Uri.-. ...-.ks. .u-'hrs 



: - i:.-r. Mr. Meehan informs 


me that this specimen was 15 ye 


old. and as it was fully 30 feet hi 






ived as far as the neighbourhood 


is concerned. A be 




werfdti"- variety of Primus scrotum 




ofPicea Engelmannl with verve 








■ ..,i.- oftln- mu>t .INtin.- 


f and interesting 'eonifers of rec< 


' Mr. Mr,!!' iron, t 




Colorado. 




Up the side of the house and up 




of the gable a plant of Akihiu q 




38 of green. Close bv 


too I noticed the largest bush 


Clct/ira ahufolia 1 had ever see 




grows wild in the neighbourhood of 


Philadelphia ; in the nursery w 




rees. Pueraria thunberyiana. 


rampant climber sometimes met u 





drd. ■":.■'.■ 


1 garden in the 
d to the public 




L the famous Bartrar 
h the efforts of Mr. 


numbers 


Mni r'.iin,'' t 


'vZ'. "n,r 



: (Rosa setigera), plil«>xf-. . ■ h.-ias, <v.e. made a 

?e show. A very fine specimen of Kentucky < oifee, 80 feet high, 
n with its large pods, was a striking object. Very large tulip 'ws. 



n-1 a half sinull park, which Mr. Meehan 
riding to the park system of Philadelphia v 

t contain- a fine Mtnj.mlia ,'„„<; ;>/,/,;///„. th 



stem 15 inches in diameter; it was bearing a good nop of fruit. Other 
noteworthy ^peeimen-. were e\ampks of Connts Jiorida, 1'oiilotrnia. 
English yew. led oak. and tulip t 



between 80 and 90 feet in height. At 


vmarkable vellow wood Clad- 






most likely the' first of the species phi 




fenced round and evidently well care* 




here are a very large Larix mucriatn 


a, a grand White Pioe (JPinni 






Th, //»,/., ~ -- \ trip was made ,.,, 


the H.nlson to Puughk. :-!c. 


wl ^r' , \v-'i. l « i -i'i'o.e ;, i, l l u xiir mT-'m'S' 


Of yh 1 del , M' ;,l !^ t !!|!-n- i l--T- 


abl, \, ''a' l^pVnt't^tul's^r'i'r 


mlintenU/'lheywere'kid^t 


loigiimr'l^mr. '''nrdu 11 '^!!-''!-!,!' hav! 


ben'Vn.pl, sized hy/ud ' U s 






h. i!>e with a distant view of the Catsk 






^ stretches of turf bordered by 


noble trees." All who are interested in 


landscape gardening diou: i 


this place which is a practical object 1,-ss 


on showing'how • 




jd. "For a long time," Bays 


Downing in hi- " Landscape Garde* inj 


*" "Hyde Park, was the finest 



Purple Beech, Halesw 



^Y l p)]ins a '!i,iL 



K.i'crs. Bax-wond. and a ivnmr! able Pitch Pi 
York wa- made bv rail. Masses of Americ; 



n the drver spots Udiunthux. 
Donaria 'officinalis (this last 
here) produced fine colour 



om New York, is Mmnvside. tl.e 
n by elms. The east end of the 
m cuttings -'given to Irving at 



i four to six 
ive been 

all pots ; 
an average they 
fourteen inches 



tee is mulched. 
after that they 



The Bride, Madame 


Hoste, Sunsei 


t, F. W. Be 


Beauty. All tlior m 




:h long stem: 


lower would not be ace 


■opted by the fit 

: near Washing 




-g vo w i n g establishmeni 


:tou as main 



CCCLXL— DIAGNOSES AFRICANS II. 
CONVOLVULACKK. 



65. Agyreia? macrocalyx, Baker; di-iw arg.Tiieo-pubeseens. foliis 
cor(lnln-<»vfit!>. peduneido unifloro. caly.v magno dense piloso sepalis 
biseriatis duobus e.xteriorbus orbk-ularibus. corolla c-aly<v Iriplo longiori 
tubo sericeo, staminbns styloque flore duplo brevioribus. 

Hab. — East Tropical Africa, 3°-7= S. !at. ; Nesilala, Bishop 
Hannington . 

Folia 7-8 poll, longa. Co/ya: U poll, iongus. Corolla 4-5 poll, 
longa, Fruetus ignotus. 

66. Argyreia? laxiflora, Baker; caulibus fruticosis, foliis cordato- 

tlorso dense pubescent ,ibi is, cvmis 
plurirloris. pedunculo pedicellisque elongatis, calve parvo leviter 
pubeseonti sepalN (u-bicularibiis suba-qualibus, corolla calyce 6-8-plo 
longiori. staminibus (lore duplo brevioribus. 

Hab. East tropical Africa, Nyassaland, Buchanan. 

Folia 6-8 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 3-4 poll, longa. 



i ? Grantii, Baker .- rhizomate magno globoso, oaulibu- 
iis cordato-ovatis subtus obscure pubescentibus, eymis 
loris, calve.- don-c pnbescente, sepalis 



Hab.— East Tropical Africa, 
Folia 6-* poll, longa. Sepal, 


Jmutng! 


N. lat., Gran 
Corolla 3-4 


' 


68. Argyre 


da ? Hanningtoni, Baker ; late 
argenteo-pubesceutibus, calyce 
jvatis interioribus occultantibus 
:alibus flore dupio brevioribus. 


voiubiiis, 
, corolla 


foliis cordato- 
calyce 4-5-pIo 


Hab.— Esa 

Bishop If ant 

Folia iis A 

pollicaria. I 


t Tropical Africa, 


:iora. Sepala 


< polHcarii 


lat., 


JTI 



69. Convolvulus angolensis, Baker; perenni-. eanlibus pahili- hi:! 
v«»lul<ilibus pilosis foliis subsc-silibus parvis lanceolatis pilis adpiessH 
altiidi- itniMjii'' vstiiis, tloribns solitariis breviter pedunculitis >.>pa' ; ~ 
oblongis acutis sericeis, corolla alba calyce duplo longiori. 

Hab. — Angola, Cuenza, H. H, Johnston. 

Folia 3-6 lin. longa. Sepala 3 lin. longa. Corolla 6 lin. longa. 

70. Convolvulus Thomsoni, Baker ; volubilis, caulibus pilis brevibus 
patulis dense vestitis, foliis cordato-ovatis plicatis obscure creoatb 
utrinque dense pilosis, floribus solitariis breviter pedunculatis, sepalb 
ovatis acutis subaequalibus, corolla calyce sesquilongiori. 



Hab. — Lower plateau, north of Lake Xyassa, Joseph Thomson. 

Folia 9-12 lin. longa. Sepala 3 lin. longa. 

Very near the Cape and Tropical African C. sagittate*, Thanb. 

71. Breweria conglomerate, Baker ; perennis, herbacea, ramis dense 
pilosis, t'oliis sessilibus oblongis confertis utrinque dense pilosis, cymis 
nnifloris vel paucifloris in foliorum axillis subsessilibus, sepalis ovatis 
acutis dense pilosis, corolla parvo, fructu globoso glabro. 

Hab.— Angola, Welwitsch, 6160. 

Folia 6-12 lin. longa. Sepala \\ lin. longa. 

72. Breweria microcephala. Baker ,• perennis, herbacea, caulibus 

gracilibus .]f!i-r pilosis, foliis s.il.sessilibus oblongis vel lincari-oblougis 
obtusis utrinque dense hir-utis, evinis paucifloris glomeratis, sepalis 

bifidis, fruclu globoso. 

Hab.— Angola, Welwitsch, 6159. 

Folia 6-12 lin. longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa. 

73. Breweria sessiliflora, Baker : perennis. herbacea, rami* patulis 
dense pilosis, foliis subs. -- - - - mtieronatH utrinque 
dense pilosis, tioribus 1-4 in axillis foliotuin -essilihus. sepalis ovatis 
acuminatis, corolla calyce vix longiori, fructu globoso glabro. 

Hab. — Zambesi valley between Senna and Lupata, Kirk. 
Folia o-6 lin. longa. Sepala 1^ lin. longa. 

74. Breweria (Seddera) baccharoides, Baker; erecta, fruticosa, 

rnmulis pilis a<lnre-.~i- all;idi- ■■!•■: -<• , .e^ri , i<. f< ■ ! i i -^ lineari obloniji.- acutis 
basi cuneatis utrinque pilis liispfdis a! ; idis tot: 'liter ve-titis, evinis uni- 

acuininatis pilosis, corolla calyce duplo longiori, <tylis basi cmuatis. 

Hab. — Zambesi valley betwe- \ Tette and the coast, Kirk. 
Folia 6-9 lin. longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa. Fructus 2 lin. dia.n. 
7o. Breweria (Prevostea) campanula a, />' • < : fruticosa, sarnientosn, 



Hab. — Sibange farm, Gaboon 



76. Breweria (Prevostea) Hendi 

rainulis glahris. foliis petiolati- ..vatis obtusis 
cymis paucifloris axillaribus -es-ilibus, pedicc 
medio bracteolatis, sepalis ovatis vel oblong 
lato lobis ovatis, sty Ha apice solum bifidis. 

Hab.— Senegambia, Heudelot, 864. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa 



77. Breweria buddleoides, Baker; fraticosa, sarmentosa, ramulis 
pilosis, foliis sessilibus oblongis subacutis mucronatis utrinque dense 
pilosis, cymis i : (li>j>. >slt i-. luru-teis ovatis pilosis, 
.sepalis ovatis acutis dense pilosis, corolla [>:irv;i, st\ lis supra medium 
fjolum bifidis. 

Hab.— Banks of the Eovuma river 30 miles inland, Ktrk. 
Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa. 

78. Ipomoea (Orthipomoea) discolor, linker; I'rutioo-a. erecta, lamulis 
dense albo tomentosis, foliis petiolatis oblongis obscure repandis facie 
glabris dorso persistcnter albo-tomentosis, floribus solitariis l»r«'\ ttt-r 

pediineulutis. sepal is oblongis obtusis tomentosis, corolla magna pallida 

Hab. — Lake Tanganyika, Carson, 18. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 3-4 poll, longa. 

79. Ipomoea (Orthipomoea) xiphosepala, Raker; erecta caulibus 
pilosis, foliis subsossilibus oblongis acutis intcgris utrinque dense 
pilosis, lloribus solitariis subsessilibus, sepalis oblongo-lanceolatis 

I ilia vestitia, corolla calyce duplo longiori. 
Hab.— Angola, TFelwitsch, 6101. 
Folia 6-9 lin. longa. Sepala 3 lin. longa. Corolla 6 lin. longa. 

80. Ipomoea (Orthipomoea) Elliottii, Baker; erecta, caulibus albo- 
tomentosis, foliis petiolatis ovatis , - lacie obscure 
atellato-pubescentibus dorso dense albo-tomentosis, floribus solitariis 
breviter pedunculitis, sepalis oblongis obtusis dense tomentosis, corolla 
rubella calyce 7-8-plo longiori. 

Hab.— Matabcle land. Rev. W. Elliott. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 4 poll, longa. 

81. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) phyllosepala, Bake 

■ •aulibus gracilibus pubescentibus, foliis petiolatis ovati; 

vel obtusis intcgris utrinque dens.- pilosis, cymis pauciiloris 1 
pedunculatis. sepalis ovatis pilosis, corolla alba basi lilacina calyc< 
lonsriori extus pubescent i. 



Folia 1^-2 poll, longa. Sepala 3 lin. longa. Corolla 1 poll, longa. 

82. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) cephalantha, Baker,- sarmentosa, 

caulibus gra* is dens j i s mi is, folii- iwiier petiolatis intcgris 
ovatis cordatis utrinque dense pilosis, cymis multiiloris glomeratis, 
s.-palis oblongis muerouatis eiliati-, corolla hitea calyce duplo longiori. 

Hab.— Mount Kilimanjaro, alt. 6,000 ft., H. H. Johnston. 

Folia U-2 poll, longa. Sepala 4 lin. longa. 

83. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) benguelensis, Baker .- sarmentosa. 
caulibus lenuiter pilosis, foliis p< trilobatis 
utrinqu. pilo-is, cymis glomeratis pedunculatis. braet. -is porsiatentibus 
tbliaceis ovatis vel lanceolatis, sepalis ovatis pilosis, fructu globoso 
glabro, seminibus glabris. 

Hab. — Angola, province of Benguela, Welicitsch, 6127. 

U 79921. C 



Folia l£-2 poll, longa et lata. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Fructu* 8 lin. 



84. IpomcEa (Strophipomoea) zambesiaca, Baker ; perennis, volubilis, 
caulibus graeilibus glabris, foliis ovatis vel lanceolatis basi euneatis 
utrinque obscure pnbescentibus, cyniis 1-6-floris, pedunculo elongato, 
sepalis oblongis glabris, corolla albida calyce 8-9-plo longiori, fructu 
globoso glabro, seminibus glabris. 

Hab.— Shupanga and the delta of the Zambesi, Kirk, L. Scott. 

Folia 2-4 poll, longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa. Corolla 2 poll, longa. 



Hab.— Angola, Welwitsch, 6120. 

Folia \\-2 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla l£-2 poll, 
longa. 

86. Ipomcea (Stropbipomcea) Hanningtoni, Baker; annua, caulibus 

V ...■.:.;.- i- :■.■ ■ ■''•.•(•. 

obscure pilosis, floribus solitariis brevissime pedunculatis, sepalis ovatis 
i aljoe 8-plo longiori. 

Hab.— East Tropical Africa, 3°-7° S. lat., Bishop Hannington ; 
Tanganyika plateau, Carson. 

Folia 2^-3 poll, longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa. Corolla 14-15 lin. 



■ (Stropbipomcea) Barteri, Baker ; annua, caulibus gracil- 
is pilis subtili! 
lanceolatis, floribus solitariis brevissime pedunculatis, 
sepalis ovatis obtusis pilosis, corolla calyce 6-plo longiori. 
Hab. — On the Quorra near Juba, Barter. 
Folia 2-2 1 poll, longa. Sepala 4 lin. longa. Corolla 2 poll, longa. 

88. Ipomcea (Stropbipomcea) miillensis, Baker; caulibus procum- 
bentibus dense pilosis, fbi tifl ovatis auriculis basalibus 
parvis utrinque dense pilosis, floribus solitariis pedunculatis, sepalis 
ovatis acutis dense pilosis, fructu globoso glabro, seminibus glabris. 

Hab.— Angola, province of Huilla, alt. 3,800-5,500 ft., Welwitsch, 
6131. 

Folia 6-12 lin. longa. Sepala 4 lin. longa. Fructus 4 lin. diam. 

89. Ipomcea (Strophipomcea) vagans, Baker; caulibus procum- 
bentibus graeilibus pnbescentibus, foliis breviter petiolatis oblongis 
integris breviter cordate qI if, cymis 1-3 floris, sepalis 
oblongis acutis, corolla parva, fructu globoso glabro. 

Hab. — Nyassa land, Buchanan. 

Folia 12-18 longa. Sepala 4 lin. longa. Near /. sulphurea, 
Hochst. 



90. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) diplocalyx, Hilar; volubilis, cauliboa 

pubescentibus, foliis breviter petiolatis ovatis breviter cordatis acutis, 
ntrinque pubescentibus, floribus solitariis pcdunculatis, ealyce biseriato 
sepalis exterioribus oblongis obtusis pubescentibus interioribus 
occultantibus, corolla ralvcc se-<|ui!ongiori extus glabra. 

Hab.— Delta of the Zambesi, L. Scott. 

Folia l|-2 poll, longa. Sepala 9-12 lin. longa. Corolla 18 poll. 

91. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) Vogelii, Baker; caulibus procumbeu- 

tibus glabris, foliis petiolatis late ovatis obtusis brcviler cordatis interdum 
emarginatis, cymis laxe rnultifloris, Horibus omnino /. asarifolice. 

Hab.— Kouka, Lake Tschad, Dr. Vogel. 

Nearly allied to /. asarifolia, R. and S. 

92. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) Carsoni, Baker; volubilis, caulibus pubes- 
centibus, foliis petiolatis cordato-ovat i- int.-gris subclaims, cymis laxis 
6-8 floris pedunculatis, sepalis lanceolatis pilosis, corolla perparva, fructu 



Hab. — Plateau above Lake Tanganyika, Carson. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Sepala 2 lin. longa. Fructus 5 lin. 

93. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) Morsoni, Baker ; annua, volubilis, cauli- 
bus gracillimis subglabris, foliis petiolatis cordato-ovatis glabris, floribus 
solitariis biwissime pcdunculatis, sepalis ovatis acutis glabris, corolla 
alba calyce duplo longiori, fructu et seminibus glabris. 

Hab. — Sierra Leone, Morson. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Sepala, 3 lin. longa. Corolla 6 lin. 
longa. 

94. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) inconspicua, Baker; annua, caulibus 
diffusis dense pubescentibus, foliis petiolatis cordato-oratis utrinque 
dense pubescentibus, floribus solitariis pendunculatis, sepalis ovatis acutis 
dense pilosis, corolla perparva, fructu glabro, seminibus tenuiter 
pubescentibus. 

Hab. — Nakulaiiibv. \va-.-alaud. lluchanan. 

Folia 12-18 lin. longa. Sepala 3 lin. longa. Fructus 4 lin. 



95. Ipomoea (Strophipomoea) polytricha, Baker ; annua, volubilis, 

■aubbus dense pili.-i-. buiis pet >! ! -. eymis p< d jm ul itis 2-3 floris, 
epalis lanceolatis dense pilosis, corolla ealyce o-6-plo longiori. 

Hab. — Loanga, Sot/am; 83. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Sepala 4 lin. longa. Corolla l\ poll. 



dorso tenuiter pubescentibus, cymis paucitloris, pedunculo longissic 
i ealyce 4-plo longiori. 
Hab.— Angola, Welwitsch, 6229. 



Folia 3-4 poll, longa, Srpala 3 lin. onga. Corolla 1 poll. 

97. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) shirambensis, Baker ; perennis, glabra, 
cauiibus rolubili b-iifl igootis, cymis pauei 

Moris subsessilibu^ vcl breviter |>eiiuneiilatk scpalis nvatis acutis, corolla 
alba fauce lilaeina calyce 3-4-plo longiori. 

Hab.— Shiramba, Zambesi-land, Kirk. 

Sepala 4-6 tin. longa. Corolla H poll, longa. 

98- Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) acuminata, Baker; volubilis, raulibus 
graeilibus pilis fai-'iliims patulis pr;i lit is. Ibliis |>t.-t it >l:it is eordato math 
membranaceis utrinque pilosis, cymis paucifloris pedunculitis, sepalis 
ovatis acuminatis dense pilosis, corolla calyce 2-3-plo longiori. 

Hab.— Zambesi highlands, alt. 2,000-4,000 ft., Kirk. Blantyre, 
Nyassaland, Buchanan. 

Folia l|f--3 poll, longa. Sepala 4 lin. longa. 

00. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) tambelensis, liaher ; volubilis, caulibus 
fruticosis subtiliter pubescentibns, fol oi 'bicnlaribiiti 

utrinque pubescentibns cymis multifioris lon^e pedunculitis, sepalis 
lanceolatis acuminatis dense pilosis, corolla alba fauce purpurea calyee 
duplo longiori. 

Hab.— Tambele, Upper Shire Valley, Kirk. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa et lata. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 1 poll. 



Hab.— Angola, IFelwitsck, (5113. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa. Sepala 8-0 lin. longa. Corolla \\-2 poll. 

101. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) Holubii, Baker ; fruticosa, volubilis 

<:■ ■ :• ' 

obtusis vel subacutis utrinque dense pubescentibns, cymis pedunculatis 
1-3-floris, sepalis orbirulanbus minute mucronatis dense pubescent ibus, 
corolla rubra calyce 6-8-plo longiori. 

Hab.— Leshumo valley, Zambosia, Dr. Ilolub. 

Folia 1-2$ poll, longa et lata. Sepala 4 lin. longa. Corolla 2-3 
poll, longa. 

Near /. Lindleyi, Choisy. 

102. Ipomcea (Strophipomoea) nuda, l!a/or; caulibus fniticosii 
-racilibus glabris. foliis. petiolati- conlato-ovatis aculis utrimpie viridibus 
glabris, evmis dense muliifluri- p.-duneulatis, sepalis ovatis obtusis 
glabris, corolla calyce 4-5-plo longiori. 

Hab.— Angola, IFeluitsck, G230. 

Folia 3-4 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 2-2\ poll. 



103. Ipomoea (Strophipomcea) shupang 



104. Ipomoea (Strophipomcea) Wakefieldii, Baker; volnbilis, caulibus 
fruticosis tcuuitcr prihesiH-iitibiis. f'olii- conlato-ovatis sublus j.riinutu 
albo - reticularis <ltunu:n pubescenribiis, cvniis paurilloris luvviter 

6-8-plo longiori. 

Hab. — Nyika country, South-East Tropical Africa. Rev. T. 
Wakefield. 

Folia 5-6 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 3| poll, longa. 

Near the Cape /. Gerrardi, Hook in Bot. Mag. t. 5G51 and 
/. alhoveiria, G. Don. 

105. Ipomoea (Strophipomcea) Buchanani, Baker .- volubilis, fraticoaa, 

caulibus pubescent ibu>, fuliis lon-v pctiolatis cor.lato-ovatis utriiupie 

pilosis corolla rubra calyce S-10-pfo longmri. 

Had.— Nyassa-lan.l, Buchanan (319 of 1883 collection). 

Near /. Lindlej/i, Choisy. 

10G. Ipomoea (Strophipomcea) odontosepala. Bah r ■. vohbilis. canlihus 



Near l.nalmah 



Ipomoea (Aniseia) Smithii, Bm 



Corolla pollicaris. 



109. Ipomcea (Calonyction) shirensis, Baker ; volubilis, canlibna 
papillosis glabrescentibus, foliis petiolatis, cordato-ovatis ad venas 

primarias obscure ciliatis, cymis 2-4 floris longe pedunculatis, pedieellis 
fruetiferis incrassatis, sepalis ovatis cuspidatis glabris, corolla alba calyee 
10-plo longiori, tubo infra medium infundibulari, fructu globoso, 

Hab.— Shire highlands, Kirk, Buchanan. 

Folia '6-5 poll, longa. Sepala 6 lin. longa. Corolla 5 poll, longa. 



CCCLXIL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. William Truelove, late foreman of the Arboretum in the Royal 
Gardens, died at Brixton on Tuesday, January 16th, altera short illness. 
He retired from service at Kew in April 1892, when he was 70 years 
of age. (See Kew Bulletin, 1892, p. 185.) 



Kew Bulletin— The annual volumes for 1887, 1888, and 1889 being 
out of print, are no longer supplied to the public by H.M. Stationery 
Office. 



Index Kewensis. — The second part of this work, completing the first 
volume, appeared in December. This brings the index down to the end 
of the genus Jiisticia, and forms a volume of 1,268 pages, rontainintr 
about 200,000 names. Good progress is being made with the second 
volume, of which 200 pages arc already in print. 



to the Museums of Economic Botany (No. 3) Timbers " has just been 
issued. It has been carefullv revised, and augmented to the extent of 
some 18 pages, the principal additions being the collections of woods from 
the Cape, Dominica, and Fiji, received from the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition of 1886. The fine collection of New South Wales woods has 
been thoroughly orerhwiled, and the native and scientific names cor- 
rected and verified, a work which has received a considerable amount 
of assistance from Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., the energetic curator of 
the Technological Museum at Sydney. 



i of the Key Plan, sold at the gates of the 
ted to the public. The details have been 
carefully revised, and brought up to date by the Surveyor's Department 
of H.M. Office o'f Works. Owing to an oversight on the part of the 
Stationery Office, the map has been issued of a size somewhat larger 
and less convenient for the pocket than the preceding edition. 



Structural Improvements.— The following structural alteration.- and 
improvements were made in the plant-houses during the past year : — 

Conservatory. (Xo. 4.) — This house was built in 1792 for "New 
Holland" plants. The wings were added in 1844-5 by Decimus 
Burton. The woodwork being decayed and the smallness of the panes 
of glass and antiquated arrangements for ventilation being inadequate 

plan was undertaken by H.M. Office of Works. The central portion 
was completed in IS'rJ. exactly a century after its lirst erection, the 
wooden roof being replaced by an iron one of much lighter and more 
elegant appearance, and the sashes glazed with wider panes. A 
lantern ventilator was added. Last year the north wing was undertaken, 
made 2 feet wider, and the roof raised and a lantern ventilator added. 
This year it is hoped the south wing will be re-constructed. The 
house will then be larger, lighter, and in every way better fitted for the 
cultivation of choice greenhouse plants. 

Cool Fern Pit. (No. 6a.) — The development of the collection of cool 
or greenhouse fern> which has taken place within the last five years, 
and for which the fine cool fern house (No. 3) was erected in 1892, 
created the need of a nursery pit for them. This was built last year in 



Temperate House. — Slate staging over the pipes has now be 
■ r ihe woou-tivliis stage running all round this hous. . a 
the plants have since been found to thrive better. Bottom ventilate 
have also been placed in the wall at the north end for the benefit of t 
Himalayan Bhododendrons and of the collection of cool ferns which a 
planted at this end of the house. 

Masdn-allia Pit. (No. 1(>C.)— This has been re-constructed. It 
now span-roofed and on a level with the adjoining ranges of pri\a 
orchid pits. 



Sarda Melon. — Dr. Aitchison, F.R.S., C.I. v, late Brigade-Surgeon, 
H.M. Bengal Army, has obtained from Kabul and sent to Kew two 
fruits of the celebrated Sarda melon. They arrived at the beginning of 

January, in excellent eon, lit ion. carefully packed in cotton wool. The 
tlosh, though tinner than that of the melons ordinarily cultivated in this 
eoitntrv, amplv justiiied in flavour the repntaiion which t his line fruit 
enjoys throughout India. There seems to be no reason why it should 
not be imported to this country in quantity for consumption during the 
winter. Dr. Aitchison had already, last year, sent to Kew, for the 
Museum, an excellent coloured plaster model of the fruit made for him 
at the Lahore School of Art. The following note gives fresh particulars 

Extract from " Notes of Products of Western Afghanistan and 

North-eastern Persia," by Brigade-Surgeon J. E. T. Aitchison, 

pp. 48, 49. 

Melons are largely cultivated as a field crop, but not to the same 

extent as the water melon. The variety sarda keeps well, and is 

exported to India in great quantity during the winter, where it is much 

appreciated by both Europeans and natives. Europeans in India and 



elsewhere have tried to raise from seed the sarda melon. This has 
always proved a failure, the fruit produced being of a very ordinary 
form, and never having the flavour of the Afghan fruit. The word 

season left hanging on the trees when the main crop had been collected. 
The melon collected from the plants thai yield the sarda whilst the 
season is hot and there is still no frost is, comparatively speaking, an 
ordinary good melon, but once the season is ending and night frosts 
have set in and the plants are heginning to he nipped, the gardeners 
carefully cover the fruit to pre\ent it from being injured by the frosts, 
and then collect it when not <|iu'te ripe ; these fruits ripen very slowly, 
will keep through the whole winter, and in flavour seem to improve the 
longer they are kept. It is this treatment, I believe, that constitutes 
the difference between the ordinary melon and the sarda, and why 
gardeners out of Afghanistan and Persia ha\e not been able to produce 
the fine-flavoured Pe-hawur trade art iele, and which, even in the old 
caravan, now railway, clays, were carried in perfection to Southern 
India. 

Seeds of the Sarda melon have been distributed t© several Colonial 
Botanic Garden-, and to the principal private gardens in this country, 
where melon cultivation is made a speciality. 



Portrait of Samuel Frederick Gray.— Mr. Samuel Octavus Grav. 
the grandsou of the nominal author of that remarkable book : " A 

Natural Arrangement of British Plants" (1S21), has presented to the 
collection of portraits of hotainsts at Kew.an excellent picture in oils 
of his grandfather, Samuel Frederick Gray, the father of John Edward, 
Gray and of George K'obert Grav, who were respectively keeper and 
assistant keeper of the Zoological Department of the British Museum. 
He was one of a sti 11 unbroken line of botanists and zoologists, whose 

portrait, Samuel Frederick Gray, the -on of Samuel Gray, a seedsman 
and importer of flower-roots of Pall Mall, was born in 1766 and died in 
1828. He was from infancy and throughout his life of a delicate 
constitution; and after breaking down in an attempt to qualify himself 
for the medical profession, he resolved to devote himself to scientific 
research and literature. For a time he assisted Dr. Nares in editing a 
scientific review, and in 1797 he migrated to Walsall, and was associated 
with Dr. Black as a chemist and assayer of metals. He there became 
intimate with Dr. Priestly, whom he assisted in his chemical experi- 
ments. In the year 1800 he returned to London, and was engaged in 
various scientific pursuits, until 1806, when, on the death of his uncle 
Edward Whitaker Gray, for some time secretary of the lloyal Society 
and keeper of the Natural History Department of the British Museum, 



the founder of tie- Botanical Magazine and his partner and successor, 
William Salisbury in their botanical work. It was here too, that he 
was engaged on hi- more important works,— " A Supplement to the 
Pharmacopoeia," &c, and " A Natural Arrangement of British Plants." 
The latter, a work that had apparently been begun by his !. 
which he was subsequently assisted by his sons, Samuel Forfeit Gray, 
(father of Samuel Octavus Grav) and John Edward Gray. The latter, 



it may be added, has put it on record that he himself was practically tin- 
author of the -work. Samuel Frederick's last work, published within a 
few weeks of his death and written when he was suffering from severe 
illness, is entitled " The Operative Chemist: A practical display of the 
Arts and Manufactures \\ hieh depend on Chemical Frini-iples," a second 

iln- authorship of iiie'-> , f Ilritisli Plan! <' 'V'' of 

Tin,,., and was praeticailv i L 'n..ivd he (he I.-adiu- botanists' of the da v, 
who wen- largely prejudiced followers of Linna us"s Sexual svste.n. h 

collected by Mr. S. O. Gray. 

" In this connexion I may answer your question as to Dr. J. 10. Orav 
being mainlv the author of the 'Natural \t oej ; ■. nt of British 



5 more nearly in accordance with 
ly conversed with my father on 
5 spoke of it as the work of his 



remember him Ik pj 1 to ha\ to the study 

of conchology. 1 have two letters from a Mons. A. Abedoffislgr, 
apparently a botanist travelling on the Continent, which though they 



the portrait is himself the author of an excellent popular work on 
British seaweeds, though his walk in life has been only to a very small 
extent on the seashore. His son, John Edward Gray, has highly di* 
tinguished himself both in botany and zoology, both at University 
College, London, and at Cambridge. And the ttr.-t Samuel Gray, the 
grandfather of the subject of the portrait, born in 1G94, was, like his 
son, a seedsman and importer of flowers and roots in Pall Mall. 



Borers of Jarrah Timber.— Mr. W. 11. Blandford has furnished the 
following note of his further examination of the specimens discussed in a 
previous number of the Kew Bulletin (1893, pp. 338, 339). 

"The broken specimens of a boring insect sent with the accom- 
panying piece of Karri wood have been further examined since my last 

" They belong not to one, but to at least two individuals of different 
sizes, and are referable to the exclusively Australian genus of Longicorn 
beetles, Phoracantha, Newm. They form part of the sub-family 
Cerambycida, not the Prionidce, as I stated in my first letter, but the 
difference is not important except to a zoologist. The species is 
doubtful, it is probably P. synonyma, Ncwm. {—punctata, Kirby). 

** They are variable insects and not easy of determination. As they 
are exclusively Australian, they are not likely to damage Karri timber 
after it is exported, except that they may subsequently reach maturity 
in the logs. 

" (Signed) W. F. H. Blandfokd. 

"January 15, 1894." 



Portrait of Professor Oliver.— An excellent portrait of Professor 
Oliver, F.R.S., the late keeper of the Herbarium and Library of the 
Huynl Gardens, has been painted by Mr. J. Wilson Forster (who also 
painted the portrait of the present keeper, Mr. J. E. Baker, F.R.S., 
exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1893). Professor Oliver's portrait 
was commissioned by a number of his scientific and other friends, who 
haw prt'st-uted it to the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, the scene of 
his labours from 1858 to 1890. Amongst them may be mentioned : — 
Professor Balfour, F.R.S. ; Professor Bower, F.R.S. ; C. B. Clarke, 
Esq., F.R.S. ; F. Du Cane Godraan, Esq., F.R.S. ; Dr. Hogg, F.L.S. 
Sir Joseph Hooker, K.C.I.E. ; Dr. King, CLE., F.R.S. ; Right Hon. 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart , F.R.S. ; Dr. Masters, F.R.S. ; Dr. Scott, 
F.L.S. ; Right Hon. James Stansfeld ; Professor Traill, F.R.S. ; 
H. J. Veitch, Esq., F.L.S. ; Professor Vines, F.B.S., &c. 



Pepper.— With reference to the difficulty experienced in the ci 
vation of pepper in the West Indies, Mr. H. N. Ridley, F.L.S., 
been good enough to supply the following note :— 



of tin- post you must make it bend down to the bottom, and start up 
again. Three times must this be done before the pepper is expected to 
fruit heavily, otherwise it is skinny and wretched. I don't know why 
it won't fruit in Jamaica, but I expect I should if I saw it. 



Gardens, Kew. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, 
Sib, January 9th, 1894. 

I BE<; to report that our vines of ]'//>< r niijn.Hi have this year 
given a good crop. I -end you a sample for the Economic Museum, 
which lias been grown b\ Mr. ('. W. Meaden, of the Prison Departmeiil 
at the Convict Depot, from plants sn; nnent. There 

appears to be every prospect that " black pepper " can be successfully 
grown in Trinidad, as Mr. Meaden has harvested a crop of some 200 lbs., 
some trees bearing as much us two pounds each. Our own crop is not 
yet ripe. We should be thankful for a report on this sample. 
I am, &c, 



Messrs. W. & D. Harvest to Royal Gardens, Kkw. 

Dowgale Dock, Upper Thames Street, London, E.G. 
Dear Sir, January 30, 1894. 

The sample of black pepper grown in Trinidad, winch you have 
sent us, is a good merchantable article. It is el. 'an and bold, and re- 
sembles the hotter qualities of Tellicherry Mark pepper, except that it 

Lane would be about 2?ri. to 2\d. per lb. This is an extremely low 
price for black pepper of good quality, free from dust, but the market 
is now depressed beyond former precedent by the very large stocks held 
iii Kurope, and by what appears to be about an unlimited production in 
the Straits Settlements. It is not very long since that pepper of this 
quality would have readily fetched in public -ales from or/, to 5|r/, peril). 
We remain, &c. 



John 11. Jackson. Ksq. 




(Signed) 


W. & D 


. Harvest. 


Coffea sp., Sierra Leone.- 


-Last 


year plants 


tributed from 


Kew under this i 




! of (h 


i Colonial and Indian Gardens. They 


were raised from 


see<b eolle. 






> by Mi 


. Scott-Kllio;. 


when attached tc 


-the Commi 




for the Deliu 




of the Anglo- 


French frontier 


in 1892, and 






lied by h 




of Coffea. The 




lie i?< 








they are likely tc 






i, mentioned by Mr. 


Seott-KUiot in 


his notes on the 
p. 167), which a 






)f Sierra Leon< 


■ (KewBulhtin. lS9o, 
jrian Coffee by French 








traders. On con 




ts at Kew, it is evid< 




it has nothing 
Coffea never 


to do with C. sti 




. Don 




■s which 


has, and is more 


likley to be 


a Rm 


taia or Canthi 


urn. 





Botanic Station the last quarterly report < 

Henry Powell, gives the following interesting particulars respect 



•' In tlic near future, judgii 
> Grenada as a cocoa and sp 



rate of 1*. 8d. i 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 87.] MARCH. [1894. 



CCCLXIIL— SUGAR-CANE DISEASE IN OLD WORLD. 

The following correspondence relates to a disease which has recently 
made its appearance amongst sugar-caivs in MauritiiH. The specimens 
sent to Kew from the Colony proved that it was undoubtedly due to the 
game fungus, Trichosphceria sacchari (in its most characteristic ferm), 
which, as shown in the Kew Bulletin (1893, pp. 149-152), has for 
some years past done great mischief in the West Indies. 

Mr. Masstv, Principal .VsMsi.-ui! [ < ' ri/pfn'/aum) in the Herbarium of 
the Royal Gardens, has published in the "Annals of Botany" for 
December last (pp. 515-532) an exhaustive account, with detailed 
illustrations, of all that he has been able to ascertain with regard to this 
destructive pest. 

Director of Forests and Gardens, Mauritius, to Royal Gardens, 
Kew. 

I have sent to you by same mail which carries this letter a case 
containing a quantity of sugar-canes taken from one pit, and which are 
supposed to be suffering from some kind or form of disease. Following 
a conversation which I had with the Honourable Judge Rouillard 
(who authorises me to use his name), co- proprietor of St. Antoine 
estate, situated in the district of Riviere duRempart, on the subject of 
cane disease, he, at my request, sent me the canes which are now 
forwarded to you. The disea-e, bv what I have seen, appears to attack 
different patches in the field, and, although the foliage appears healthy, 
the body of the cane is attacked near to the nodes with what appears to 
licaied on the surface of the cane by 
red blotches. Where these exist the under surface of the cane becomes 
dry and spongy, but does not, as far a> I have l>ae;i ui>!e to ascertain as 
yet, affect the growth of the cane. The main feature of the disease 
appears to be that it retards rry>talli/:iti<>n of the juice to a very 
marked degree when it reaches the boilers, and even the sugar produced 
falls short of what might be expected. The canes which I send are 
known here by the name of " Mapou perle "; hut I am informed that 
one of our best canes, u Lcuisir," is also attacked. I shall, therefore, be 
glad if you can in any way throw light on the matter, and render us 
U 80137. 1375.— 3/94. Wfc 184. A 



Royal Gardens, Kew, to Colonial Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, January 5, 1894. 

1 have the honour to inform you that I have received a com- 
munication from the Director of Forests and Gardens, Mauritius, 
respecting a disease which has made its appearance amongst the sugar- 
eanes ir that t'nlonv, and advising the despatch of specimen*. 

2. These have reached Kew within the last few days and have heen 
at once examined. The disease proves to be due anmistakeubly to a 
fungus, and it i> remarkable that, this is identical with the Tricho- 
iphfrriu -n/ccliari, which has recently made its appearance in the West 
Indies, and has already done no inconsiderable amount of damage there. 
It appears to me not improbable that it lias been introduced thence 

3. A preliminary account of the disease was given in the Kew 
Bullet!' tor duly last, of which I enclose a copy. I further enclose a 
copy of a detailed account of the fungus, which has been prepared from 
West Indian material by Mr. George Matteee,« Principal Assistant in the 
Herbarium of the Royal Gardens. 

4. Mr. Massee has drawn up a brief mcim>raiiduni of advice as to the 
best action to be taken under the circumstances. A copy is enclosed, 
and thi-. with the documents above-mentioned, the Secretary of State 
will probably think it advisable to transmit to the Government of 
Mauritius for general information. 

I am, &c. 
(Signed) W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. 
Hon. Sir Robert Meade, K.C.B., 
Colonial Office, 

Downing Street, S.YV. 

Sjgar-cane Disease, Mauritius. 

The canes are attacked by a fungus, Trichosphrpria sacchari, 
identical -with the fungus at present causing such havoc in sugar-cane 
plantations in the West Indies. 

To prevent the spread of the disease it is necessary to resort to 
drastic measures. Burn every cane showing a trace of the disease 
first indicated externally by the appearance of numerous minute, 
upraised points just above the nodes towards the base of the cane; 
from these points proceed black, sticky masses, resembling a slight 
sprinkling of soot on the surface of the cane ; these are the spores of the 
Melanconium stage of the fungus, which are soon dispersed by wind 
and rain, and in turn infect new areas. Prompt action alone can save 
the planter from being overpowered by the fungus, and as it is impos- 
sible to protect canes from its attack so long as the spores are !»-ing 
liberated, the only safe resource is to burn every trace of diseased 

spread the disease by using 



In the following note he has furnished ;i comprehensive review of our 
present scientific knowledge of the fungus producing it : — 

In Dr. Cobb's report on" Diseases of the Sugar-cane " in th^ Clarence 
River district, New Scuth Wales (Agrivultuml C.n~<tt,- of Xnv South 
U'iih'.-i. October 1893) a widespread" disease is described, and said to 
be caused by a fungus called Strumella sacch-iri, Cooke, originally 
described from Queensland. This proves to be identical with the disease 
caused by Trichospfueria sacvhari, Mas? , to which attention was first 
called from the West Indies (Keic Bulletin, 1893, pp. 149-152). It 
has since been identified in Mauritius \ and now that its presence has 
been demonstrated in Australia, and also in North-West India, as proved 
by its presence on a specimen of Saccharvm offidnarum from Saharan- 
pur, received in lsjVJ, it i- perhaps not too much to assume that this 

In common with main Splnerineoous fungi, '/'>•/, /ir.^p/urn'a presents 
itself under more than one form during tiie completion of its life-eyi le ; 
four distinct phases are known, and the fact of these being very different 

is best known; being the couidial form de.-tined for the rapid repro- 
duction and dissemination of the species, it is most widely diffused, and 
also most conspicuous, on account d the enormous quantities of COIlidia 



slender, curled black threads, which ooze out of the affected canes, an 
form a black nuns on the surface. The disease is caused by this phas 
of the fungus. The tw. m-. a- well a-- tin hlghe: 

or aseigerous condition, arc only developed when the cane i- thorough! 
rotten, and consequently have escaped the attention of the planter, c 
they may only be developed at rare and irregular intervals, as it 
known that the Mehniconium stage ,.. in reproduce itself continuous!; 

{■ -• conspicuous a fiingu> has, from !h 

purely scientific >hb\ escaped attention up to within the hist three > 
four years, yet such appears to be rhe case, and its cosmopolitan distr; 
bution appears to be most readily explained by supposing it to hav 



examining the numerou.- 
Ivew herbarium, trace-- o 
from India and Borneo, 

to the sudden outbreak in the West Indies. 



The following is a complete diagnosis of the fungus, also its synonymy 
and known distribution. 

Trichosphaeria sacchari, Mass., Ann. Bot., vol. vii., p. 515, pi. xxvii. 

Fungus ascophorus. Peritheciis ovatis obtusis nigris. senilis 
filiformibus septatis acuminatis rigidis brunneis sursum pallidioribus 
un li<|uo \ estiti-. rtscis o_vlmdra<-< .^ apiee r<>( uri.iui i- -ipitatis octosporis, 
sporis oblique monostichis elliptico-oblongis hyalinis 8—9 X 4/*. 

Fungus sfi/lvsponf r>/s i Metanconium stage). Acervulis mgns 

IT - '- ' ,- - 

brunneis continue vel subimh : vn-lo-1 -.-cptatis 14 — 15x3'5 — 4/* in 
ciiros gelatinosos varios nigros exsilientibus. 

Strumella Sacchari, Cooke, Grevillea, vol. xix., p. 45(1890); Cobb, 
Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, vol. iv., pt. 10, p. 800, 
figs. 17-19. 

Trullula sacchari, Ellis and Everhart, Journ. Intt. of Jamaica. 
vol. i., p. 159 (1892). 



lidiophorus. Maculas effusas 

ideis utrinque truncatis 



^- -■ 



Statui macroconidiophoro similis 



Hab. In culmis Sacchari officinarum. 

Distr. India, Borneo, Mauritius, Queensland, New South Wales, West 



ethaceticus. When developing in a solution of sugar-cane 
fungus possesses the property of inducing alcoholic fermentation* The 
same, or a closely allied form, has previously been observed to cause a 
similar fermentation in pine-apple sap, hence the author calls the present 
disease, " pine-apple disease of the sugar-cane." 

Judging from the description and figures, Thielaviopsis appears to be 
identical with the macro- and microconidial state of Trichospha-ria 
sacchari; curiously enough the author ha> applied tho above terms to 
the two condition-: ( ,| his fungi]-;, and apparently considers it as a stage 
only of some !. he qu.-rics the constant absence of 

an aseigerous stage. 



CCCLXIV.— SEMINAL VARIATION IN THE 
SUGAR-CANE. 

The Kew Bulletin for 1891 (pp. 10-24) contained 8 dlscossu 
the interesting discovery made at the Botani 
formaturj), Barbados, of the production of fertile seed by the si 



'^Th. 



85 

cane, a function which it had long been supposed to have lost under 
cultivation. 

From the well-known principle of seminal variation, it was obvious 
that a new method was open to the planter of obtaining fresh races of 
the sugar-cane. The procedure would, however, be slow, and would 
resemble that adopted in the case of "pedigree wheat." The plan 
would, in fact, consist of "selecting" in the seedlings of each generation 
those which presented, in some marked degree, one or more desirable 
characters. Each successive step in advance would in some individuals 
be cumulative, and at last a new race would be obtained, which could 
be propagated by cuttings in the ordinary way. A new race, possessing 
valuable qualities, might even, with great good fortune, to judge from 
the experience of other cultivated plants, emerge from the seed bed, as 
it were, per saltum. But this cannot be reckoned upon, and the best 
results will doubtless be attained in the long run by gradual aud 
ve selection. 

atter was at once taken in hand in Demerara, and the Kew 
Bulletin for 1891 (pp. 20-2'l) gave an interesting account of the 
earliest results obtained. For further study of the subject, reference 
may be made to the excellent "Report o\ the Agricultural Work in the 
Botanical Gardens. 1>90 (Demerara, 1891)," by Mr. J. B. Harrison, the 
Government Analytical Chemist, and Mr. (i. S. Jenman, the Government 
Botanist. 

The following account, which is extracted from the Sugar Cane for 
January 1894 (pp. 19-20). shows what has in the meantime been 
accomplished in Mauritius. It describes the show of sugar-canes 
brought together at the Agricultural Exhibition of October 1893 : — 

" The collection of sugar-canes was probably one of the best, if not 
the best, which has ever been brought together in one room in any part 
of the world. Not only could the visitor examine at his ease some 
70 varieties, more or less established in the Colony, but the magnificent 
display of seedling canes and their produce, exhibited by the Mauritius 
Estates aud Assets Company, presented an unrivalled opportunity of 
observing 1 he cane in every stage of development, from the tiny seedling 
of an inch high to second ratoons from parent stock raised from seed. 
The history of the first successful attempt to raise sugar cane from 
native seed in this Colony is too well known to need repetition ; but 
certainly, when the President of the Chamber of Agriculture announced 
to his colleagues in 1891 that the four great sugar companies had 
combined to offer a prize of Rs. 1,000 for the best collection of canes 
raised from indigenous seed (Sir Charles Lees having already procured 
some seed from Barbados), no one ■ the splendid 

success of Mr. Pern-mat. Mr. Chalain, Mr. Koenig, and others; or that 
in the short space of two years, thanks to the energy and foresight of 
Mr. Hay, such a collection of matured canes could have been submitted to 
public inspection. Such an event is full of good augury to the Colony; 
the fact, so long denied, that canes can be propagated from seed, has 
been finally established beyond all doubt in Barbados and Demerara, 
as well as in Mauritius, where acres of land, to (.,.- e\tended this year to 
hundreds of acres, are already plant' ! lirectly from 

seed or from cuttings from seedlings. As might be expected, almost endless 
sports and varieties have been produced, some of which show tendencies 
to throw back on inferior types, but most of which are of a highly 
promising character. The most remarkable feature about them is their 
extreme robustness, many having 12 feet clear of cane, well grown, with 
long healthy internodes, while to find from 25 to 35 canes in one stool 
is by no means uncommon. The first ratoons have been found to be 



equally prolific. We are informed that cane.- have bee;- propagated 
this year from seeds of seedlings ; a strong evidence in favour of the 
permanence of the tvpe produced. Amount I lie specimens exhibited 
by Mr. Hay we counted 26 well-d.-tined varieties we believe that all 
were produced from seeds of Port Mackay, Lousier, Penang, and 
Bamboo : but the prevailing charactt ristics of the majority were certainly 
those of the Bamboo, which, from other analogies, we suspect to be the 
primitive stock of many of our varieties of purple cane?. We must 
hope that the importance of the success achieved by those gentlemen 
who have raised canes from seed will not be lost sight of by planters at 
large. It is mortifying to find that after two years' familiarity with the 

can be done. The deterioration of the sugar cane is a favourite topic of 
conversation in our island ; fabulous yields are spoken of in the good 
old days when Triple-Effete were not, and planters weighed not their 
canes ; and many u bead is wagged wisely over the urgent need of the 
introduction of new species of cane, and the great advantage to be 
gained if, by propagating from seed, healthy hybrids could be obtained; 
and yet how many of our planters have made the attempt ? " 



CCCLXV.— IMPROVEMENT OF SUGAR-CANE BY 
CHEMICAL SELECTION OF SEED CANES. 

lJurin^ the last ten years considerable attention has been devoted to 
the possible improvement of the sugar-cane as an industrial plant. The 
earlier steps taken were in the direction of introducing new sorts from 
the East Indies and the islands of the Pacific, in the hope that some at 
least of these would be found to possess greater rigour, yield larger 
crops, or he individually richer in saccharine properties. Some good 
was undoubtedly done in this way. Many new canes of merit were 
added to the few hitherto almost e\elu-ivelv ^rown in sugar-producing 
countries. A larger range of -.election was afforded to the planter who 
had to contend with special circumstances, such as the nature of the soil, 
season, elevation, and the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Where 
at one time only two or three sorts of canes were available for 
experimental cultivation, there are now mote than a hundred named 
sorts. All this ha- undoubtedly had it- influence on the industrv. and 
in the hands of intelligent and observant men it has in some localities 
greatly improved the general yield and quality of the sugar. The 
utilisation of the chance varieties of sugar-canes that had arisen 
either from bud variation or fertile seed in various parts of the world 
was not, ho.ve\er, the mo-t -kilful nor perhnp- the mo-t i cor.omical way 
of seeking to improve sugar cultivation. It had long been thought 

hence the possibility of improving the sUL.ar-eaiie by oro-s fertilisation 



tie by this means cannot yet be determined. Although some 
undoubted merit have been produced, the process in actual 
is one involving great labour and risk; for after growing 
Is of seedling canes to maturity, it is possible that not one will 



possess properties at all superior to timse already under cultivation. 
The opinion has always been held at Kew that in the long run the best 
result- may be obtained by continuous propagation from selected cam's. 

The most ready means, and the one hitherto universally adopted, for 
propagating the sugar-cane is by cuttings. Sometimes the whole cane 
is planted, sometimes only short pieces or cuttings near the top, each 
bearing a few buds. In this way the same identical vaiietyof cane is 

will always appear some canes distinguished by increased size and 
prolificness, and capable at the same tune of J ieldtDg ■ larger per-centage 
of sugar. Such exceptional cams arc the result or what is called bud 
variation; and if these are carefully selected, and the pi-oees^ eontiimalb 
repeated, a variety will be eventually establish, . ! superior to any canes 
of the sort from which it was originally derived. This method of pro- 
cedure was suggested from Kew about seven years ago, but it is only 
within the last two years that it has been practically tested under 

A letter from Kew, addressed to the Colonial Office, dated May l^th, 
1886, was summarised by it as follows :— " Mr. Thiselton-Dyer deems it 
" advisable to direct the attention, not only of professed botanists, but 
" also of planters, to the fact that new varieties (or sports) in sugar-canes 
" are to be sought in bud variation appearing accidentally in the cane 
* fields, and that when such bud varieties are noticed, stock plants 
" should be raised and carefully experimented upon until their value is 
" fully known." This paragraph was communicated by the Secretary 



Of Stat. 


i for the Colonies to the Gov 


. 


of West ] 


India 


Islands and 




r Colonies where sugar-grov 


&£ 










ed locally in the Governmen 


. it was 






confine 




growing e 


vj.-rim.-n 


talh 


at Botanical 




1. The idea was to stimulat. 








■ . . 




e fields of the whole of our 


tropical 


possessions. 






paragraph of the letter abov 


e mentioned this wa 


i- ooi 




" For 1 


;his purpose an area of one h 




es is hardly m 


■ ■■ 


" than 


one acre. It requires obsen 








housands of 




of cane fields, together with 


the intelligent co 


-operation of all 




?sted in the subject." 










It is 


not necessary to enlarge on 


the theor 


etical gn 




for under- 




an enterprise of this kind. 


I'he facts 


already obtained in a series 




lutnet PI; 




Loui 




--■'..; 


y of selecting cane 




the Held re- 


. -ize. proliticiicss, early i 








ntie quality. 


and of producing t'roin these .-elected 








■sposse-smg 


similar 


.pialities. The peculiarity 


of' the.-e 
















•sts. If. by 


adoptin 


c this method, the average q 









a crop oi. -.,\. -Jo.P(.M» ro - tie re w-uld be added to it 18t),000 pounds ot 
sugar. This, however, is the result of one year's selection only. But in 
addition to the increased yield in sugar there is -till another possible 
gain in the increased purity of the -agar. This i- a more dillicult mallei 
to estimate, but it is a factor which adds to the potential value of the 
experiment. 

By the courtesy of Mr. Wibray J. Thompson, of Calumet Plantation, 
Patterson, La., we are placed in pomemkn of the iv-ults of the very 
interesting experiments carried on by him, with the aid of Mr. Hubert 
Edson, who undertook the chemical 'work, during the seasons of 1890, 



1891, and 1892. This information is contained in a pamphlet {Bulletin 
No. 8) issued privately by the proprietor, Mr. Daniel Thompson. The 
most interesting part of the pamphlet is contained in pages 26-39, 
relating to the improvement of the sugar-cane by means of a selection 
controlled by chemical examination of the plant canes. In the pamphlet 
this selection is described as a " seed " selection. " Seed canes " in many 
sugar countries is an expression in use for the " cuttings " of canes, or for 
the canes themselves used for planting purposes. In most countries the 
tops of the canes comprising a few joints are used. In the Southern 
United States the " seed canes " consist of the whole canes laid in 
trenches and covered over like so many drain-pipes. Sometimes these 
are laid two in a row and sometimes three, depending on the season and 
condition of the canes. 

The results of the experiment at Calumet Plantation possess so wide 
an interest that it is desirable to bring them prominently before the 
notice of those interested in sugar production in our tropical possessions. 
Mr. Edson, the chemist, states : — " I do not know that any experiments 
" such as this at Calumet have, vip to the present time, ever been tried 
" with sugar-cane. It seems to me to be an entirely new and untried 
; ' ground in experimentation, though : ich work being 

" tried has often been discussed." 

The following extracts relating to the experiments at Calumet 
taken from Mr. Edson's Eeport (Bulletin No. 8, pp. 



1T,-:W : 



• Seed ' Selection 




as well under way, a 

nin.le in the laboratory for "the 

would transmit to their offspring 

which they themselves 

verse section of the cane was 

ic quality of the whole cane, 

s juice, and the remainder of 

tvas the third one from the 

four pieces of equal length. Below 

test the matter : — 



Longitudinal Halves of Samples. 


Tliinl Quarter from Bottom of opposite 
Halves of Samples. 


Solids. Sucrose. Purity. 


scid, ; S „ CT „ S , 


P 0riv . 


14-7 1 „., 

S:j 1 s:; SJ 

18-3 165 90-2 


16-1 13-9 
16-5 13-8 


836 
90-1 


»• | U-l 


16-4 14-0 j 85 4 



"I have since thought that for different years the section which 
represented the quality of the cane miidit !><"• .liiu-n-nt, but as it has 
been found out since that a selection of this kind is not necessary, I 
have made no further experiments. Selections were first made with 



the Brix spindle, by which 'in "_' a m< ilium ;m t 

of solids in' the juice wen- discarded. Living only the extremes of the rich 
and poor canes. The juice from these latter was taken into the 
laboratory for further analysis and all canes oflow per-eentage of solids 
in the juice and having a purity under eighty-five, were planted as 
representing the poorest canes to be found. In like manner the richest 
canes were selected from those containing a high per-cenlage of solids 
and having a purity over eighty-five. 

"Both extremes were taken in preference to one, because it was 
thought that if anything was to be gained by this line of experimen- 
tation it would be shown much quicker by watching the progeny of 
vital opposites instead of comparing only one extreme with an average, 
which, to say the least, would be very difficult to obtain. In fact, 
selecting the extremes was the only way a comparison could be made. 
If only the richest canes had been selected there would have been no 
standard by which to judge whether anything had been accomplished. 
With the extremes if there is a difference in their offspring, there must, 
also of necessity, be a difference between each of their offspring and the 
mean. We have, then, if we find that the richest canes which can be 
selected produce a cane richer than that from the poorest canes selected, 
proven that this resulting cane is also richer than the average of the 
lot of cane from which the selections were made would have produced, 
had the canes of medium sucrose content not been thrown out 

"In reviewing also what continually is coining under our notice I 
cannot either see any reason why disbelief should exist as to some good 
being accomplished bv this line et investigation. Kich and poor canes 
are continually coming to our notice from the same part of a field and 
where the conditions for their development seem to be as favourable to 
one as to the other. Anyone who has made a great number of single 
-talk analyses, as has been done here, is especially aware of this. It 
is also evidenced by the almost total impossibility of getting samples 



a pure stock of these two varieties, but hs 

to one cane changing to the other. If there 

would suggest the probability that many of i 

derived in the same way instead of by sud< 

were so it would add another link to the c 

led me to believe that the plant could be ec 

Variation in fact seems to be the only law that we can depend on with 

safety at the present time. Why. then, can we riot take advantage of 

this continual change and train it to inert our wants ? If we cannot 

bring it to excel its original qualities, cannot we. at least, keep its 

standard up to the M ualit\ of itspre-ent he.-t individuals ? If three-tenths 

of one i>er cent, of the weight of cam is added to it in sugar, a crop of 

25,000 tons of cane would give 150,000 additional pounds of sugar, 

five-tenths of one per cent, would give 250,000 pounds additional, and 

one per cent, would add 500,000 

" At Calumet 7»0 single stalks were examined, 424 of which were 
discarded by the Brix spindle work as being canes of medium richness, 



and the remaining 35b analyzed, giving about an equal number of the 
extremes of rich and poor canes. The canes from these analyses plants: 
but two rows 575 feet long, while seed from the same number of stalks 
of sorghum would have planted many acres. We can see by this the 
Herculean nature <>t' the ta-k undertaken, and therefore the necessity 
for extreme (tare that the experiments be not lost. The average analysis 
of the rich canes planted here was solids 16 G, sucrose 14 • 7, purity 
88-6; of the poor canes, solids 14 S>, sucrose 119, purity 79-9. This 
gives a difference in the analyses of W solids, 2*8 sucrose, and 8*7 
purity. This difference was not. perhaps, inherently as great in the 
canes examined as the analyses would indicate, for many of the stalks 

removing them from these, the peculiarities themselves would in con- 
siderable part disappear. These peculiarities, due to environment, would, 
probably, all be eliminated in time by continued planting of canes from 
selected plats. During November IW1, at intervals of a week, the plats 
were twice sampled. Samples were taken from directly opposite points 
of the two rows, and every stalk growing in the space sampled was 
cut. The analyses of each in the laboratory were, of course, made by 
identical method-. These analyses were as follows: — 

High Sucrose Plat. 

Analysis of November 20.— Solids 15*2, Sucrose IT 6, Purity 76 "3. 

Analysis of November 27.— Solids 14 4, Sucrose 10 7, Purity 74*3. 

Average.— Solids 14 '8, Sucrose 11-2. Purity 75 '7. 

Low Sucrose Plat. 

Analysis of November 20.— Solids 15*1, Sucrose 1 L - 1, Purity 73 '5. 

Analysis of November 27.— Solids 14 4, Sucrose 10*7, Purity 74- 3. 

Average.— Solids 14*8, Sucrose 10'9, PuritV 73-6 

Difference.— Solids O'O, Sucrose 0\3. Purity 2'1. 

''There was also undoubtedly a less yield of cane from the poor 

sucrose seed. This was so very evident that it did not need the 

authority of actual weights to confirm it. 

1892 Results. 

"Indiscus- , pre-ent yearon tin- subject, I have 

divided it into two phases, both of which seemed distinct and important 
enough for separate remarks These are the results obtained from 
last year's selection and ^, have had but small opportunity for reversions, 
if such are to occur, and the other the results obtained from two plats, 
the original parents of which were from selected seed, the one from 
poor canes and the other from rich ones — but in which they had been 
allowed to 
latter, then, 
each plat kept free from i 

" The canes were planted two in a row without any lap ar.d the tops 
and butts of the planted canes were kept opposite so as not to have 
the general growth of the cane in the row affected by the varying 
germinating qualities of the different sections of the cane. 

" The method used in selecting the rich and poor canes was somewhat 
different from that employed the first year. Then as a preliminary 
part of the work a number of tests were made to determine what 
section of the cane would represent the whole stalk, and having found 
this section, it was used for the analysis. But what has rendered this 
kind of work easier it was also found that from the point of comparing 



nother any given s. 
used in all the test! 
r selection the butt 

•tin- r:n 



spondingly 
168 planted 



of analyses on ray books at Calumet, which it w 
brance to print here, showing without except 
conditions a high per cent, sulids invariably me; 
high sucrose, and, in a vast majority of cases, a i 
lower solids. The average per cent, solids of the 

was 19 '5, and of the poorer 17*2, a difference of 2 - 3. it was a note- 
worthy fact that nearly all the richer canes were also the larger ones, 
and the joints were longer than in the poorer canes. This would have, 
as the plats were the same length, <:iven a larger number of eyes to 
the poor canes, and so should have given a larger number of canes, but 
from some cause it did not. 

}anes prom Single Stalk Selection. 



Rich Cane Seed. 




Date. 


Solid*. 


i«* 


Purity. 


Dan, s„Hds. 


Sues, 


Purity. 


ocTssTT 

Nov! 5 - 
Nov. 7 - 
Nov. 8 - 
Nov. 11 - 


if* 


u ' 3 


86 ~ 


ill" l 


I 


1 



"In 


the spriug, afte 


the canes 


tad begu 


i to appe 


ar in considerable 




s, they were cc 






and this 












gained practically 


stationary or began tt 




. 










grinding. 


The last 




anes in each plat 


appear 






May l.-> 
















s there were 371 




cane- ngain^t .'■!.")() for the 






timlfof harvest 




umber of canes 


continued 




v't, but at 




of canes in e 


«"b piai u; 






the plat from rick 








in the other. Fourteen of the canes 












and seven in the 


poor : ee,] ;dat. In po 


it of numl 


er of canes grown 


ar those lost before 










r plat. 


" I will now call at 








of cane from the 




s. It will be remwmbered that last 


ear, while no actual weights 


were P ra 


arked that 


the cane 


from the rich seed gave a 


larger, 


leaWhier-lookii 


g stalk, this being so 


very pronounced that there 




mistaking it. 


This present year 


ill the M 


mples brought in 


were weighed, and as 






canes were taken from each 


plat at 


every sampling 


an<l the-c 


samples 


extended 


through the whole 



92 

length of the rows, a very good idea can be formed of the relative 
quantity of cane. This is best expressed by giving the average weight 
per stalk. For the cane from poor seed this was 2*58 pounds, and for 
the cane from the rich seed '2.- VI pounds, a showing against the rich 
cane seed. While it may be that each year we will have a return in 
quantity similar to ibis, I am at present inclined to think that the rich 
cane will in the end prove the larger one. 

"It is true that with sorghum and beets the medium-sized plant is 
the most satisfactory one to grow for sugar; yet I believe that it could 
not in the same way be said of these that the smaller or medium sized 
seed arc as satisfactory for planting as the large ones, containing. a< they 
would, a much greater amount of starch to be transformed into food 
for the young plantlets. So, I believe, it will be with sugar cane, and 
that the larger healthier stalks will, in a series of years, produce the 
thriftiest canes, for I have continually noticed that in the selections the 
rich canes are the larger and better stalks. In three of the samples 
taken the weight of cane from the rich seed exceeded that from the 
poor, the other four samples giving opposite results. Also it was notice- 
able that at one end of the rows one plat contained the larger looking 
cane, and at the other end the other plat did, and the Humpies taken 
corresponded to this appearance. Certainly, from the limited trials 
made here, it would not be the part of wisdom to assert positively 
whether the rich cane seed will give a larger or a smaller cane, as the 
two years' results have been contradictory in this particular. Such 
contradictions, however, are to be expected in field agricultural experi- 
ments, and it will take the average results of a number of years to 
furnish ultimate proof. 

" We now come to the most important part of the work in judging 
of its utility, viz., the analytical results. Seven sets of analyses were 
made, and then it had become so late in the fall that it was deemed 
expedient to make the selections for planting, and as this took all the 
canes it stopped fun her analyses The last analyses were made on 
Norember 12th. These samples were, with one exception, taken from 
directly opposite parts of the two rows and contained the same number 
of canes. The one sample taken differently was during the time the 
selections for further planting were being made, and consisted of every 
thirtieth cane as the plat was being ground. This method of cutting 
out sections of the row in sampling standing cane for comparison of 
different plats I have found to be the most satisfactory tried. It is much 
better than going through the whole plat and trying to select average 

" There is in these analyses but one case, that of November 4th, where 
the cane from the poor seed could be said to be better for sugar-making 
than that from the rich seed. The average of the analyses shows the 
cane from the rich seed to be eight-tenths of one per cent, higher in 
sucrose and 2 3 points higher in purity. Now let us see what such a 
difference in analyses means in sugar-making. Allowing 10 percent, 
marc, about the average in Louisiana, there would be a difference 
between the plats of 14 4 pounds of sugar in each ton of cane. This 
difference divided by two, because one plat was as much below the 
average cane seed as the other Avas above, will give 7 ' 2 pounds of sugar 
per ton as an increase in planting rich cane for seed, instead of the 
average cane, had it been planted. 

" For a factory grinding 400 tons of cane per day this would add 
2,880 pounds of sugar to the cane of a day's working, and for a crop 
of 25,000 tons would give 180,000 additional pounds of sugar. One 



hundred and eighty thousand pounds of Migar at ii\ <- cents per pound is 
worth S9,000, and S0,000 would pay for 2,000 tons of cane at the price 
of $4-50 per ton, and 2,000 ton3 are nearly one-twelfth of the entire 
crop. This, it must be borne in mind, is the result of one year's 
selection. There is still another added value in the cane from the rich 
seed of which it is more difficult to give the exact value ; this is the 
higher purity of 2 '3. We know that a high purity is more desirable 
than a low one, but no one yet has been able to tell what a rise of a 
point in purity will add to the sugar output. To form some estimate 
we can take a given per cent, solids and figure what per cent, sucrose 
the two purities would give. Taking thus the average per cent, sucrose 
of the juice from the rich cane seed we will have the sucrose as given 
in the table of analyses for the cane from rich seed and 13 '5 per cent, 
would have been secured on the cane from the poor seed plat had the 
per c.ent. solids been the same as in the other. There is, then, a 
difference of four-tenths of one per cent, of sucrose due to purity alone. 
Halving this for the same reason as given before we would get two- 
tenths of one per cent, extra sucrose over the average, or 3 '6 pounds 
per ton. This then should be added to the actual gain in sucrose made, 
aside from the question of purity, and would give instead of the 7*2 
pounds, 10*8 pounds additional sugar per ton of cane. Carrying this 
out in figures the same way as before we would have for a day's work 
of 400 tons an increase of 4,320 pounds of sugar, and on a crop of 
25,000 tons 270,000 pounds. This, at five cents per pound, amounts 
to §13,500 and would at the rate given before buy 3,000 tons of cane, 
which is but little less than one-eighth of the entire crop. Expressing 
this gain in another way it would give an abundant amount of money 
to pay the sugar-house labour for manufaeturing the crop. This result 
was obtained from planting canes the average' per cent, solids of whose 
juices differed by 2 '3 points, thus making the richer canes better than 
the average would have been by 1*15 per cent. It is undoubtedly a 
remarkable showing. 



" Wet 


urn now t 


;o the other phase i 


< el in whir' 


ii one year 


had inter\ 


-ened without selection since 


: the original selection 


wa> mad.'. 






was because the i 


:ane was too small to 


analyse a 


part and 




some left for plant 


ing. It will be seen then that the 




year while of pure 


bred stock from the or 


. 






" not the added va 


lue that another year' 


• - 


_ 




The results, howei 


be expected 




interesting 


j in having a bearing on the question of the stab 


ility of an 



important phases of the subject, for, should any tmpr 
revert to the original state after one year, the work wc 
as enough cane cannot be selected in one year to be of an 
« The first year's work with those plats gave a diffe 
purity. This of itself was a deeided improvement, hut a 



one year's i 





Rich Can 


• Seed. 






Poor Cane Seed. 




Date. 


Solids. 1 Sucrose. | Purity. 


Date. 


Solids. Sucrose. 


Purity. 






1G-0 1 88-9 


Nov. 3 


j n<6 ! 15 . 5 


88-1 


Nov. 8 












Not. 14 


i }J;J 


16-3 


Zi'-i 


Nov. 14 
Nov. 19 


17-5 16-2 


92-6 


Nov. 25 












88-3 


Dec. 6 


18-8 


170 


90-4 


Doc. 6 


17-8 14-8 


83-1 


Means 


17-8 | H,0 


89-9 


Means 




86-3 






" The average sucrose of -x -v.mpl.-- i'nmi the plat planted w 
caDe seed was l("r() and the purity S{)-<). The cane from 1 
seed gave a sucrose of 15" 1 and a purity of 86*3. The samples were 
taken in the same manner as in the other plats and, as will be noticed, 
give a more favourable -howinu than they did Cm- seed -election. I will 
not extend the figures as I did before, for their magnitude must already 
be so apparent that further discussion would be useless. 

" A most important point these two plats show is that the higher 
sucrose from the rich cane seed is not an early forced maturity. The 
analyses extend up to December 6th, and there is as marked ft differ- 1 



the 






!.-::, 



h-fnr. 



we have proven that under the san 

no difference what these conditions are, a rich cane will produce a 

better progeny than a poor one. 

" Having established the fact that the sugar-cane can be improved by 
systematic seed selection it is necessary to inquire how this can be 
made of practical value to a large cane grower. The results obtained 
have been with small experiment plats. How can such work be done 
for hundreds of acres ? This must be the true test of the utility of the 
the large field profit by them they might as well 



,ts, for c 



" There are two possible ways, it seems to me at present, that the 
knowledge acquired by these experiments can be put to practical use. 
The first of these is by systematically sampling the cane growing on 
different sections of the plantation, and planting the richest for the 
ensuing crop. In this case, however, the conditions giving the richness 
are not perfectly known ; the soil, fertilizer applied, better drainage 
or cultivation may, one or all. have had an effect in giving the result. 
instead of an inherent quality in the cane itself, ami that which is in 
reality poorer might be selected in one year's work as the better. In a 
number of years, though, it is more than probable that a selection of 
this kind would be of material benefit. The return would, in any case, 
be slower than the method I will now call attention to. 

" A chemist can take ordinary unskilled white labourers and teach 
them to make the necessary Br ix readings in a very short time, and 
by single stalk work I estimate, from the work done here, that in a 
month at least three acres could be planted with a high quality of seed, 
using only a single hand-mill to extract the juice. This i 



done 



daring gri 


udinii 


would entail i 


10 lo-s. 




nld be used in 


the f 


produce tl 




















ad. This, plant 




would seei 


I 15 a 


teres and, with 


tli" tlir 


end of twc 


> years, give 19 ncr< 




plant cane 












of 348 ton 








the 15 ac 




' stubble, 92 a< 




take into t 




it the additional 


stdt-cii. 



nije additional acre.-. One hundred and thirteen acres would, in round 
numbers, plant 550 acres, and this i- nearly as much as our largest 
plantations plant in one year. By the end of another year, or the 
tifth crop harvested since' the selection was begun, there would be 
nothing but improved car.e on the place. This would be accomplished, 
too, by using only the additional labour of perhaps four men during the 
grinding season. 

" Of course continued selections, that is, selections from selections, 
could be going on in small plats all the time and as these became of 
sufficient value could be transferred to the field in the same manner as 
the other. 

" Feeling thus so thoroughly assured that -election of • high sucrose ' 
ruies will give a plant which is also of a superior quality, it might be 
well to speculate as to how far this improvement can be carried. Is it 
to be stopped at the end of three or four years, or is it to be continued 
indefinitely ? If for the shorter period how much of an improvement 
can we expect ? 

"We know that propagation from cutting- will produce plants much 
truer to their mother species than those grown from seed. This is 
• xoeptionally true of those plants that can be grown in either way. 
As, for example, all fruit trees are budded, potatoes are grown from the 
eyes of the potato, not from the seed, and in the last few years when 
tropical cane seeds 'nave been secured many distinctly different plants 
Avere, according to Professors Ho veil and Harrison, grown from one 
parent seed head. Beet investigators, also, realising this fact, have beeu 
making experiments in growing beets from what are practically cuttings. 
instead of from seed as heretofore, though their work is being done to 
preserve true varieties rather than to have any immediate effect upon 
the sucrose content. Then, having accepted the" fact that cuttings breed 
truer to the parent than seeds, is not the cons ietion forced upon us that 
an improvement inherent in the plant can be developed more quickly in 
cane than in seed producing sugar plants. I do not mean by tin's that 
large quantities of a pure -rock could he -ecured more quickly, for I 
nave alreadv explained whv this cannot be done, bin that with an equal 
number of stalk- a plant 'true to it- parent -lock will reach its maxi- 
mum sucrose content sooner, and breeding only from the best, we are 
more apt to get the best. We will not have to contend with the diffi- 
culty of variation from our accepted best value. It is, also, doubtless 
true from the same reason that we are more limited in our ultimate 
improvement since we cannot expect accidental variations that will be 
of more value than their original parent. We cannot, either, secure 
any of the benefits of crossing that are obtained from seed-bearers. 
That there are occasional variations, however, anyone familiar with the 



96 

investigations of naturalists of the present day cannot very well doubt ; 
indeed, some have actually been observed in ordinary culture, and are 
now being grown at the Sugar Station in this State, but it cannot be 
hoped even by an extreme visionist in natural selection that there 
would be much betterment in cane by watching for such variations. 
My own work, no further than it has gone, has led me much against my 
will to fear that the chance for continued improvement from single stalk 
selection is not as great as could be desired. I do not find nearly the 
variation in the plats which have already been subjected to one selection 
that I did in my original selection from the field. Where the first year 
the difference in per cent, solids of the two plats planted was 2 ' 2, 
the selections jrave but slight individual variations in either plat, and 
there were in each case practically the same number of canes examined. 
All the canes from the high sucrose plats were correspondingly high 
and those from the poor plat correspondingly poor. There was not in 
the rich plat a single stalk that I con! i think was ■listinctively richer 
than its associates from any quality in itself; in fact, there were none 
at all that were markedly superior canes to those adjoining them. I do 
not. think the same reasoning could be held as good in regard to the 
cane from poor sucrose seed, as some single cane might be unusually 
low in sugar from an accidental cause, such as becoming wounded during 

cultivation, &c 

" It is my belief, then, that with a given amount of plants the 
improvement in sugar cane by seed selection will be more stable than 
in sorghum or beets, and will, 

that the 
greater than in either of these. Nature, however, may aid 
fact that the production of sugar is a function incident to the plant, 
while with beets and sorghum this is an educated quality. Time only 
can tell which of these three will ultimately excel in the world's sugar 
production, but whatever the outcome will be it is certain cane can 
take a great stride in the race, now that it has been found that seed 
selection will aid it." 



CCCLXVI.— GUZERAT RAPE. 

{Brassica campestris var. glauca.) 

The seeds of rape yield on expression the oil familiarly known 
under the name of Colza. The residue or " cake," which contains all 
the nitrogenous constituents of the seed, is largely employed in this 
country as a valuable cattle-food. 

Botanically the plant grown in Europe for the purpose is principally 
Brassica campestris var. Napus. In India the similar plant is B. 

The rapes are, botanically, near allies of the mustards. The seeds of 
these, in addition to an innocuous oil, yield, by a kind of fermentation, 
Mustard oil. Hence their use as a condiment. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, Mustard oil produces in the stomachs of cattle an inflammation 
which is often fatal. It is essential, therefore, that " Rape-cake " which 
is used for feeding should be free from any seed containing Mustard 

Unfortunately, Indian rape has some of the characters of mustard. 
It appears to be largely imported into Europe for the purpose of oil- 
expression ; but the residue, though saleable as a manure, cannot be 
safely used as a cattle-food. 



seeds which eome into romim-re. 

send specimens of three samples ( 
The manufactories of Breslau buy 
Indian " Rape " for the extractio) 



Extract from Keir lU^rt for 1877, p. 34. 
Guzerat Rape.— Inquiry has betn made both in England and in 
Germany with n-aid to a iape s.-ed imported into th.- Kn-Iish market 
from Bombay under this name, and which Dr. Wittmack, of the Berlin 
Agricultural Museum, has identith'd ;i- the seed of Braasica (Sinapis) 
tflduat. Koxb. Tins species is umlrjbtedly merely a local variety of 









dark seeds are all the produce o: 






A «//,>:/: /•>., January 1(5, 1877). 






at Danzig, and is found to yield I 






cake also yields 10 per cent, fatty i 




11 pe 


both being in excess of the amo 




! by , 


Wittmack, however, remark-, that 


as the seed 




mustard, the cake may not be very 


suitable for 


catth 



rape. LJ 



CCCLXVII.— AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH 
HONDURAS. 

An account of the resources of British Honduras was printed in the 
K<w Bull, an for November last ( IS93, pp. 326-329). In the Annual 
Report for the year 1892 {Colonial Office Reports, Annual, No. 94, 
1893), the Administrator gives a further interesting note on the 
agricultural condition of the Colony. The singularly undeveloped con- 
dition of this British possession in Central America, first settled &s long 
U 80137. B 



!I8 



ago as 1662, is shown by the fact that out of five million acres, the total 
estimated area, there are only forty thousand acres returned as under 
cultivation at the close of 1892. There is apparently considerable 
depression in regard to logwood and mahogany, which have hitherto 
been the chief articles of export. Up to the present time the Colony 
has mainly depended for its existence upon the cutting of these valuable 
native timbers. The one cheering fact in the agricultural condition of 
British Honduras at the present time, is the gradual and steady develop- 
ment which has taken place during the last few years in the fruit trade. 
In order of importance the value of the vegetable products of the 
Colony exported during 1892 is as follows :— Logwood, 8616,838; 
mahogany, 8389,855 ; bananas, #212,882; plantains, $12,191 ; rubber, 
37,450 ; and West India cedar (Cedrela), 82,610. The fruit exports, 
including cocoanuts, are now almost two-thirds of those of mahogany. 
There is every indication that with due encouragement these are 
destined, as in Jamaica, to occupy a very prominent position in the 
future. Moreover, the cultivation of fruit, especially bananas, leads to 
the permanent establishment of the land in coffee, cacao, spices, and 
other tropical staples. 

Agricultural Statistics. 
The estimated acreage of the Colony is 4,839,408 acres, of which 
45,000 are returned as being under cultivation, and 4,155,000 as being 
uncultivated. The estimated acreage of mahogany and logwood works 
is 3,065,000 acres. All town and suburban lands belonging to the 
Crown have to be sold by public auction at an upset price fixed by the 
anges from $1 an acre upwards, 



Id by public 

, which gen 



• in Council, which geneially r 
and cannot, be sold privately; whilst leases of Crown land are also 
granted by the Governor in Council at rates varying from 25 cents an 
acre per annum, subject to such conditions as the circumstances of each 
application may seem to require. In order to encourage immigration 
and develop the resources of the Colony, the Governor in Council is 
empowered by law to issue free grants of rural lands to persons who 
may desire to settle in the Colony, in lots not exceeding 20 acres for 
each adult above 18 years of age, and 10 acres for each person under 
that age, subject to such conditions as to improvements or residence as 
may be imposed. 

It is estimated that ah.,u; ;j.i«75.984 acres of land in the Colony have 
been granted, and that about 1,763,424 acres remain ungranted. 

The principal products of the Colony, in addition to mahogany and 
logwood, are sugar, bauanas, rum, Indian corn, coffee, rice, and 



The following table gives the [approximate] quantity produced from 




CCCLXVIII.— DECADES KEWENSES. 



sessi!ihu> ;jlal>ris vel spar^issiiin- hiilis rloribus parvis (ulaba-r:;- 
tantuir: vi-;>), ,-epali.- glahris ;i].i<-.- bivviter nicinlmtnaceis dorso l;;!>- 
bo-i>, -iliquis en-cti- _ alldis, vaiv> 

iarginatis. 
Habitat — South Africa. Zwartrborg, Pappe. 

PedueUi fructifcri l-C lin. kmgi. S>!i<ji<a 1 [-11 poll, longa, 1 lin. 
lata. S<y/tu 1J-2 lin. longus. 

A very disti mee of a perennial, but the 

rootstock of the plant is not present in the Kew specimen. 

72. Abutilon Ranadei, Woo 



prof undo angusto 
dentatis junioribus 
minus glabresceuti 
petiolis robustis 2 
valde eaducis, flori 



carpellis 5 bre\ <; it villosulis. 

Habitat — katnagui. Amba ({hat, X. B. lianade. 

Frutex 4 ped. alius. Folia ad 7 poll, ion-a, ml .">.\ poll, lata; petiolus 
ad 4^ poll, longus. PuHclli 1 [toll, .longi. Calyx 9-11 lin. longus. 
Petala i) i -.. ('ar[nlla Id lin. longa. 

This is a very marked specie.-. ,■ ,alri>n>, I>on. 

•■,..,■ ....... .\ 

in the length of the stamina! tub'. 



■'--..-.. ^ . ■ -..-■ ■ ■ ■ •■■.■.■ 

■ ■ - ::, ;..." ■:■:■.■ ;.. :.::■"■ ■ ;-■■■. 

ellis brevibus, calve,- .icu.-i-iin,- hi.^;::.. tubo brevi dentibus longis 
.'taeeis, corolla calve so<tpii-longiurl, petalis suba-tpiilongis glabn-, 
v.t: .. > ylindrico piloso. 
Habitat.— Xya>saland, Buchanan. 231 of 1881 collection, 390 and 

Jtacemus 3-4 poll, longus. Calyx- 6 lin. 



A handsome plant, remarkable for its dense hea 


ds of flowers, large 


persistent bract-. and very -dia^gy calyx, with setace 


ous teeth. 


74. Petalactella, .V. E. Brown [Compositarum-G 


Snaphaliearum genus- 




loribus in ambitu 


? 2-4 fertilibns, in disco A stcrilibus. Involve 


rum campanuhitum. 


bracteis sub 3-seriatis, exterioribus flores foemim 




interioribns breviter radiaatibos. Receptaculitm 




nudum. Corolla fl. ? compresso-tuhulosa*, min 


nte dentate fl. J 




Eido. Anther a basi 


::k- s':,m, ^,.,.1,-r.,---.. ' r-\r^« < '•[>■;') 


isus, fl. ? bifida*, 




7 fl. ? subtngona ; 


jj""'- '<» ""' ^'vv» * 'vih'^^r bi/^E 








ericoideus. Folia alterna. parva. Capitula par\a 
aggregata. 


ad apices ramorum 


P.Woodii, -V. E. Brown; nana, lignosa. pio.tr 


•ata, ramis brevibus 










glabris novellis argenteis, capitulis ad apices ramo 




inter folia sessilibus, iuvolucn squamis exteriori 






extus lanatis fl. ? 


circa i-4sibtendentibus, squamis interioribns Lis, 


?riatis oblongis basi 



5,000 ft. alt. Wood, 4813. 

rent ia \ poll, diani. ( 'a/>it nhnn \ poll, diiim. 

In general appearance this remarkable little composite bears some 

resemblance to Helichry.su in ericrfoliiun, Less., but seems to be a 
dwari'er and more woody plant, and in the structure of its flowerheads 
is totally different, being rjnite unique in the group (i no p/io //err, arai 
perhaps in the whole order, in having the female filiform florets in the 
axils of the outermost involucre scales, and separated from the male or 
disk florets by the two inner rows of involucral scales, which merely 
surround the disk florets. The nearest allied genus is Petalacte, in 
which the fwrnale florets are subtended by the inner involucral bracts 
and placed in the same series as the outer male florets, and the male 
florets in the centre of the disk are surrounded by 3 or 4 scales like 
those of the involucre, but there are no florets in the axils of the outer 
involucral scales. Another difference is the form of the scales of the 
involucre ; in Petalacte they are all alike, with a densely woolly,. 
linear claw, and a broadly spathulate or orbicular, radiating tip; 
whilst in Petalactella the outer scales are broadly lanceolate, laxly 
woolly, and with erect (not radiating), acute tips, and the inner ones 
oblong, narrowed at the base, nearly glabrous, with shortly radiating 



75. Ceropegia : 

j I iibra, folds ovatis 
abrupte acutis mucronulatis petiolatis, pedunc 
siibulatis. floribus breviter pedicellatk sepalis 





[Convolvulaoe;,] ; radico magna 




tom,nto S <> iolioso, foli.s long, 




apiculatifl supra glabris subtus 




is duplo brevior.bus 2-3-floris 




ilis longioribus «ib«ilabris vel 



Nicotiana flexxiosa, Jet 



tilnnu'iitis iin:i ba-j dilatutis bnrbatis. cnjtsu] 
Habitat.— Montevideo, Gibert, 50 and 1 
Caulis 1-2 ped. altns. Folia 4-7 p 

Calyx 4-0 lin. longus, dentibus 2-3 lin.loi 

lobis 4 lin. longis. 



This is cited as ".N. nocti flora, Hook.?" in Gibert's En 


vw. P/. 


Montevid. p. 35; but, as pointed out by Mr. Bentham (MS. v. 


11 Herb. 






the more spreading inflorescence and narrower leaves. 




79. Nicotiana breviloba, Jeffrey [Solmiaeeay] ; tota gla 


nduloso- 


puU'seens, toliis potiol.Mtis cra-siusnilis papyraceis late ovatis 


.-ordati^ 


\-;i!df undulati^ ;t|tici r« »t n m lr : - >.-'\ H wnis pri mariis utrimpif 








pt'fliinculatis. bracteis minimis subulatis, floribus angustis br 




pediecllatis, culyce pubescent! eampanulata dontibus leviter ina? 


; lalihus 



tooso calyce ineluso. 

Habitat. — ('(-.quiiuho, Cliili. Ciimuitj, 8(50. 

longus. Cora//,- 'arm *ta I \ poll, fonga, 

79. Clerodendron aucubifolium. Baker [Yerbenaces] ; fruticosum, 

giabrum, foliis breviter petiolatis - subeoriaceis 

basi cuneatis, floribus mag n is in u- dispositis, 

jK'dicollis cli iiuatis, calyeis » ;!■.■ - . Uoideis 

cnspidatis, condia- tubo . J ce 2-3 plo longiori, lobis 

obovatis snbtequ&libus c loboa bis v. ter exceden- 



h an- well \vorfli\ id' b< In- brought into cultiv; 
. Balanophora hooker iana, Hemsl. [Baknoplu 



Habitat.— Myrung.Kha^ », Ta -.11) //,,,/,, ,id7 Th ni-sc: 

1850. 

Planta circiter 1| poll. alta. Squama maxima- sesquiliceam longae. 
Spica $ vix sesquilineam longa. 

ascertained was not a fungus; yet, on comparing ir with HerkeUy s 



fell into an • Ise to represent, 

the Cordyceps. 



CCCLXIX.— ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF CITRIC 
ACID. 

The mode of production of vegetable acids in the plant is a problem 
beset with much difficulty. Liebig thought that they, or at least the 
more highly oxidised, were formed from carbonic acid and water in 
plant cells containing chloi ..phyll and under the direct influence of 

complex substances. According to this view, they would belong to 
what is called technically the ascending scries of the pro<lucts of plant 
metabolism. The principal argument upon which Liebig rested this 
conclusion is the undoubted fact that most fruits which when unripe are 
extremely acid, on maturing usually become sweet. Professor Vines, 
however, points out {Physiology of Plants, p. 230) that " the sugar 
" may be produced from starch, and the diminution of the acidity may 
" be attributed to the neutralisation of the acids by bases.'' It appears, 
however, that the proportion of mineral matters diminishes in fruits as 
they ripen ; the supposed neutralisation of the acids, therefore, cannot 
hold good. It further appears thai the acid- do actually diminish and 
the sugar increases in ripening fruits. 

Nevertheless the general drift of our knowledge of the subject has 
pointed to the conclusion thut vegetable acid- are. as a matter of fact, 
the result of the breaking down of a carbohydrate, probably a sugar. 
They belong, therefore, to the descending series of plant metabolism. 

This has recently received a most interesting continuation from the 
discovery of a method by which citric acid can be directly produced 
from a sugar (glucos,-) by growing on it a fungus, one of the " moulds." 

The discovery is of more than theoretical int.-r.M. jrrrat as that is. 
Citric acid is largely used in the arts, and its production is the*Rupport 
of an important cultural industry in the south of Europe and in the 
West Indies, where the lemon and lime are largely grown on a con- 
siderable scale for the purpose. The destruction of' this industry may 

reflect that these may owe their origin to a deduction from purely 
theoretical considerations. 

The first notice of the matter which reached Kew was in the United 
State* Consular Report* [December, 1893, pp. 460-470]. The account 
is reproduced here: — 

New Process for Making Citric Acid. 

Dr. Carl Wehmer, a Hanoverian botanist, is said to have recently 
discovered that sugar solutions exposed to the action of certain micro- 
scopic fungi, the <p,.,v« of which ll-iat in the a- -n.-pheiv. become trans- 
formed into citric acid pp-eO-ly identical with that extracted from the 



ing Italy; r 



104 



at actually riling an 1 will in all probability supersede in a few years 
e present method of producing lemon juice and citrate of lime. 
The article from which I qtrnte closes !>y saying: — " We make haste 
to notify our readers, so as to pu*. lemon -growers on their guard, ami 
to prevent new investments being made in this branch of agriculture. 



To show what is meant !>y "heavy losses," I would refer to un- 
report dated January 8, 1889.* In the year 1887, from Messina alone, 
4,138 pipe* of 130 gallons of lemon juice (used to fix colours in calico- 

the juice into co e< itrated lemon nice should this resource now be 
taken fn-m the S : cili:i!i hencn-grower. he will indeed sustain a heavy 

While Florida and California lemon-growers will not be affected by 
Wallace S. Jones, 






acid not hitherto obtained under such < 
fermentation." 

Certain moulds possess the propeity i 






, and can be obtained easily and abundantly 
The nutritive solution becomes verv arid att 
nount reaches 5 per cent, and more. Experin 






they soon develop into white tufts, whirl). 
ve rgrow u by other species (Paiicillhun) ■ 

lining sugar, or on fruits, particularly acid 









106 

As in other well-known eases oi fermentation, a further production of 
acid may be obtained by jr i RUB, it .is ca-y 

to convert as much as one-halt ot t ! i • • i-c^ai .-• ■ I iiito acid ; .'!() grammes of 
dextrose yielded about 16 grammes of acid. By this means, the conver- 

.... i i. ■ ' 

formation of acid is e\ "uKmitSv closely connected, proceeds more rapidly. 
Other agents may a No act in a similar way. a- for instance, the presence 
of saline compounds of chlorine, &c. The formation of acid continues 
as long as then' is any vitality in ■■. I.d.'io material 

in the liquid. The acid, however, which is found in the fermenting 
fluid at a given time, is the residue which results from the two parallel 
processes of acid formation and arid destruction: the latter eventually 
prevails, and finally every trace disappears in older cultivations. The 
destruction of the acid by the fungus is easy to prove by experiment. 

IJy precipitating the acid in the form of a staUe sail we eliminate the 
destructive agency, and favour, at the same time, the causes which 
favour the accumulation of the acid ; this method gives a more exact 
idea of the process of acidification. It is found to be by no means 
continuous and uniform at different times, but its rate describes a 
rather suddenly ascending and descending curve, which is in close 
relation to the amount of the conversion of sngat effected by the 
growing fungus. 

The formation of the acid proceeds most actively at the time of 

after this period. 

I may point to the rather inter, ~i in_ omp;.ii-:>n with the production of 
oxalic acid. In this, favourable com:- ,;h (heat and 

presence of chlorine compounds) promote the rapid destruction of the 
acid, and prevent- if- accumulation in the cultivations. Under 
similar conditions the production of citric acid is not only not checked, 
but even advanced. The difference may perhaps depend on the lesser 
capacity of citric acid for being oxidised. 

The comparison i- important also in other respects. As much as one- 
half of the sugar consumed can be converted into oxalic acid without 
impairing the fungus growth. In the production of citric acid, the 
withdrawal of very considerable quantities of 'his !l( .j ( | ],,.,. actually m. 
demonstrable influence on the development of the fungus. We must 
therefore regard the citric acid as a product of metabolism, to which the 
fungus is comparatively indifferent. It is, however, evident that when 
with a given production of fungus material one-half of the consumed 
sugar is precipitated as citric acid, the other accessory product must 
decrease in quantity. In this instance this j< the carbonic acid into which 
also under other conditions part of the citric acid is converted. The 
question now is whether the relation is a direct one. On the whole, I 
should, takiug into consideration the observations of O. Warburg on 
Qtastulacecu , rather prefer this view to other hypotheses. The breaking 
up of the sugar molecule results in a great deal of the citric acid pro- 
duced, besides perhaps other compounds, yielding ultimately carbonic 
acid as a product of oxidation. Although we may thus consider the acid 
actually liberated a- an intermediate product of metabolism, we leave 



appears in the fermentative 
back the totality of the mi 
the whole of the carbonic » 
organised living substance. 



important bearing 



he process of sugar m 
)ortion of the accoun 
VIr. Edmund C. Shore 



There are several other organic a<-id> present, the nature of which I have 
not yet detemiinetl, but the eitrii' a.-M predominates and is the one that 
gives most trouble owimj to the property of calcium citrate being more 
soluble in cold than in hot water, and con-eipieut!y of being precipi- 
tated from a boilimr -ohmon. I'uie-s most ot' the calciiitn citrate is 

purging of molassc<. A strike of No. L\ which cannot be dried owinir to 
the presence of calcium citrate, will ^eneralh 'Ivy when cold, enough oi 



i the absence of oxtgr:: in fruits and without 

Such an occurrence would seem to > 1\ occasional 



CCCLXX.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. F. M. Bailey, F.L.S., the abolition of whose post 
iovcrnment of (Queensland was recorded in the Ken- Bull 

)eeember last (p. Mbb), has been re-appointed Colonial Botanist 

The Veitch Memorial Medal.— The Trustees of the Veitch \ 



■ undved 


.brown) ti,„b 


t .ru„ bark, the 












-. i-H-d bark 






rings complc 




e. Theonl; 






scanty fragrr 










Tim ho 






Mi 


with any I 


lornean prodi 


ict, though fro 


m the fact ( 


\t 1 








to belong 




carpus, ap] 




made to the 






Borneo Co 




leadenhall Street, asking h 




in some of t 








Museum of 


' the Roval G 










ate?, as "well i 








the foliage, 


flowers, a u.l 


fn.ifto ,,„,, 















" It is difficult to get good specimens 
without going into the interior oneself 
been unable to get. The tree from wh 
of tarap, and to an inexperienced eye « 






; 1 1 1 < 1 agree perfectly with 'he speeimeiis named thu- from I)e Yriesf's 
herbarium. They belong evidently to tin- -ame plant of which Burbidge 

passek River. He calls the cloth ~Ch,m t - wl eh ~\< al-o 

and male inflorescences only. The branch having entire leaves, and 
the fruit appro': •!; mi the other hand verv (do.-elv to tho^e of ./. Blumei. 
Tree ( = A. pubescent, Bl. not Willd.) which ['believe to be identical 
with A. K'uusthri. King, a species distributed widely throughout 
West Malaya, and in the Philippines. A. Blumei is mentioned also 
l.y Burhidge i '. e.. p]>. !?."><!, '29 -i), and he -ives ' turippc ' ;!> its vernacular 
name with the Dusuns, ag d*tarap' 

in Mr. Wise's report. 

"The only difference between ^4. Blumei and the timbetrein tree is in 
the fruit which is globose in the latter instead of oblong, and in the 
direction of the 'apices of the anthocarps ' which are generally curved 
upwards instead of retlexed, a very slight difference indeed. 

" It appears from Mr. Wise's report that both forms of leaves may 
occur on the same tree, a statement wdiieh is perfectly in accord with a 
note by Motley concerning another closely allied species from Borneo. 
It would seem then, that the two forms of A. Blumei have been des- 
cribed as two different species, A. clastica referring to the form with 
lobed leaves and A. Blumei to that with entire leaves, which suggestion 
is, moreover, supported by the fact that Reiuwardt gives ' terap ' (truep 
in Blume's Bijdr.) as the native name of A. elastica, and that 



hi. Kin- indicate- .■. M.i.iia; dimo.phi-n, !; f th,. !,-;,\, s for his A. Kiinst- 
(cri. If my assumption be correct .4. elastka, Keinw., ex Bl. Bijdr. 

L 825), is the name to be used for the ' tarap ' tree of which the 
timbaran is probably a variety." 



New Zealand contributions to Museum.— The Rev. \V. Colenso. M.A.. 
F.R.S., F.L.S., of Napier, New Zealand, to whom the Museum of the 
Royal Mardens is indebted for many valuable contributions extending 
over a long series of year-, has recently sent an interesting illustration 
of ancient Maori use in the form of a dish .-huh It) inelies long and 8 
inches broad, made of the bark of the rotara { I'm/acarpns Totara, A. 
Cunn.). The outer hack is partially -craped away and the remainder 
very evenly bent or curved into a boat-shaped form, the ends being 
folded and" brought together, and neatly tied. These dishes were used 
by the Maoris for tillini; with waler and placing in the tops of trees to 
entice pigeons who came to drink, when a spear, which had been pre- 
viously arranged in the tree, was suddenly let loose, piercing and killing 
the bird. Mr. Colenso, in a paper on " Reminiscenees of the ancient 
Maoris," published in the Translations of the New Zealand Institute. 
vol.xxiv., 1891, p. 4.",1. d'-cri'din- the u.-e of the-e dishes says: "I may 
u here mention that I have seen these totara-bark dishes with water in 
" them fixed high up on the big branches of trees in the woods in the 

" and hold fast the pigeon in its drinking. I have seen pigeons so caught, 
" the Maoris climbing the trees naked with the agility of monkeys to 
" secure their prizes." 

Another contribution to the Kew collection, made by Mr. Colenso, is a 
belt made of the long orange-yellow leaves of the Piugao (Dromoschtnus 
spimli -. Hook, f.), a spreading, seaside cyperaceous plant, which is said 
to be extremely strong and durable. This is also referred to at p. 465 
of Mr. Colenso's paper before mentioned. 



The Sandalwood of Juan Fernandez. — It is a matter of history that 
this island formerly abounded in sandalwood of some kind, and Gay 
(Flora Chilcna, v., p. :$26), although he apparently had no specimens 
from Juan Fernandez itself, refers it without doubt to Santa I urn album, 
L. Yet he goes on to say that it was formerly abundant in the inland, 
but had all perished in one year, and only dead trunks were to be found : 
just as happened to the plane tree in England in the eighteenth century : 
" En otro tiempo era muy comun en la isla de Juan Fernandez, pero 
" perecieron todos en un mismo afio y hoy no se encuentra sino troncos 
" muertos ; lo mismo sucedioen Inglatena eon el L'latauo en el siglo 18." 
F. Philippi (Catalogi's I'lantarutn Vascular ium Chilensium (1881), 
p. 261), States that wood having the colour and odour of sandalwood 
occurred in the ground, and that the plant certainly formerly existed 
there, though no botanist had seen it, and the species was altogether 
unknown: "In insula Juan bVinandez lignum vetustum in terra in- 
" venitur coloris et odoris Santali, et planta verosimiliter adhuc exstat, 
" sed cum a nullo botanico visa sit, species omuino incognita est." 

But there are now irrefragable proofs of the continued existence of a 
kind of sandalwood in the island ; and Mr. F. Philippi has published 
the recent history of this interesting tree in the Anales <ld Musco 
National rli Chih ■, of which we have only seen a German translation, 
entitled Botanische Abhanrfliuuje*. &<-.. in which the original plates are 
reproduced. As long ago as i868 branches, with a few leaves, of a 



Ill 

pleasant smelling wood were found amongst some fuel purchased tr.mi 

the inhabitant- of the i.-Iand for the use of one of the ships of the ( 'hilian 
navy. This was microscopically examii> <i. and identified as sandalwood 
In 1888, Mr. F. I *li 1 1 1 1 •] • „ a. -mall bundle of tu im- 

material he ha- made a drawing and description, and published I be 

nearly related to St,, it,,/, to, /,;■//,;' ,'ictit,,,,,,,,. a species inhabiting the 
Sandwich, Marquesas, and Society I -land-; but the differences he adduces. 

mens from those islands. However, lie hopes to obtain perfect {lowers 

The tree cannot be so rare as might be supposed, for he ha- lately 
received more fresh, though barren, branches. The confirmation of the 
existence of a species of Sanfali,,,, in the i-land of Juan Fernandez i^ a 
fact of the greatest interest in botanical geography, inasmuch as the 
nearest locality of any member of the genus is in the far awav Maruue-a.-, 
some 3,500 miles to the north-west. With reference to Gay's statement 
that all the sandalwood trees of Juan Fernandez perished in one year, 
Mr. Philippi says that he has not the slightest idea where Gay obtained 
his information. 




e Mr. Hutchins 

" the Cape than the common oak. Q. ptotunculata" Arrangements 
were consequently made for the annual collection and despatch of the 
acorns of this oak, ripened at Kew, to the Cape Colony, and altogether 
about 30 bushels have been forwarded. They were packed partly in 
casks in water and partly in boxes in moist cocoa-nut fibre refuse, 
the latter method proving most successful. All acorns soon lose their 
I italit y if allowed to get dry, but if packed in moist soil or sawdust, or 
cocoa-nut fibre refuse, they may be sent long distances with safety. 
The last consignment of acorns to the Cape consisted of 10 bushels ; 
they were packed in three boxes, and despatched on October 17th last. 
According to a report just received one of the boxes became heated on 
the way and many of the acorns consequently perished, but the acorns 
in the other two boxes were sound and just beginning to sprout. 

The timber of the Turkey oak is held in this country in little esteem. 
The object in view in growing the tree in the forest reserves of South 
Africa is explained in the accompanying correspondence. 

Agent-General for the Cape of ib><>n Hope to Royal Gardens. 

Kew. 

A corns of Turkev Oak. 

7, Albert Mansions, Victoria Street, S W 
Sir, ^ October 20, 1887. 

forwarding, for your information, copy of a letter, dated 

111 A., from Mr. D. E. Hutchins, Conservator of 

in the Colony, I have the honour to request 



I am informed that Air. Huieimi- 
report upon the suecessCul results alia 
supplied, which will doubtless be forw, 
(hardens at Kew. 

With apologies for thus troubling yo 

W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq, 



Commission™ <>i Crown Lam- am. I'lhlic Works. 
Sir, 18th September 1887. 

With reference to correspondence regarding the success of 
the acorns of Quercus Cerris received from Kew nine months ago, and 
the difficulty of obtaining the.*e acorns elsewhere, I have the honour 
to suggest that the Kew authorities be addressed with tin; view of 
allowing us to have their acorns again this year, and annually fir the 

The great importance of growing oaks in these forests is that they 
are trees which by their dense shade keep down the grass, the burning 
of which does so much damage to the forests every winter. 

The Turkey oak being better adapted to the climate of this country 
than the common oak, Quercus pedu<« uluta. it- extended propagation 
is of the first importance. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) D. E. Hctchins, 
The Assistant Commissioner of Conservator of Forests, 

Crown Lands and Public Works. Eastern Division. 



Errata.— For « cym lateral! axilla-em" {Kew Bulletin, No. So, 
.31, second line from bottom), read " cyma laterali axillari." 

For " Agyreia," (4th and 20th lines p. 67, Ketc Bulletin, Xo. 8t>). 
ead "Argyreia." 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

] APRIL. [1894. 

CCCLXXI.— WEST INDIAN LIME. 

(Citrus Metlica, L., var. ackla, Brandis.) 



usually four petals, and a pi 
a of a livoly yellow colour a 



does not appear to iln.irMi in 
where in tlu> islands of Mont-ei 



acid flavour. The fresh limes are sometimes exported as gathered, or 
they are pickled in sea water or brine and shipped to the United States. 
The demand for the fruit in a fresh or pickled state is said to be very 
limited. Sir .Joseph Hooker states : — •■ The lime i- a favourite fruit in 
" the West Indie- and the Southern United States, the aeid being far 
" more grateful than that of the lemon; and it is. hence, universally 

11 and acidulated drinks. In my ynnniivr liay- it \\a- imported in vast 
" quantities into the City of ( .la~gow, providing an indispensable 
•• material for the brewing of the famous Glasgow punch. That it is 
" now so seldom seen, comparatively, is due to the declension of that 
" social and family intercourse that once was so intimate between the 
k ' great city and the Spanish main. It is still (with the lemon) the 
•■ principal source of citric acid." 

Lime juice is obtained by compressing the fresh ripe fruits between 
heavy rollers. This is exported in the raw state or concentrated. The 
latter is obtained by evaporating the raw juice in copper or enamelled 
iron pans until it is reduced to about one-eighth or one-tenth of the 
original bulk. When exported it is a dark, viscid fluid of the 
consistence of treacle. The concentrated lime juice is not used for food 
purposes but devoted entirely to th< id largely in 

demand by calico printers. From the rind of the fresh fruits there is 
obtained by a hand proce-s. called •• eeuelliii£." a fine essence of limes 
exported in copper vessels. A description, with an account of the mode 
of using the ecuelle (a specimen of which was presented to Kew by 
Mr. Joseph Sturge, Managing Director of the Montserrat C'ompanv in 
1892), is given in the Kew Bulletin, 1892.. pp. 107, 108. The ecuelle 
is a copper basin furnished on the inside with numerous prominent 
studs. The instrument is held in the left hand while the fruit, taken 

action bruises the oil glands in the rind and the oil flows in small 
quantities to the bottom of the basin. The process is a slow one and 
is performed in the West Indies by women and girls. The task per 
day is measured in fluid ounces. By distil'ing the raw lime juice a 
spirit is obtained known as oil of limes. The essence of limi s extnet* rl 
■"lie perfume of the 



The following 


notice of the 


lime T! 


ee in the West Indies is taken 


om a paper on 


" Plar 


iting Ent 




in the West Indies," by Mr. D. 


[orris, C.M.G. 


, F.L. 






the Royal Colonial Institute. 


2th June 1883 












" The lime tre 


e. a m 


ember of 


theCiti 


[•us family, 


grows well in all the 


rest Indian Islands. 


It term, 






. and somewhat stony 


)il, and an elevation, 








from sea -lev el up to 


30 feet. Thet 






fat 1.1 1 




t 200 trees 


B r acre. They 








about six or seven years, but 


ght crops are often g 


athered from tret 


* at five y 




>d permanent c 


rops, 


the trees 


iv M nir« 


i to be re< 


jularly pruned, and to 


e kept free fron 


iid! p : 






stud! a- spy 


cies of Loranthvs, ,ve 












, loosening of the soil 


round the roots 


. and 1 


.< ing ki I 


t free ft 




m.l weeds. 








ire of Montserrat 








al rainfall at ~>9 inches. 








litable for the su 




- 'hmetiets. 


>r at Montserra 


c the 1 


hue orch< 


mis present a mofi 


t beautiful sight. 



published in the J'/iarj/iaeatf/c, 



Dr. H. A. 


A 111 


,«■,! Ni, 


L«holls, F 


.L.S.. "t.. 


pt. 1. At 




1. tin- I 




of Domi 








i<l in 17 




" limeys 










" the latt 










- Eiiirian 




,i An, 


:. :, ' i, ' !l - . 


Tl.t- n-'i 


•• of Ami- 




i,.i ill. 


I,'-.'.!.".'' 




Dr. Xi 








« To Dr. 


















nefoctor 




« th,- Me 










" of Dr. I 


:;;; 


:^:: 


•ri.,.,nt>. 


eel to a 



ill, with copper boilers to concern 
ndence, and cover all expenses 



amount to a gross income of 4 80/. The yearly cost of cultivation and 
manufact ire (including the cost of providing the hogsheads') would 
amount to 240/. There would, therefore, remain exactly 240/. ; and 
tiiis sum would be the net income of a lime estate which had cost 1,000/., 

A recent and somewhat full account of the lime industry at Mont- 
serrat and Dominica is <_dven l>v Mr. f'on-ul (ialbraith in the United 
States Consular Reports December, 1 SJ)2, pp. 519-522. As these 
reports are not easily accessible in this country the foilou-in^ brief 
summary i> <riven on points not already touched upon: — The area under 
lime cultivation at Montserrat in 1*92. is estimated at "1,200 acres, of 
" which about 900 acres are in fruit-bearing trees." The orchards in 
Dominica are smaller, and with one or two exceptions, the same care is 
not exercised in the cultivation of the trees, nor in the manufacture of 
the juice. " The largest crops are gathered in years in which the 
'• rainfall is heaviest. The average vicld of fruit from an orchard in 
•• full bearing would be about 60 to 80 barrels (an ordinary flour 



" from a 


iVtotd 




. A barrel of 




gallons of juice, a 










citric aewl." Ka 


p.^en.. 


1 in casks 


and shipped chic 


(iy to the Londo 
















•tenth of its voluu. 


-' black 




containing from * 


to 100 ounces « 


" gallon. 








'• the X< 


!w York M 


arket." 




Green 


limes are e 


x ported to a small 


1 extent only, and 




Pickled li 












: products of the 


'• Moots 


errat for th 


e he-t rive years, ' 


ivere as follows : 


- 800 p 


uncheons , 


it 12'.) ualion- « ar-h : concentrated 




>fo4galloi: 


is each; green lime?, 1,000 boxes 


bMlObarn 




ial oil, 2,500 poun 


ds." 



(CV//V/.V Mflica, rar. Rivenii) is figured and des 
Hooker in the Botanical Magazine, tab. (5807. '1 
West Indian Lime in the few spines, the elliptic 
very numerous, parallel, regularly placed nerves, t 
and in the smaller and more globose higher coloui 
distinctly bitter flavour superadded to the acid; t 
fragrant. 




NJ 
4 



CCCLXXII.— JAFFA ORANGE. 

Of the history of this orange apparently very little is known. It i 



lar^clv exports as 
known in Malta, 
the late DrfGulia, 



des<crt fruit". STis extensile™' 



ixp-irt, and sold from 4rf. 
per dozen." According to the Histoire <f Cult tin- dis 
ar A. Risso et A. Poiteau, Pari-, ed, 1672 (Dn Brenil), 






San ford. Thor 









but 



w.-iv exported to the United Kingdom 1 1,"27S 1> 

Sine.' flint time the trad.' has considerably incrcaseu, aim ai me present 

time the exports have reached 36,000 boxes. 

The influence of this increased activity in fruit <:ro\\ ir.<r at Jaffa has 
brought to it a remarkable prosperity. In a Foreign Office Report 
(Miscellaneous Scries, 1893, No. 300) " Ou Irrigation and Orange 
Growing at Jaffa," the following particulars are given : — 

" Jaffa, the chief town of the Caza of that name, owes its importance 
to its oii mate, which is extremely favourable for orange growing. As 
a natural consequence, this seaport is surrounded on the land side by 
orange groves, covering an area of some 720 hectares (about 1,780 
aere~). .Jaffa oranges, thanks to their excellent flavour, have of late 
years acquired a world-wide reputation, and while some 18 years ago 
this fruit was known only to Beyrout, Alexandria, and Constantinople. 
enormous quantities of it are now exported to Europe, America, and 
even to India, and its cultivation ha- consequently increased to a very 
considerable extent. A special feature of Jaffa oranges is that they will 
keep from 30 days to 40 days, and, if properly packed, lor two months, 
and even three months. New orange groves are continually being laid 
out, and now number some 400, against 200 some 15 years ago. This, 
again, has influenced the population of Jaffa, which now contains 42,0()O 
inhabitants, against l.'.Ooo inhabitants some 12 years ago. The revenues 
have doubled, and the vicinity of the custom-house is crowded with 
piles of cases of oranges waiting shipment to all parts of the world. 
The Imperial Ottoman Government, with a view to encourage the 
export of oranges, levies an export duty of only 1 per cent, on them, 
and the exports for the last few years have averaged 36,000 boxes per 
annum. Owing principally to tin- trade in oranges, Jaffa now ranks 
next aftci Hey rout in importance anioiur Syrian coast towns." . 

"Orange growing in Syria is conducted exclusively by natives. 
Each orange garden contains some 2,000 square feet of planted area, 
equal to about 1,300 trees to the hectare (=2471113 acres). The 
trees begin to bear the fourth year after planting, but it is estimated 

orchard yields a remunerative crop. During all this time, and even 
afterwards, the orchards have to be watered continually, jmd this irriga- 

by means of more or less primitive water-wheels from wells d.ig in the 
gardens 90 feet and even sometimes 100 feet deep." 



ri>, 1889. 
H. Whitley 



(Enclosure.) 
Mr. J. II. Whitley to Foreign OrpJCB. 

125, Bridge Street. Birkenhead. 
May 6, 1881). 

some particulars from Jaffa connected with the culture of the trees 

I pips for seeds. 

im not aware of there being a British Consul there to whom to 
tts myself, I therefore beg to ask for information from the Foreign 
e as to the agent of the Government in Jalt'a. if one exists, or if 
to whom I could apply for the information desired. 



Royal Gardens, Kew, to Foreign Office. 
Sir, Royal Gardens, Kew, May 13, 1889. 

I am desired hv Mr. Thiselton-Dyer to acknowledge the receipt 
of your letter of the 9th instant, with inclosure, on the subject of Jaffa 
oranges. 

2. Theonh J ■ ■ . . • . of thia variety 

of orange at present available is contained in the United States Consular 
Reports. No. 411, J un e 1884, pp. 761-762. Tins information is, how- 
ever, not entirely confined to Jaffa oran-,.<. hut embraces other kinds 
cultivated in Syria. Information of a general character rejecting Jaffa 
manges is eont.dne.l in tin- F-uvi-n Ollice Con-alar Reports. 18M. 






CCCLXXIII— WEST AFRICAN CINCHONA BARK. 

In Messrs. Jenkin & Phillip's Circular of Cinchona Bark Sales 



weighing 97,000 lbs., chiefly druggists' descriptions have been 

offered ami sold at from 2\d. to 6d. per pound." 

As inquiry has been made at Kew in regard to the origin of this 



St. Thomn- 


? (Sao Thorn* 




Guinea, W< 


>st Coast 


of Afi 


was piv-t-i) 


ted to the Mi 


isemiuj of the Koyi 


d Gaidens 


. Kew, ii 


i 1SS4 


Mcssr?. Tl 












2-fiL : cry 


analysis giv'i: 


dflhnT frllTcn* 


^•7" 


•ystallisei 


1 qain 

.:e, 0- 


In Febr 


nary' 1884, Mr. H 


i. C.B.. re 






the Society 








'est Alii 






ccount of a v 










the island 


of Sao Thor 


,.,■ (./,m,W of th 








p. 235). '. 




ions ascend to about 3,f>00 ft 


;et. Mr 






is sold for a 


mere nothing in Si 


u. Thome, 






<• third of 


the island i; 


s under cultivation 










nds is perfect 


ly salubrious." 








From a 


note by C. Ti 


lie in Moller's Deu 


osr/,r f ;,/,■/ 






April 20, ] 


\>\fl. p. 139, 










a-'sao Thu 
























A few C 













Messrs Lewis & Peat e: 
" Cinchona bark sold ir 

'• greater portion of it 



CCCLXXIV-DIAGNOSES AFRICANS, III. 
APOCYNACEjE. 



teruiinnlilius paucittoris vol ad tlorem solitariu: 
geminatis v«l in panieiua paup.-rata, pcdunculn 
gracilibus, calyce o-partito lobis ovato-lanceol 



ly to T. Bart, 
112. Wrightia parviflora, Stop/; 



- 



Hab.— Lagos, BarUr, 20,170; Rowland; Eppah, 7>V/Vrr. M.27> ; 
Yoruba, J/*7/*on. 

To/m 21-41 poll, longa, l^li poll, lata, petiohis 3 lin. longus. 
l>,<hu,vn(ns \-\\ p. II. l..i!gu>. {Hdiclli :.d 1 lin. loiigi. C«/y.r J li». 
longus. Corallae tubus 2 lin. longus, lobi 2 lin. longi. 

113. Zygodia urceolata, Stapf; ramis rufo-tomentosis flexuosis, foliis 
rhomboideo-lanccohtis uTritHju.- acutis supra lucidulis costa exeepta 

bus tenuibus \vl tenuissimis utrin.pu- 6-7 quorum 15 vel 2 plerumque 

rufo-pubescentibus, pedioeliis subuullis, oalycis lobis ovatis pubescenti- 
bus, corolla ureeolata tubo cxtus glabro intus albo-piloso lobis rotun- 
datr-ovatis tubo fi're triplo brevioribus oivctis. stainii:ibus paulo supra 
basin insertis faurt-m attingentibus, filamentis brevissimis antice pilo- 
3 penicillo pilnnim ornatis, <lisco annulari 
tylo brevissi:uo stigmate basi conico in- 



Folia circa 1 poll, longa, \ poll, lata, pctiidiis '■[ lin. longus. 



. longa. 

. obtusis ba<i ] 



7-il-Jloris la\is hrevit-T vel hrevi>siiii.- peduiiculafis terminalibus (raris- 
sime axillaril-us) glabris, pedicellis gracilibus longiuseulis calyce 
paivo 5-pariito lobia ovaiis cum glatidulis all.-rnantil.ns, corolla tubo 
evlindrico medio leviter dilatafo Mil- fauce abrupte constricto extus 

tubo paulo lo em attingen- 

tibus, carpcdlis liberis pubcscentibus stylo superne sensim incrassato 
-t -nirtf- ba-i auiiiilo instructo. 

Hab.— Angola, Golungo Alto, l,0o<-l\400 ped. WcIh-UscIi, .5,955. 
5938. 

Folia '±\-'.\'. poll, lonor,., i_i - !„,[[. iut :i, }>itiohis l-i-2 lin. longus. 
Pedinu'iiliis a<l 4 lin. longus. pedkelli Q lin. 

117. Alafia sarmeiltosa, Stapf ; frutex alto scandens -emp, -rvir. n- 
glal><'!Tiin>..- ■•-. foliis olilongi- obtus' 

brevitevque acuminatis basi acutis vel subrotundatis tenuiter eoriaceis 
sublueidis, urvo subsessili 

ad 12-floro, pedicellis gracilibus brevibus, calyce 5-parti(o lobis late 
ovatis obtusis minuto ciliolatis intus cum glandulis pur\ : - 
corollae albae gratissime odorao tubo e basi paulo ampliata cylin- 



118. Holalafia, Stapf. (den. dot.). 

Corolla hypocraterit'ormis, tubo cyliinlra a o ad stamina dilatato, fauce 
esquamata, intus sub fauce minute puberulo; lobi 5, contorti, lati, obtusi, 
dextrorsum oble^entes, siuistrorsum torti. Stamina medium versus tubi 
inclusa, filamentis brevibus pro maxima parte tubo adnatis dense 
: - . ■ • 

et ei medio ad haerentes, I i< alas breves aeutas pro- 

duces. Discus nullus. Ovarium integrum, bilocularc, pubescens ; -r\Ius 
filiformis ; stigma breviter conicuni; latum ; ovula 



Holalafia multiflora, 



ginatis 



i. Cali/x [\-2 lin. longus. Corolla:- tnbu 
6 liu. longi latique. 



petiolits 4-6 liu. longus. Pednncidi 
■ lalyx 1^-2 lir ' 
. longi latique. 

Holalafia approaches nearest to Alajia. Tl 
I'd -tly ^entire, with ;i thin -< ptum. The inf 
ALi'lia luit the flowers are l.y far larger tl 
genus. 

119. Oncinotis gracilis, Stapf ; seandons. 



124 



Had.— Lagos, //. Milieu, 
Folia 3-3J poil. longn, \\ 
el panivitlae ad 3 poll, long 
d 1 lin. longi. Calyx i-f 1 

120. Baissea tenuiloba, 5 



impanulato interdum semiglolxxo lohi 
-ime eaudato-aeumhiatis tubo pins qn 
us medio tubo insertifl 



Baissea laxiflora, Stapf; fi 






tubo aequilongis, c.ilvcc ,j-partito minuti- 
apice patulis, corollae tubo tuhuloso-cai 

i-ovata lam-t'olatis tub<> paulo longioribus, sta 
ii o-cicnulato, -tylo tenui brevi, stigraate 1 



122. Baissea brachyantha, St.tpf: >rand.Mis, ramis no^ 

rut'o-fni-i'iiracfis mnx <rlabrati>. t'nhi- lain latis usque obovi 

anaceia subtui 



1| lin. loDgus, ad faucem 1| lin 
123. Baissea dichotoma, 



lis novellis Pol 



mibus in foliis inferioi 



furfuraceo-liirtt 


•Hi- | Midifc-llis gracilibus, 




vel lancoolatis sub cymis n 












tis vel acuminatis tubo 1 










stigma eras sum 


apice lobulatum conico api 


Hab.— Ango 


la, Wehoitsch, 5,967. 


Folia ad 3 f 


»oll. longa, ad \\ poll. lin. 1; 


[nfloresvintia a 


,1 .' |X,1I. ! long;,; ,„<!>< rill 




orollae tubus 2-2\ lin. lon< 


Var. major, 


Stapf; foliis majoribus a« 



ribus ad 4^ poll, longis, ad 2 poll. 
igatis, caiyce loois lancrolatis ad 1 y lin. latis, corollae 
jia. 
Welwitsch, 5,9G6. 



125. Solanum phytolaccoides, Wright; suffruticosum glabnnn, toliis 
ovatis acuminati- dilute viridibus, ihllwresceiitifi !• nninali, umbellis 
racemose dispositis, calyce r-upulavi piibescenti, corolla n.tata extus 
pubescenti iutus glabra segmentis 5 linearihus, staminibus 5 iilamentis 
bre\ -ibus. antberis elongatis postice pubv.-oeiuibus rimi- l.»ngitinlinali- 



Solamim Welwitschii, Hi 



Hab.— Angola, fl',hrit^h a)^{, r,()9s. 



Var. oblongum, JJ'rif/lit .- a t\ po diilVrt t'olii> angustioribus obtusion- 

Had.— Ambas Bay, W. Africa, Mann. 

127. Solanum pauperum, Wright ; lYutieosum nunosum, caule tereti 
leviter ru<r<>so lepidoto, t'oliis laneeolatis petiolatis glabris erenulnfH 
siccitate atris, infloroscentia subterminali umbellata, caiyce cupuhiri •"- 
dentato leviter pubescenti, corollas segmentis 5 obluiigis extus pubescen- 
tibu-. st;iininib::s .">. :intlieris sessilibus, bacca globosa nitenti. 

Hab.— Angola, WelvaiUck 6054,6075. 

Folia 15 lin. longs, 7 lin. lala ; petiolus 10 lin. longus. Pedicelli 
6 lin. longi. Calyx 1 lin. longus. Corolla 4 lin. longa. Bacca 5 lin. 

Wright ; fruticosum seamlens. caule teimi 
•blongis acutis supra leviter pilosis subtus 
■ipositis, caiyce breviter cupulari o-dentato, 
re urceolata violacea segmentia 5 obtusis, 






130. Solanum Monteiroi, 



'us, ovario globoso pubescent!, stylo brevi subulate, bacon 

i glabra. 

;.— Angola, Welwitsch 6095, 60956. 

a 5 poll, longa, 3 poll. lata. Caly.v 4 lin. longus. Corolla 5 iin. 



132. Solanum albotomentosum, 

pilis stellatis dense vestito, foliis 

petiolatis. Mitl-in-re!:! . pedicellis 

reflexis, calyce caoipanulato extus stellatim tomentoso v, - 
aequilongis. corolla n-iata calvee ;j-p!u l.-n^ior,- extus si 
tosa stam'mibus .*> tilanienti> In .•vi--iiiii- anthen-qiie su 
globoso apice stellatim tomentoso, stylo 
globosa glabra aurantiaca. 

Hab.— Angola, Welwitsch, 6048, 6077- 
Folia ',1 poll, longa, \\ poll, lata; pctiolns I 
5 lin. longa. Dacca 6 lin. diam. 

133. Solanum vagans, Wright; fruticoMitn, a 
lanceolatis act aque pilis ste 






- « ntibus, ov 
linibus paulo breviore. 

ab. — DarSalam Coast. Zanzibar. Sir J->hn Kit 
blia 3 poll, longa, 1 poll, lata; petiolm 6 li 

}4. Solanum Rohrii, W'riijht : fnitieosum, ea 



-:-'/ 


inato profuude 4-lobatc 
9 4 linearibus, stami 


^ibr'^'nnlb':---^ 


eorulhe 


lobis paulo brevioribus 


i, ovario globoso, 


tomentos 


;o, bacca globosa gUbri 


l coccinea. 


Hab.- 


—Abyssinia, Ankober, 


Rohr 445; Muat 


Kirk. 






loIfS* 


4 poll, longa, 2 poll, la 
i. lougi. Bacca 6 lin. t 


ta. Calycis lobi 2 


135. Solanum melastomoides, 


Wnght ; suffrutico: 



CCCLXXV. -THE COFFEE-LEAF MINER. 



{Cemiostoma coffeellum, Stainton.) 

An enemy to coffee trees in Brazil and some parts of the West Indies 
is found in the caterpillar of a small ninth which mines in the substance 
of the leaves, and causes rust\ coloured blotcdie- on their upper surface. 
This disease is qnite familiar to coffee planters, and the object of the 
present note is not to enlarge on its destructiveness, but to bring 
together what has already been written on the subject for the con- 
venience of reference in official correspondence. The insect in Brazil 
n, who was engaged as 
His observations, with 
plates, arc given in the - American Naturalist," Vol. VI., pp. 332 and 596- 
Mr. Mann there calls it the " White Coffee-Leaf Miner," and in 1872 he 
cousi-.lered it ''the greatest enemy of coffee culture in Brazil." 

The injury to the coffee leaves is caused, as already stated, by the 
caterpillar or larva. This live- within the soft tissues of the leaves, 
immediately heneath the thin cuticle or epidermis. It consumes these 
tissues, known as parenchyma, and thus deprives the plant of the 

by rusty-coloured blotches, often ^turning almost black in the centre. 
After the caterpilla ■ 1 as -t ■ >p< .1 feeding, it ci ai g< - into a chrysalis, and 
this, after it lias eiuerge.1 from it> burrow, and covered with its silken 
web. may easily be found in a fold of the leaf. The mature insect is a 
moth, beautifully ornamented with silvery wings, these would hardly 
cover the breadl .female moths 

fly actively, with a j.-rking flighr. and at other time, they may be seen 

belong to the tribe of the cloth-worm moth- ( Tint inn), which are all of 
small size, whose wing- are fringed with hairs. An account, probably 
the first published, of the injury done to coffee in the West Indies is 
given bv Guerin-Meneville el Perr;>ttet, in a memoir addressed to the 
French Ministry of Marine (Paris, 1842). It is there described as a 
species of Elachistn. 

The following note appeared in the Kew Report, 1876, pp. 20-21. 

" Cemiostoma coffeellum. — A disease has for many years been known 
to exist in the island of Dominica, and also to a large extent in Brazil. 
I'h is vn as character i-ed l>y tli \>\> i lat_. h -coloured dotehe- 

upon the leaves, lending eventually to their decay and fall, and so 
seriow-ly impi trees, Various theories, mostly of 

a purely a prion character. kV vre started to explain the cause, but 
competent investigation ha- placed the true explanation beyond 
shadow of a doubt. The leaves are destn 
but very prolific moth. They live betw 
leaves, and gradually consume the inten 

leaves of the laburnum in our gardens. r J 
coffee crop in Brazil by at least one-fil 
found in the Antilles, i-|and ot Martiniipi 
over the whole coffee region of Brazil. . 



by the larva- of a minute 


the two surfaces oi 


1 the 




The 


- as that which mine, the 


nsect is said to lessei 


,1 the 


The little pest has 


been 



greatest number of larvae when they were about two weeks old, it 
would not be difficult to select them, as the size of the blotches would 
make them very noticeable. I find that the expense would be more 
than met by the next year's crop.' " 

"Mr. Consul Pauli has sent from Puerto Kico leaves which arc affected 



kind." 


mparatively speaking 


, from nu 


A further note appeare 
28-29 :— 


d in the Ken- Rcpoi 


t for the. 


(IKliuC^U-n^ln'i 


Mr. R T. C. Mi. 





" The ravages of the Cemio 


stoma over the 


pre.iterpart of this inmi 


ense 


area date only within the 1 




In Dominica, Dr. Ii 












the mischief caused by it mi<> 




















;, and how im 


will 


prove if the apparent immu 


nity of the Lib 


riiaii <\ ffee from its att 


arks 










" Dr. Imrav writes : ' My 


Arabian coffee 


trees snlVer i 


I; st 


season from the Ccmiostnmu 






manv o£ the trees was all b 




They begin to throw 




leaves again, but I almost d. 


■spair oAindii 


\'S any means of de-li'o 


ying 








■ for- 






m is to discover the 






1 I think I ha 




th at 


direction ; it is, that the coffe 












inderwood or bush, as 




say here. ' The coffee trt-s ,1 






tlity 


that is continuously cool . 




1 perfectly shaded by 


the 


foliage of large trees they thr 




how very little appear 




of the blight. The inferenc 


v is that thus, 


■ conditions are adverse to 



- as L nave made, tne 
coffee produced in this country, and it is not inconsiderable in 
quantity, is furnished by trees growing as above described. I intend 
to continue the experiment by planting some land cleared of low 
brushwood, and leaving the large trees standing. From the experience 
of fully two years now I do not think that in this island [just now] 
the < < >j}' < i tinihiat can be successfully grown in the open, but we 
have the Liben'an to fall back upon.' " 

" With respect to the immunity of the Liberian coffee from the 



been touched, indeed the ijestnietion of one leaf by the fly w 

further experiments on ar<ib/<<i, as being simply a waste of til 
money.' " 



insects were either unable 
comparatively cooler clin 
('dtiin.Jinud would appear 



Hen I! 




'i-i.r. is, however, so far. "not k 










:■■. .. ■■;. . ; 


Hcmileia, for the ravages of 
Is, are not absolutely de.t rucii 


















more u 




tntin^ of this species in all 1< 




v,. Full 




Lil.-1-i: 


in coffee L 


,m< appeared in the Kac Hul/t- 



isideration in favour of the 
oralities where it is likely 



CCCLXXVL— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Mr. J. F. Jfffkf.y. Attendant in thr Herbarium of the Royal 
Harden-, has been appointed Attendaut in the Herbarium of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. 



Hooker's Icones Plantarum. !!;• m o\< -ight th, I nth part of the 
tiird volume of the fourth series was issued without the index. It will 
e issued with the next part published, which will probably appear 



before thi*. I atilised to repeat tliat intending 

purchasers can procure the whole of the third series, containing 1,000 
plates, from Messrs. Dulau & Co.. : 7. S.ho Square. \\\. at the reduced 



Revision of Ordnance Map.— A fresh survey of the Royal Gardens 
aving been made by the Ordnance Surveys, the opportunity has been 
iken to obtain, through the courtesy of the Director-General of the 
h Iriaiu -Mil > i \ s, 111 uthorituti i n-nt n - \> il 

ad been long in doubt. Two of these may be placed on record. The 

le linear extent of footpaths is about 14 miles 48 chains. 



Identification of Old Sites.— The opportunity was also taken to 

ascertain the sites of various building- of historic interest, especially 
those connected v.v it Ii Richi ond (. i ens, whioh formed the western 
half of the present establishment, and was, till 1 802, when Love Lane, 
winch separated the two properties, was shut up, distinct from the 
eastern h:>lf, or Kew Gardens proper. 

Love Lane itself started from the western side of the present Kew 
Palace, crossed the middle of the Palace Meadow, skirted the western 
boundary of r; len, passed the Lucombe Oak on the 

ea^t, and then following the grass avenue through the Heath cod-vtion. 
took a course parallel with the H - the western 

steps of the Temperate House, to the Deer Park. 

In the Kew Bulletin for 189J, p. 285, reference is made to two 
buildings of some celebrity in their day, the Ilennitaire and Merlin's 
Cave. The latter was conjectural!', ' :. ,,r n, d v, 1 1 » the "Keeper's 
House " of Rocque-s map. This ,, ; « erroneous. The Hermitage 
stood on the south-west side of the jr. ~, hi A/alea Garden. The site of 
Merl -( iv. cf.nvspoi N with tl I i-d.-i i n fl lak< nearest but 

a small scale, ant < ijiatnl th- [M. ~en ! ... The s„| llllM . r '{louse on 'the 
Terrace was contiguous to the present Isle worth Ferry Gate. Ormond 
Lodge, occupied by George IL, stood in the Deer Park 200 yards 
south-west of the Queen's Cottage, and the New Palace commenced by 
George III., but never finished, stood about the same distance due south 
of Ormond Lodge. 



Lake in Arboretum.— This fine piece of water which is filled from 
the Thames is the source of the water supply of the whole establish- 
ment. It had gradually become filled more or less with mud, in some 
places not less than five feet deep. The task of removing this has 
occupied the pa-t three winters. A gang of reserve soldiers, supplied 
by the "National Association for the Employment of Reserve Soldiers, 
<Vc," has been employed for the purpose, the cost being defrayed by a 
special vole in the estimates. The total cost has been about 300/. The 
mud which had been all deposited from Thames water proved to have 
considerable roanurial value, and is being employed as a top dressing 
for the poor soil of the Arboretum. 



The long canal beds have been replaced 
plant* have been grouped, 3orae beds b< 
The original soil, chiefly -and, has been n 
and good loam substituted. The collects 
every reason to believe that it will si 
interest to botanists and horticulturist? 



Weldenia Candida.— Weld, ma i- a monotypie genus of Commely- 
-iKirc/r. and is a near ally of Zvbnuu and Illmea, both known in gardens 
as Tradescantias. A figure of Weldenia was published in /lookers 
Icones Plantarmn about ritb-en years ago under the name of Lamprtt 
roleanica. with the following note by Mr. Bontham : "Of this curious 

My friend, Mr. Salvia, on his last journey to that country, kindly 
undertook to search for it. but his ascent of the mountain was not at 
the same time of year, and he could find no trace of it. It is said to 
be very ornamental, and its introduction to our plant houses would be 
very desirable." Last year, Mr. Audley C. Gosling, Her Majesty's 
Minister to Central America, informed us that his sons had " made the 
ascent of the Volcan de Agua, and at the bottom of the crater found 
bulbs of the plant, which Mr. J. Donuell Smith informs me is 
Weldenia Candida ... I have planted these bulbs here, and 
they flower to perfection at !),(><>() feet lower altitude than where 
found. The daily range of the thermometer in this eitv ((iuatemala) 
is from <F to 22° Centigrade (18 to 71 Fahr.), and in the Crater de 
Agua it is from— 6 to 11 Centigrade (21 to 51 Fahr.). If you 
have not this plant in cultivation I shall be happv to send you some 
Mr. Gosling's 



bulbs." Mr. Gosling's offer was gladly accepted, and in September 

greenhouse, and a figure has been prepared f',,r publication in the 
Botanical Magazine. The rod ia a fleshy tuber from which spring 

six or eight strap shaped, green leaves with folding rases forming a 

diameter, are borne singly on short erect scapes, each flower lasting 
only about a day. Singly the plants are not very effective, but no 
doubt in the mass they would be attractive. 

Photographs of Buitenzorg — The Royal Garden* have recently 
become possessed, through the liberality of Dr. Treub, Director of the 
Botanic Garden, Buitenzorg, Java, of a series of some thirty finely 
executed photographic views taken in the Gardens over which he 
presides. These photographs, which give a good idea of the principal 
features of the gardens, showing not only characteristic groups of 
plants, but also the several buildings, such as the museum and botanic 
laboratory, will be a valuable addition to the extensive and increasing 
set of views in colonial and foreign gardens already exhibit..! in 
Museum No. 3. 



Drawings of Indian and Malayan Plants. — The collection of drawings 
reserved in the Herbarium has been enriched by the- gift of about 2(H) 
nely executed coloured drawing- of conspicuous Indian and Malayan 
hints. They are the work of a Mrs. Hutton (Miss Janet Robertson), 
le wife of an East Indian merchant, who resided at Penang from lstrj 



13G 

to the Royal O n l.-n- li Mi-' M !!■",,,. •' d.oi hter of the artist. 
Many of them are bold and vigorou3 representations of tropical fruits, 

such as the mango, durian, auiva. ro-e-aop!e, papaw, and mangosteen ; 

and of *ueh showy genera as /in,/,'),/,, Strrr >li<t , Pf-erosj>ermnm\ Butea, 
and Erythrina. The collection a!-o e mains quite a long series of 

Drawings of Mauritius Plants. — Mr. J. W. Duncan, son of the late 

James Duncan, who was for many rears Director of the Mauritius 
Botanic Garden down to I860, has presented a collection of So coloured 

consequence of the great extension of cultivation, many of the rare 
native plants are extinct, and common ones have become rare. Many 
of the drawings are figures of orchids, of which we possess only very 
indifferent specimens or none at all. The fact that they are localised 
also adds to their value. Among other rare plant- represented are : — 



Jalu and the tropical region of North Borneo. Dr. Ha 

eturned to England for a short period, bringing with him a large and 

ong series of duplicates, whieh he distributed Tit Kew previous "to his 
iturn to B)rneo by way of N'atal and Mauritius. 

Flora Of Central Tibet.— Previous to Colonel Przewalsky's explora- 
:011s little was known of the flora of the va<f country lying immediately 






of this country on the Sikkii 
neral Strachey, and Mr. J. E. 
rest. That was upwards of 40 y 



Henrv of Orleans, ami others. 
1 Bower's journey :■•>...- Tib. : fmm we-t to ea-t. in latitudes 
14 and 30 degrees, and Mr. Wondvilie lioekhiU's journeys from 
3Uth, in about the longitude of Lhassa, a- e so well known that it 
cessary to mention thmn in connexion with the plants collected. 
Captain W. G. Thorold accompanied Captain Bower, and 

«. 



137 

probably, of 



. J ud -ing from the 

widely separated parts ( .f the co 
-n to occur outside of Tii>ct, there 
IT" majority of tin- plants scarcely 1 



Books presented by the Bentham Trust. — A number of valu- 
able works on fungi from the library of Dr. M. C. Cooke have been 
purchased by the Bentham Trustees and pn-cntcd to the library of the 

Roval Gardens. Anion- them were the illustrated work, of Lucand and 
Patouillard, as far a> thev have been published, and Letelliers' rare 
" Figures ties Chaw pit, nous :" 

Nouvelles Archives du Museum D'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. — 



valleys. About 200 bushels of good parchment coffee \ 
d to be much larger. 



Jamaica Wall vague way 

. ■ 

referred (Flora of tli Tirit ''It, I din Islands, p. 177) his 
Picmdcudrou Juglans (Juglan> baoeata, Uuu.), a simarubeous tree, to 
the Juglaudcw, and partly because Descourtilz (Flore des Antilles, vii., 
p. 5, t.' 4.53) Las a " Xovi'r .It; la Jamaiqu.-,'' which he refers to Juglans 
fra.-iiui folia. Lam. (L'terocarva fraxiuifolia. Sjjue/i), an old world' tree. 
C. de Candolle, (in DC. Prodromus, xvi. 2, p. 138), finding it was 
not Juglans fraxinifolia, described it under the name of Juglans 
jauiaiceusis. Consequent on this, Eugl.-r ( Knglei and Prantl Die 
' NatiirlicheH Pflauzenfautilieu.Yu. I. p. 24), gives tlo- distribution of 
the genus Juglans as temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, and 
on" in Jamaica.. Sintenis (n. 4,000) collected specimens of a veritable 
Juglans in Portorico, (" Adjnntas in f?utinfis ad Salt ilia"). This is 
identified by Urban a- the Juglans jamaicensis, CDC, though how 
he arrived at this is difficult to conceive, considering the very dissimilar 
looking plant crudely figured by Descourtilz. Grisebach, (Die Geo- 
graphisrhv Verhreitung de.? J'flanzen Westiudiens), records Juglans 
cinerea from Cuba, and no other West Indian locality for this or any 
other <pee[es. This »ppe uitted on the authority of 

Richard (in Ramon de la Sagra's Flora Ctibana, iii. p. 231), because 
subsequently he described (Catalogus Plantarum Cubensium, p. 08), 
specimens collected by Wright, under the name of Juglans insularis. 
Curiously enough this distinct species has been overlooked by later 

Respecting Juglans jmuaircnsis, CDC, Grisebach has the following 
note in the place cited : " Nomen J. jamcricensis, CDC. ex sola icone 
Descourtilz, t. 453, formatum, quon'iani suas icoues ex aliis operibus 
mutuare solebat, non admitto, v. rum inter incerta relinquo." 

We have no knowledge of the former or present existence of a species 
of Juglans in .Jamaica, and ii stems improbable that such can be the 
case, considering the extent to which the island has been explored. It 
would be interesting to know whether the Portorico tree is indigenous. 
There seems no reason why it should not be ; and the specimen we have 
seen, may well be ./. insularis in a rather advanced state, and nearly 
glabrous, Indeed, we have no b< - to that species. 



Destruction of Beer Casks in India.— Specimens of oak sua 
y boring beetles were received at Kew from the India Office in 1889. 
nt-e were examined by Mr. W. F. II. Bkndford, M.A., F.Z.S., and a 

|.»rt published in the Kew Bulletin, 1890, pp. 182-189 (with wood 
uC). Later, an inse.-t, at'ter\vard> ideiiiihYd as the chief agent in cask- 
oring. wa.- found to attack Migar c-aues in the West lm!ie>, principally 
; fYini.in.l and Barbados. Its serious depredations, at the time, occa- 

3-178. The .Migai-borer 

uULurus perjnrau*, W oil. 

for India in C 

i fuller i>n-.l -■ 

ia. This report, with a 



known^ die « sho?borei"w!«i 


'"'"' ! 


Under die authority of the Secre 


tal s ■ r 


IJlandford was afterwards engage 




• casks 



plate and wood cuts, has now been pubii-i • -I on behall'of II. M. Stationery 
Office, by Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, price sixpence. Mr. ibamlford 
has undertaken investigations extending over a considerable period, and 
he has consulted the available literature of injury to casks in all parts of 
the world. The chief injury to beer casks in India is undoubtedlv done 
by the non-European Xyleborus perfonins, although it is admitted that, 

attacked by species of the European Tri/podoidron. Beer casks shipped 
to India have not been attacked by Xi/'l, /hths prrforan* in this country. 
nor on the voyage, hut, apparently, alter their arrival at their destination, 
This has happened owing to the unsuitable character of some of the "go- 
downs" in which they have heen stinvd. The insects were at first 
believed to have been exported in the casks from England, and hence 

of things which they themselves were in a position to deal with." The 
conclusions arrived at by Mr. Blandiord are contained in the following 
words: "I agree with the chemists of the Inland Revenue Laboratory in 
I'.-Heving that with proper care in the management of go-down< in India. 

clean hogsheads shall not be placed near unsound ones nor in infected 
stores, further precautions will hardly he necessary to prevent loss from 
the attacks of XyleborttS perforans." 



the Eastt 

by Linn; 



p. 356, pi. 10, it is described and figured, and some account given of its 
history and rapid colonisation in America. It seems desirable, in the 
interests of agriculture in our colonies and elsewhere, to direct special 
attention to this weed, though, doubtless, tin various Agricultural Societies 
will have warned their members against it before this. In Australia 
especially it would prohahlv spread withe.pial rapidity. once it had obtained 
a footing. It is an annual'plant and therefore not ditiieult to exterminate 



out aid from the general Govennuoi 
crops, but its sharp, spine-like leai 
j, as well as to man. 



None of the. books on ph\ tug.-«.--i.-ipliy <•> >u-ult< -d mention- such a fac 
and the only puhli.-hed de-oripiion of one i- under .hiqla,^ n'tyra, Lim 

wrinkled [ha:; tlm.-e of typical Jui/hiii* m' </,■<(. ft was collected in tl 
temperate regions of Bolivia by Weddell, and is preserved in the Pai 
Tin's would be considerably south of the Peru»ii 
locality. In the Kew Herbarium there are leaves of a Jtu/lans collect. 
by Spruce in woods on the upper Pastasa river, in about 2 son 
latitude. He describes it as a spreading tree, sixty feet high, bearii 
an edible fruit, much larger than tin' common walnut, but he had n 
seen it ripe. The inhabitants called it " Tocte" These leaves a 



k, hard shell. This is 
the very slender male 

specie.- distinct from 



' de Venezuela en 1883, p. 219), 
refers without doubt to Juglans 
that of the walnut ot Europe ; 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

] MAY. [1894. 



CCCLXXVIL— LIQUOKICE. 

{Glycyrrhiza glabra, L.) 

In consequence of t hi- large ij inutities of Liquorice root 
from Asia Miner and ether Liquorice-growing eo'nitrie 

aLo iii making a fancy drink, a coinidcrahle amount oi 



The Liquorice q 
Africa, Southern E 


^(Gh^nl 


''?■;';/,; 


L.) is a native 


and other 

■of North 
I is cr.lti- 


T»t8d in France, ] 
slight extent in E 
middle of the 1G 


I ussiM, German}' 


. Spain, and 


PB 7 :; 


from the 


ww cultivated in m 
pecially about Kew 


""hitTnlduc 


"r\:: 


r'qnantitv 1 ^ 


: ,:;;,; 


Po°ntefract 0f ' Itfcu 


ItLJmn 'in 'litis 




ihi'onrl.ood' 1 . 


L-.M-shack 


gardens are situated 
the country betweei 
by market "gardens 


he growth of tl 

in whirhLiquo! 


, <■...':. 


'n'rlhVSn! 


op. The 



depth by hand to a 
is considerable. I) 
liquorice, the plants 



142 

eon the rows, ami potato*^, and different varieties of cabbage, 
[■own. The ground being earthed up a round tin- liq.iorioe 
trrows thus made afford much protection to the vegetable 
as the ground is always richly manuivd liefore planting 

oiirablf conditions are thus ensured for the production of 
ry superior vegetables, indeed it is said that the vegetable 

Liquorice plantation ;d\v;iy.> command high prices in the 
■ts. After the second year, however, the Liquorice plants 
ha height, and spread thek foliage so widely, that other 
>t grow beneath them. On a visit to Pontefraet, namely, 

re the plants had attained the ago of live years and a height 



I in perfecting the flowers, a 
1 planting of buds and runners 
t of April." 

and Tri men's Medicinal Plan 



... a quarter "I an inch to about 
riiat from Alicante is frequently untrimmed and tlirtv in 
but that from Torf.^i is usually clean and brighter 
he Russian Liquorice root, which is imported from 
; either peeled or impeded. It is in pieces varying from 

diameter. Combined with the usual sweetness of 
>t, this variety has a feebly bitter taste." 
ig eorrespondenec/ r. 1 extracts from official reports give 
>: mat ion available as to the commercial production of 
in the East. A portion has already appeared in the Kew 
ogusl of last year (pp. 223-1), but is reproduced here for 



Botolph House, 


Lastcheap, 


ps, recollect my letter of tt 
regard to Liquorice root. 

Having troubled you i 


ie 8th Jan'ua 
, to which y< 
that you die 
n the mattei 



pleasure in handing you a copy of a reply received from Vice-Consul 
D. R. Peacock, of Batoum, in case you may rare to file it for future 



(Enclosure.) 
Liquorice Root. 
1. Is it necessary to acquire the right to dig roots in the lauds where 
they grow, or is th< : .lining of the root free to everybody ? 

The land yielding Liquorice root (chiefly in the district of Elizave- 
topol) heing ilie property either of private people or the Crown, the 
right to dig "roots mu.-.t iieeessiirily be ac< paired. 



pnetors, or. in thee.,.,- <,i l i-.,wn lands, witli tlie nal 
ing the usufruct of same. Lamb however, situated a 



from the railw are practically quite open 

g root in such lands \ 



:..;■■ 
actual cost of the acquisition of the right to ( 
I/. lO.v. to l'/. lO.v. per acre, in consideration of w 
land lielonging lo the same district is for diggin 
other parties, the contractor securing for a cei 



[ by the day, or are they 



See previous reply. The average quantity of root dug per day by one 
labourer is about 4| poods, or t£ cwt. 

5. If paid by weight please state the amount paid per pood. 

The amount paid per pood (36 lbs.) is in the average IS copecks, or 
about 1 s. 2d. per cwt., on delivery at railway stations. Wages vary 
from 40 to 60 copecks per day. 

6. How many pounds of dry root are obtained from 100 poods of 
fresh root on an average ? 

On the average 45 poods of drv root are obtained from 100 poods of 
fresh root. 

7. What is the cost of the transport from the lands where the roots 
are dug to Baku ? 

The cost of the transit to Baku of course varies according to the 



n would thus be about 
Government and local 



There are no taxes. The person engaged in the industry or trad 
must take out a certificate of the Guild, the cost of which is the same a 
that for any other corresponding industry or trade in the Russia 
Empire. 



[F. O. Misc. Ser., 207, July, 
I observed the Liquorice plant flourishii 
rbundanoe on the Burujird and Khoremaba. 
ng valleys, and I heard of the plains at ] 



tsted, the cost of carriage from the localities I have mentioned would 
kill all chance of profit at present prices. The plant is found in some 

abundance near Ivorna, at the junction of the Kuphran^ and Tigris, and 
a French firm collects the root there, sending it by water to Busrah. to 
be baled in Messrs. Gray Pauls' presses for export to Marseilles. The 
short distance from Ivorna to the port of sea shipment, 40 miles, just 
makes the business pay, but comparatively little is done in it as yet.J 



Extract from Report of Statistician of United States Department oi 
Agriculture, June 1893. 
"The inhabitants of Elizabeth pol and Baku, in the Caucasus, derive 
:onsiderable benefit from Liquorice, winch grows wild, need- no cultiva- 
ion. and multiplies spontaneously. In 1*7* two (i reeks turned their 
ittention to the larjre quantities of Liquorice in Caucasia; in 1886 they 
erected a large factory for drying and pre-erving tin- liquorice, which 
hey annually export to America. The remunerative trade soon 
tftractod others, and to-dav there exist four prominent commercial 
louses which carry on a wholesale trade in Liquorice, and two of which 
iave erected i i there are pro- 

bleed about 108,339,000 pounds of raw Liquorice, which, after drving. 
de!d .30,113,000 pounds of marketable merchandise. For raw Liquo- 
•ice the factories pay on the average fivepence halfpenny per 100 



Extract from Report on the Trade of Aleppo. 
[F. O. 1893. Annual. No. 1,200.] 

Liquorice root has largely developed, and merits special attention. 
'ollection i- now made on a large scale throughout the province, thus 
-unpensatiu^ in some de-roe the pr"a<antrv for the !os. r s caused hv had 
arvests. 0,145 tons, valued at 43,231/., were exported to the United 

tat* s, as ( r> m j red v ith -\.2\--, tot -. \ aim d at !!>'.< >7 7/ . in 1891. 



Routs fn.m Alexandretta (Port of 



mi. 


«■ 


_* | w» 


_*. | Va tae . 


Sx 


43,231 


Tons. £ 
4,293 28,077 



rom F. O. Re 



Annual, No. 1225, p. 12. 



ToG r «,l 


Jritain. 


j To other Countries. 


Total. 


*-* I 




Quantity. Value. 


Quantity. Value. 


Too, ! 


£, 


! Tons. 


2,416 


3% ,?, 



:act from F. O. Report, 1893. Annual, No. 1254, p. 4. 
I of the Export of Liquorice from Smyrna during the year 







England. 






















Qui 




Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 










£ 




£ 


Liquorice roots 










70,705 


62,220 


„ paste 








14,142 


5,128 


22,563 



Extract from I 



i the Trade of Damj 



[F. O., 1893. Annual, No. 1261, p. 2.] 

The only business which Damascus may be said to have lost is the 

Liquorice trade, which has practically died out, owing to the discorery 

of a better quality of root in Northern Syria, in Asia Minor, and else- 



Extract from F. O. Report, 1 



Annual, No. 1278, p. 12. 



Table showing Exportation 


of Liquorice from Bil 
luring the year 1892. 


bao to 


Foi 


eign 




T„ 






Article,. 


II1IJ 


1IIMIU 




„..„. 


- jV,- 


-1- 


-J- 




To., 


Cwt, 



[F. O. 1891. Annual Series, No. 1320, pp. 7-8.] 
Liquorice root is obtainable in large quantities on the banks of the 
Tigris, ami considerable expansion in the trade may be looked forward 
to, being ia good demand in America for manufacture of tobacco. 



CCCLXXVIIL— FLORA OF ALDABRA ISLANDS. 

ie Aldabra Inlands; and mention is also made of the miscarriage of a 
Election of dried plant- made there by Dr. W. L. Abbott, an American 
atnralist. Sinee then the plant- have been received from the Tniied 
rate. National Mn.nm, and Mr. J. (i. Hake,, I'.RS., the Keeper of 



• 



the Ma^earenr 



nay ye 



The shrubby Knphnrhin Ahf.nl 
the novelties. Tlie plant alluded to by Dr. Ab 
in the place cited above, as a sort of Aloe, 

of tie' CumpoxiUe. 

List of the Plants, with their Gt nymph 



Poet ur. ace.*:. 
Portulaca quadrifida, Linn. — Tropical regions of the Old 



the Old and New Worlds. 

5. Abutilon indicum, G. Dor\. var. — Kecedes from the type by its 
more shrubby stem and muticous carpels. A native of Tropical Asia. 
now widely spread in Africa and elsewhere. 

Tiliace.e. 

G. Grewia aldabrensis, Baiter, n. sp. ; frntieosa, ranudis giv.cilihus 
glabris, folds dhtincte petiobitis obI,,ii<ri- acuti- crenatis f riplinorviis 
utrinque viridibus Ldahris cvmi- - pedunculitis, 

braeteis lanceolatis, ; .. - vel longiorihus sepnlii- 

lanceolatis dorso tomento-i-. pi r ' - • >';n latis obtnsi- calyci aequi- 

longis, fructu 4-lobato carpel m ;di euneato. 

Folia 1-2 poll, longa. Scjutln et pct/tla 3 lin. longa. 

Nearly allied to the Cape an I Tropical African G. occidentals. Linn. 
and tbe Madagascar G. picta, Baill. 

Of this genus there are more tb: gascar. Fron 

Tropical Africa 35 species are described by Dr. Masters in Oliver'; 
Flora, and several others have since been added. 



-Warmer regions of the Old and New 

8. Suria-na maritima, Li /in. — Tropica] shores of both hemispheres. 

OCHHACB*. 

9. Ochna ciliata, Lam.— Widely spr-ad in Madagascar. 

K. Celastrus senegalensis, Lam.— Tropical Africa, MediteriMneai 
egion, India. 

11. Colubrina asiatica, Erongn. — Polynesia and Tropical Ana t. 



14. Tephrosia purpurea, Pers.— Cosmopolitan in the Tropics. 

15. Abrus precatorius, Linn. — Cosmopolitan in the Tropics. 

16. Cassia mimosoides, Linn.— Co-mopoli'au in the Ti > ees. probahlv 
riv. oid } in the Old World. 



17. Desman 1 s. BailL, Atlas Plant. Madag. tab. 23. 

_Un.lau.iM u. Fhis genus is divided between America i 1 M.n'm^ai 
Four species have now been found in Madagascar, and there are 10 in 
America. 

ss only).— Tropical Africa 

Rhizophore^e. 
19. Rhizophora mucronata, Lam.— The common Mangrove of the 
shores of the Old World, from Polynesia through Tropical Asia to East 
Tropical Africa and Natal. 



iPolyiu - 

RUBIACEiE. 

22. 01denla:dia corymbosa, Linn. — Cosmopolitan in the Tropics. 

23. Pavetta trichantha, Baker, n. sp. ; fruticosa, ramulis suraum 
pubescentibus, stipulis deltoideis, to I- subcoriaceis 
oblongis obtusis basi roto atis, dorso presertim ad 
venas prinairia- ii;-r-i>teu!cr pilosis, floribus dense corymbusis ramis 
ramuli-ii'ii- pilo-..-. i v., -r.-is In ,-. -ohttis .-alyre tubo campanulato piloso 
tiontilms p-.m- '1 ltoideis, corollas tubo cylindrico piloso calyce duplo 
longiori lobis oblongis tubo brevioribus, fructu globoso biloculari, seinini • 

Folia 2-2£ poll, longa, J 5-18 lin. lata. Calyx \ liu. longus. 
Corolla 2 lin. longa. Frurtus \\-2 lin. longus. 

This genus is confined to the Old World, and is represented by 25 
species in Tropical Africa, and 10 in India. 

21. Tricalysia cuneifolia, Baker, n. sp. ; fruticosa, glabra, stipulis 
deltoideis, foliis breviter _- acutis basi 

cuneatis, floribus in axilli 3 subsessilibus, bracteia 

pluribus eori u <>\< \ it- ovatis obtusis, calyce campanulato ore subintegro, 
corolla; tubo infundibulari calyce vix longiori, lobis ovatis tubo 
sequilongis, fructu globoso pedicellate 

Folia 2-2± poll, longa, medio 9-14 lin. lata. Corolla 2-2* lin. 
longa. Fructu* 2 lin. diam. 

Of this genus, including Kraussia of Harvey, which is joined with 
it by Iliern. there are 21 species in Tropical Africa. 

25. Psychotiia, species not identified. Th 



Polynesia through Tropical i 



149 

Elliot in the extreme south of the island. On Europa Island, which 
lies a short distance within the Tropic, midway between Madagascar and 
the mainland, Speke says, " it covers densely the whole island, taking 
" the place of grass or heather at home." It differs from the other 
Plumbagos by being entirely destitute of leaves. 

OLEACEJS. 



Myrsine^. 
29. Myrsine cryptophlebia, Baker, n. sp. ; fruticosa, ramulis glabris, 
foliis rorinccis obovatis obtusis basi cuneatis glabris venis immersis 
occultis, noribus ad ramos infra folios ,-olitariis vel paneis fascieulatis, 
pedicellis brevissimis, calycis lobis late ovatis inibricatis, corolla lobis 
oblongif, calyce 2-3-plo longioribus, staminibus inclusis, ovario ovoideo, 
stylo brevi. 



Folia U-l 


5 poll, longa, 12-14 1 


in. lata. 


Corolla l\ liu. longa 


30. Vinca r 


osea, Linn.— Nowcosn 




in the Tropic-. — Xativ 



iminale, R. Br. — Cape, Tropic 
'his also is entirely destitute of leaves. 

32. Astephanus arenarius, Dame. — Madagascar. 

33. A species of this order from A th of Aldabra, 

•ithout flowers, with the habit of a Tylophom, but the gomis of which 



^ 35. Ipomcea (Calonyction) grandiflora, Lam.— Polyn 
Tropical Asia !>> Hast Tropical Africa. 

36. Evolvulus alsinoides, Linn. — Cosmoin ■! 



37. Solamim aldabrense, Wright, n. sp. 

caule tereti lignoso spinis parvia rec dolatifl ovatis 

sinuatis basi acutis utrinque pilis stellatis spiuiscjiie parvis vestitis, 

inflorescentia prope apicem ramormu subumbellata noribus paucis 

extua dense -i.-llatim tomentoso 

glabra lobis ."> oblongis acnlis, staminibus o nlamentis brevibus 
antherisque subulatis secus connectivum pubescentibus, ovario plus 
minusve bilobato glabro, stylo elongato apice curvato staminibus 
longiore. 

Folia 1 poll, longa, 9 lin. lata. Petioitu 6 lin. longus. Calyx 2 lin, 
longus. Corolla lobi 5 lin. longi, 2 lin. lati. Anthcrm 2 lin. lon^je, 
Stylus 4 lin. longus. 



from which it also differs in having more n 
deeply lobed, and the corolla lobes broader. 



38. Hypoestes aldabrensis, Baker, n. sp. ; perennis, e basi ramosis- 
sima rainis gracililiu- ghd>: •>. '.•!: is parvis hreviter petiolatis oblongis 

braoteis oblauceolatis apiec herbaceis pilosis, corolla? alba? tubo cylindrico 
involucro paulo longiori, limbo parvo. 

Nearly allied to the Madagascar H- adscendens, Nees. The genus is 
concentrated in Madagascar, about 25 species now being known in the 

39. Avicennia officinalis, Linn. — Mangrn\e swamps from Polynesia 

40. Clerodendron minutiflomm, Baker, n. sp. ; fruticosum, erectum, 
ramnlis apice pilosis, i'uliis distincte petiolatis ovatis integris acutis 
utrimpie viridibus glabris, cymis densis, terminalibus, ramulis pilosis, 
pcdiecllis lircvibus. calvce tubo campanulato dentibus deltoideis 
minutis, corolla- tubo cylindrico calycc suhtripl.. lon-iori, limbi lobis 
parvis obtusis, stylo longe exserto, fructu globoso glabro. 

Folia 2-3 poll, longa, Calyx floriferus 1 lin. longus. Corolla 

Near the Cape and Tropical African C. glabrum, E. Meyer. 



41. Boerhaavia diffu: a / .— ~- 
f the Old World. 

Amahantace^. 

42. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. — I 

EUPHORBIACIUS. 

43. Euphorbia (Goniostema) Abhottii, Baker, 



apicem c 


•J- :■. -nti- : 


Hfperiohnn 


hrevc.i. alai 


cymis d 


ichotomis 


... 


' '' " ■" 


hractcj. o 




■-.-... 


ihus '!liPto' 1 


Ulandulis n 




integris. 











Folia 






a. Involucn 




Capita 


3 I'm. dian 








Nearh 




he Mauritian 


E. pyrifolia, 


Lam., and 


E. dupk, 


loidts. Hal 


!ich'it belon< 


p is entity 


confined to 


44. Phyllanthus 


anomalus, 


Mull. Ar<j.- 


-Mauritius 






East Tropical 






45. CI 


aoxylon, n< 


-ar C. indicum 


t, ffassi.—li 


ot identities 



46. Ficns nautanun, Baker.— Mnuritn 

47. Ficus (Urostigma) aldabrensis, Ba 



48. Lomatophyllum borbonicum, J77/A/.-— Maur 

49. Dracaena reflexa, Zr/w. — Tropical Africa, Ma 

50. Asparagns umbellulatus, Sieb. — Mauritius a 



Fimbristylis obtusifolia, Kunth. — Common 



CCCLXXIX.— CULTIVATION OF COCA IN INDIA. 



ety of India, Januarv- 



J. Gammie, Esq., Aci 
to the Secreta 



manufacturing purposes on even an experimental scale. A few seeds 
of the plant have been got from Ceylon, Madras, and Calcutta, and the 
plants raised iVotu thna show at least two distinct types. These types 
will be carefully watched and compared with each other as regards 
har.lih.--v, rftpj 1 * - i F growti . a id J M I I i E alkaloids. 

A few Coea plants have been put out in different, places by tea planters 
in the Darjeeling Terai, and I am given to understand that although the 
growth has been good, the leaves are so thin in texture that the yield in 
weight is nol Bered have been so disap- 

pointine; that no extensions are being made, which is perhaps an extra 
reason for the Government persevering with the experiment on these 
plantations. 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) J. Gaumie, 

Acting Inspector. 



"30. The information i loaure to the paragraph 

under reply r< e tkm of the Coca plant for the manu- 

facture of cocaine in India has been noted. With regard to the letter 
from the Acting Superintendent, Cinchona cultivation in Bengal, 
No. 2EC/L, dated 20th May 1892, it has been ascertained from 
Surgeon-General Sir Benjamin Simpson, K.C.I. E., that the fine sample 
of Coca leaves referred to in Dr. Maenaimira's Report of 7th March 1890, 
a copy of which was forwarded to your Government with Military 
of 10th April 1890, was grown in the 



- Tea K-;;i 



desirable to make the 



(Signed) J. M. King-Harman, Colonel, 

Deputy Secretary to the Governmi 



-CEYLON COCA LEAVES. 

1889, pp. 1-13, an exhaustive account was 

doids obtained from the different sorts under 
;s of the world. It was shown that. leaves from 
■>n for,,, Lam., the tvpieal plant, s i.-ld.-d the 



> Cu< i was better for gene 
red largely from Kew up to 1889, v 



leaves " for use in pharmacy and for Coca wine." 
Leaves of the typical ( iiuaiiueo) Ert/f/tnu ///•■, , ( 

of crysfiiliis.l.le with no unny-talli^thle alk.-.Ioi,* 



Eruthn.xijlt.,, 

irenernfo-oda 

good enough 

0.17 per cent.: total 1 03 per cent Th 

larger than •' a,n leaves examined bv Mr. I 
II nil vl in. 1889, p. 8), but the lar-e prop 

-■ :-n-r- will, the general eharart 



Stratford, near London, E., 

June 6, 1893. 
) enclose the analysis of the Coc 



Yours. 
(Signed) 



John R. Jackson, Esq., A.L.S. 
Messrs. Burgoyne, Burbidges & Co. to Royal Gar 











16, Cole 


man Street 


. Lond< 


)n, E.C. ; 


Dear Sn 
Ix 


reply to 


vour 


favour 


of the 21si 


July 2, 

! instant. 1 


«. 1893. 










of the 




Cora lea 






;■;;;;"; ,;;;-, 


\oZt\ 


;;; •;;: 


";::';• J: 1 


verv'low! 1 


(TJi" ', 


TrvZ 


; 






per 11. 


'.! and fa 


irYlnanin'o 


ran.Lre IVoi 




'. to l.v. t 


according 


o qua 1 








I remain, & 




John I 


t.Jacksc 


•n, Ea 


q.i 






n. 






Royal Gardens, Kew. 











CCCLXXXL— SUGAR-CANE DISEASE. 



The followin 
mation given i 

March last : — 



I have the honour to i 

containing" A Report on Disc: 

by Mr. C. A. Barber, F.L.S., 1 

2. In this paper, on p. ] 

« (Trirhosp/urria, which is th 



< u.l 


snce at Kew of th 


o pxi-teiK-.. ot 


this partieula 


r disea- 


and 


an sugar- fields pri 
, collected in Me* 
this may be what 


:ieo forty yea 
Mr. Barber 1 


L'heiviSi. Speei 

ni, in his miiH 


>d by t 






my opinion, i 








made its appearance quite recently in the W< 




litth 


s doubt that "it ha; 


j been introdu 


ced from the ! 


Did T-' 


portance of clearly rec 




ictual fact can 


hardlv 


It is 


obvious that if tl 




existed romp; 


irativel; 


the 


West Indies for 


t'ortv vears, 


it is unlikely u 






;e. If, on th, 










e possibilities 


: of the niiM-h 




still 


to be measured. 


(Sig 


I am. &c. 
ned) W. T 


. This, 


E 


dward Wingfield, 


Esq., C.B., 







CCCLXXXII.— NEW ORCHIDS. DECADE 8. 

71. Pleurothallis inflata, Rolfe ; caule erecto tereti, foliis lanceolatis 

acumiuatis, tloribu^ solitaries pedh-.-llutis, hrarteis tnhulosis apire oiili- 
quis ai'utis, sepalo postico lanceohito acuto, lateralibus connatis inilat..- 
ventrirosis apire ininutissime bidenticulatis, petalis ovatodanceolatis 
acuminatis, labello late cordato apirulato infra medium retlexo auriculis 

Hab.— United States of Columbia. 

Cmiles 6-8 poll. alti. Folia o-fi poll, longa, 1-1 | poll lata. Pedi- 
celli 1-4 poll, longi. Bractece 3 I'm. long®. Sepala 6-7 1 in. 1 >nga. 
JPetala 5| lin. longa. Labellum 2 lin. longum, 2£lin. latum. Colntr.na 
\\ lin. longa 



155 

GHasnevin and elsewhere. It is most nearly allied to P. Undent, Lindl.. 
belonging to the section Macrophyllai racemose?, but the racemes are 
apparently always reduced to a single flower. It also bears much re- 
semblance to P. ruberrima, Lindl., of the section Macrophylhr fasvi- 
cnhit(/\ tli ugh the flowers are not fascicled. The three are quite 
distinct, if obviously allied, agreeing in the ventricose character of the 
united lateral sepals, and the peculiar shape of the lip. The new 
species, strictly speaking, will not go into either group, being neither 
racemose nor fascicled. It has semi-translucent whitish flowers with 
some purple spots and streakfl on the sepals and petals. 

72. Dendrobium sanderianum, Rolfe ; caule erccto elato distichophyllo, 
folds ovato-ol»loiiL' ; s iturqualiter et minute bidentatis. fasciculi's axillari- 
bus 2— :>-Horis. bracteis o\atis Mdiobtu>is minutis. pedicellis foliis longior- 

subheniisplia'ricuin inllato dein in ealeare recto gracili producto, petalis 
suborbiculari-elliptieis apiculatis, labello trilobo lobis lateralibus parvis 
obtusis intermedio latissime obcordato apiculato crenulato, disco lrcvi, 

Hah. — Borneo. 

Folia \\ poll, longa, f-1 poll. lata. Bractete 1 lin. longas. Pedicelli 
2 poll, longi. Scpala \\ poll, longa. Petala l£ poll, longa, 10-11 lin. 
lata. Lahellum If poll, longum, l\ lin. latum. Mtutum 1 poll. Iongum. 



ntire. and with a light purple stain in-tead of pale pven at the base 
:ie ovary not triquetrous, and the habit quite different. The stem 
ontinue to elongate and to throw out n succession of flowers for a lonj 
eriod. and eventually reach a length of three feet or more. The ilower 
re white, with the exception of a light purple stain at the base of thi 
p. It was introduced by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, an< 
owered in their establishment last autumn. 
73. Dendrobium glomeratum, Rolfi .■ pseudohulbis elon--atis denun 

imum laxum congestis, bracteis oblong" i . , , olatb a :ui 
nbrieatis. M-palo postico oblongo subobtuso, lateralibus ovato-oblongi 
ii; -litu-is I :i-i euin pede columnas in mentum elongato-conicum subiii 
urvum jiroductis, labello cuneato-obovato obtuso apice in 
enticulato, disco lsevi, columna brevi latissimo pede elongato. 
Ha i'.. — Moluccas. 



Labelhun 10-11 lin. longui 



Bractetp. 



Rchb. f., a sn -pedes. The present species hag 

flowers from \\ to l£ inches long, borne several together in loose axillary 



heads; the sepals and petals bright mso-coloi: 
vermilion. The lip is infolded at the apex, and 
oulate. It was imported by M.-w^. James Vei 
and flowered in tludr . - - 1 ; 1 1 > 1 i - ! 1 1 1 1 . • 1 1 1 last Decenibf 



6-9 poll, lor 
\-2\ poll, long 



ito-cristatis. 



Ccelogyne Mossiae, Rot 



'a 1 poll. 

l S. Moss, 



Fxeu<l>h»lhi l],-2.i i-c.I. loniri. /.'„/;„ ( ;_;> poll, lonjja, 21-3 poll. 
Peduncuh 3-4 poll, longi. Jiractete 2-3 lin. lonerae. Sv~pahnn p, 
2\ poll, longum, 6 lin. latum; lateralis 1J-U poll, lo 



Tin's species was introdM <•<■- 1 lu- 
ll] whose establishment it flowere 
nearly allied to C. ITarrisn,ri,r, P>a 



front lobe of the lip, while the side lobes 

rather variable in colour, some being consii 

77. Epidendrum Hartii, Rolfe ; cattle 

liuearibns suhobtnsis. pauieula torminali 
hmceolatis. i >»■ li < -^ -Hi- lila'iris, sepalis lance 



Hab.— Trinidad, common, J". IF Ha, 

Caules 6-8 poll. alti. Folia 3-4 poll. 
imi 4-5 poll, longi. liractece 1 lin. 1 

mga. L'lhtlli'iii ■!.', lin. longum. 



being unknown. It belong to Li 

PUuiifulia paniculata, and is most ; 

piinnii, Lindl. It b^ars lax panicles of 

78. Ornithidium fragrans, Ro#e 



Co., of St. Albans. It is allied to t 
Rchb. f., which ha- far more nume 

flowers are whitish, faintly suffused 
lobe of the lip dull mauve-purple. 'I 
like heliotrope. 



158 

79. Oncidium brevilabnun, Rolfe ; pseudobulbis ovoideis subcom- 
pressis demum sulcato-striatis, foliis elongato-linearihu< mentis, panicula 
ampla multiflora, bracteis parvis ovatis acutis, sepabi aniru-tc ungui- 
culata spathulata i.btusa, petala lati unguirubita limbo orbiculari-ovuto 
obtuso, labell o trilobo lobis lateralibus obovatis obtusis intermedio 
parvo triatiLfiilo subacuto crista oblonga iimlti; .;q-ill«>^;i. eolnmna brevi 
decurva buccis magnis alis amplis dolabriformi-cuneatis crenulatis, 

Hab. — Xot recorded. 

Pseudobulbi 2-2± poll, longi. Folia 8-12 poll, longa, 6-8 lin. lata. 
Panicuhc foliis longiores sed bene evolutas non visse. Bractece. vix 
1 lin. longas. Sepalum posticus 4 lin. Ionium. UiU rolia 5 lin. longa-. 
Petala 3 lin. longa. Labellum 2\ lin. longum, 5 lin. latum. 

Tins species belongs to the section Host rata, but is readily distin- 
guished from others of the group by having the front lobe of the lip 
reduced to a small triangular body — in fact, nearly obsolete — while tin- 
side lobes are well developed. In this respect' it is analogous with 
O. Ixtrbatiim, Lindl., of the very different section Tetrapetala barbata. 
The flowers are numerous, about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, 
iind bright yellow with a few narrow brown bars on the lower part of 
the segments. There are also a very few abortive How rs, in which the 
segments are reduced to minute linear-oblong yellow bodies. It was 
introduced by Messrs. Linden, L'Horticulture Internationale, Brussels, 
by whom it was sent to Kew in Xovember last. 






aiiixa ; glandula parva. 

Serrastylis modesta, Rolfe; pseudobulbis lineari-oblongis sub- 
teretibus monophyllis, foliis lanceolato-oblongis suhobtusis corhieeis, 
racemis multifloris, brad iminatis, Bepalis lineari- 

lanceolatis acutis, petalis sepalis similibus, labello trilobo lobis lateralibus 
erectis oblongis obtusis apiee reflexis intermedio elongato-lineari 
acumiuato. disco inter lobos laterales obtuse carinato. 

Hab. — Andes of New Granada. 

Pseudobulbi 2\ poll, longi. Folia 7 poll, longa, 2 poll. lata. Racemi 
5 poll, longi. Bractece 3-4 lin. longse. Sepala et petala 8-9 lin. longa. 
Labellum fr-6 lin. longum. Cohtmna 2 lin. longa. Anthera et 

This very distinct orchid ilowored in the colleetion of Sir Trevor 
Burford, Dorkinii, in Februarv I S94, when it was 
l. It was obtained lYotu Mr. J. O'Brien, 




they are erect 
petals are light 



CCCLXXXIIL— AGRICULTURAL PROGRESS IN 
JAMAICA. 

fftln the Annual Report of the Governor of Jamaica recently published 
(Colonial A'< /»"/•/•. A n 1 1 u .- 1 1 . Vn. 103) an encouraging account isgi\en 
of the agricd suits of the official year 1892-3. It 

is noticed that the exports of fruit now comprise 29 '4 per cent, of the 
total exports of the Colony. Sugar comprises 13' 1 per cent., and rum 
11 per cent. Dyewoods, including logwood and fustic, comprise 21 • 3 
percent., while pimento and min >r products account for 9*5 per cent. 
It is evident that Jamaica now possesses varied resources and is practi- 
cally five from dependence on the one or two staple industries which have 
hitherto been regarded as essential to its prosperitv. Cacao is one of 
the recently dev, loped industries ;;,. : progress Loth 



the (Jo 


vernoi 


• on 


the work « 


)f the Botanical Department, under Mr. 




t. sh, 


m ill 




the island, as well as in this country, the 


efforts i 


>f the 


latte 


r are fully appreciated. 


The 


fruit i 


trade 


, which was 


referred to in last year's report as being 


in a depress. 




to. has somewhat recovered it- former healthy condition. 








here spoken of in the crops of sugar and output of rum 




m tail 


ly n, 




iring the year under review. 


The 




I of< 




an increase of 3,010 cwt. in quantity and 


8,896/. 


invai 






:rcaseof 10,378 cwt. in quantity and 3,726/. 










hunches and 76,843/. in value ; oranges, 


3,806,; 


i2('; in 








The 








sland under cane and coffee cultivation has 




very 1: 






ears. There were during the vear under 




32.1'^ ae, 




ind 21,450 in coffee. 


The 








has increased to 14,860 acres from 9,959 in 


the yea 










The 








ation in the island was 666,741 acres, of 












again-t 


B tot; 


d an 


a of ' ,95S,67S acres of the whole island on which the 


proper! 


"" 


was 


collected. 


r>otd«ic<il. 


The 


USefll 




k annually 


performed by this department has continued 








under revi< 


3W, and it will be seen from the following 


figures 






the sale and distribution of plants at the different 



Hope Gardens, plai 

Castleton 

Hill Garden 



buted free or in exchange 

;o Hope Gardens for distribute 

:>yal Gardens, Kew 

Total distributed 



'information relating to plants, lias been regularly carried 
out by the Department, the number distributed in the island being 675, 
while the circulation abroad amounts to 178. 

The work of maintaining the gardens generally has been carried out 
in a satisfactory manner. 

At the Hope Gardens it was not found possible to continue the work 
of extension during the year owing to want of funds, but the area 
under cultivation has been considerably improved. Trees have teen 
planted in the different sections according to the geographical 
arrangement on which the plan of the garden has been laid down, 
and in the tropical African section a commencement has been made 
towards putting the whole place under Bahama grass, while the 
fern house, the rosery, the sugar cane phmtati, n, and the economic 
lection haw all received careful attention at the hands of the 



peas have i>< en carn< i ills, and me 

important question of suitable fodder plants lor the higher elevations 
has Ic.n engaging the attention of the Department for some time, and it 
is to be hoped that the experiments now being carried out will have 
successful results. 

The garden at Castleton has been maintained in its customary satis- 
factory condition, and, as usual, has been much frequented by visitors. 
Most of the plants in the rosery having become worn out by continuous 
cutting, a new bed has been prepared and planted. The stock of plants 
in the fern house and on the rockeries has also been considerably 
increased. 

The Kingston Public (,'(/r<J< 1/ has continued to afford a means or 

performances by the excellent band of ("he \\Yst India Regiment. Gates 
have been erected on the east and west sides of the garden, as was 
intended in its original design The plants from the exhibition grounds 
have done well, and more have been brought from the Hope Gardens, 
still further improving the appearance of the grounds. 

At King's llvusi several improvements have been effected during the 
year, of which the formation of a vinery may be mentioned as the 



161 

iture. A large number of cuttings of the best English vines 

were obtained, through the kind offices of the Director of Kew Gardens, 
from the Royal iety's gardens at Chis wick, and from 

these 34,350 cuttings were produced and planted out for distribution 
later. Vines were also obtained by mys< If. an d from Madeira by Dr. 
Grabham, who kindly presented them to the Department. The plan 
proposed last year for instruction in the cultivation of the vine has 
been carried out, and demonstrations have been frequently given by the 
Superintendent. 

The Librari/ ha< boon added to during the year, and work in the 
Herbarium has been continued. 



CCCLXXXIV.— COFFEE CULTIVATION IN ANGOLA. 

In a Foreign Office Report (No. 1,333, Annual Series, 1894) Mr. W. 
Clayton Pickersgill, C.B., Her Majesty's Consul at Luanda, gives a 
descriptive account of the Portuguese Colony of Angola, on the south- 
west coast of Africa. The interior of this Colony, rising in a succession 
of terraces from the sea, consists of large tract- of Vertile :n<\ well- 
watered country, and roads, somewhat rough, it is true, reach inland 
stations nearly 200 miles from the capital. Coffee plantation- appear 
to flourish here on a large scale. It is not clear what kind of coffee is 



' appropriation of forest in which c 
■ patche< already cleared by the na 
offee indigenous to Wast Africa, 
suves, Cqtf'ca stenophyUa (.see K» 



the greater coffee 



Coffee Estates. 

where between 15 and 20. The largest of them— one of eight, which 
are in the hands oi tie- Hanco Xacional Ultramarino of 'l'oriu^.'il — was 
described to the writer by the courteous and hospitable manager-in-ehief 
of the mortgage.! group as "six miles long and of breadth unknown," 
the map of ii which he was engaged upon being then incomplete. Its 
crop for 1893 was estimated at 214 inns, and for the first time in the 
historv of the property <\ !.e< n undertaken, which 



ion must needs provoke inquiry, and it becomes 
lain that all these estates have been created either by 

of forest in which coffee was growing wild, or by 
ready cleared by natives, and old records exist which 

a hiithright was bartered for something much less 



substantial than a 


mess of pottage. That the value of the holdings 




ereased ia self-evident. One of the smallest, that 


which has been mi 


jntioned as managed by Englishmen, and which 


belongs to a British 


firm, is registered as covering 1,424 acres, but only 


464 contain coffee. 


Of the remaining area 54 acres are given to cane, for 


the manufacture of 


rum, 64 to manioc, as food for the hands, and 1 to 


drying grounds, tin 


is leaving 841 acres unproductive, except in so far 


as it yields fuel for t 


he steam-power and distillery. 




Management, 


Then, again, the 


bean of this indigenous coffee is not only of very 






the trees and 1 he'll 


' straggling character is often hardly worth the 



trouble of picking. An acre of coffee, with the plants feel apart and 
properly cultivated, is considered in other parts of the world good 
for a crop of half a ton. Under such conditions the 464 acres above 
referred to might be expected to bear at least 200 tons, whereas at 
present they only yield 35. There is no digging or manuring done on 
any of the properties. The trees are simply cleared of undcr-growth 
and pruned a little, in the roughest and readiest manner, and. then left 

around. But it is easier to indicate possibilities than to attain them, 



siderable i 



All of it v 


,-ent to the 


Tagtu, 




Is;-:] a iv n 


ot yet 


hat they a 






taiuty That 


the profits 


for the 



163 

year will mount far beyond the average. The ill wind of Braz 
favouring breeze on this side of the Atlantic. Coffee which wa 
chased in Cazengo at 3£tf. per lb., and which cost Ijrf. per lb. to 

to the port of shipment, has already been selling in Lisbon at Id. \ 
The margin is satisfactory, and yet it shows that under ordinary ci 
stances there must be very little room to depend upon. In fac 

The best bargains may be utterly ruined by the vagaries of the ui 
milreis, which to day is worth only 3*. 4j-*<7. ; whereas six mont 
its value was 3s. 7|r7. For this and other reasons merchai 
Portuguese West Africa need a large capital and unbounded patie 



CCCLXXXV.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



edition, prepared bv Mr. C. H. Wright, 
Mr. D. Dewar, formerly foreman of 
Kew, and now Curator of the Botanic 



164 

Coffee no special advantage in those islands and possibly on that account 
it failed to receive attention. ft is mentioned, however", in the Tropical 
Agcicadtvrist (Vol. IV, p. 491), that a large nuamitv of seed was 
shipped toOeyfon direct from Brazil in 1884. As regards the West 

Indies, the Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens. Trinidad, mentions 
Ma ragogipe Coffee as one of the sorts cultivated at that o-tahlis! ■ at in 
1887. At Jamaica seed was received in 18sd and about a dozen 'plants 
■ AMngpante 

The following account is extracted from the Transactions of the 
Queensland JccUmatisat'm,, S,,ri ( < h, for dune 1893 (p. 56) :— 

" The demand for coffee plants during tie- past yoar has been on the 



Maryborough, Gympie. Marooehie, Mool 



Mooloolah, Cleveland, &c. The 
kinds sent were varieties of the Arabian and a tlw plants <,f the Mara- 
gogepie, or Brazilian Coffee, have also been distributed. The im- 

]' ■■ ;! '- : : '^ ' ■' • ' ' ■'. • '- • 

1890, p. 14] g,o, i„.. iM th. ..,i 1 .-.v'.,-.I N tin- -,.en„ beariim 

heavily, and alar-- -fock of plants will be raised from seeds for next 
years distribution. Two hybrid coffee plants are also in full b arm" 
this season. One of these plants has diown a distinct character; the 
cro - « s <fh<ti 1 litnut th. M«. . i ..i.d t e M nag i, , 'i, p., 1, a 
from the Lit il- -■ the Mocha." 



dep.. s it, d in the Mils,. urn of the Royal Gardens, are 
species of Caragana, received so far back as 1ST!), the bark of whi 
is remarkable for its smoothness and for its irreeuish bronze-li 
appearance. A not,- accompanies these specimen- to the effect that t 
bark, in consequence of its metallic appearance, is used for make 
band.- for sword scabb.irds. This species has since been described in 
! »| ' i. " < > t i 1 < I ( t k \'a ." published in t Joirn 

of tin J.,,:,aa„ Sf.ricfy (Vol. XVIII.. p. 4.V) as Caragana <i< cortical 
Hemsk, and referred 1o as "a larg ina of wood ai 



6 for the Kew Museu 



i tubers.— The Mu,eum of the Ibwal Garden- is 
. eitch and Son-, of the Royal Kxotic Nursery, 
nple of the tuberous roots of I.nlhijrns tubt rasas, 



165 

Holland, from which the following particulars are derived. The pla 
thrives well in Austria, Switzerland, and the greater part of Franc 
In Holland it is found chiefly in the provinces of Guelder. Ffreel 
Overysel, and Zealand, in the first three of which it grow, wild, and t! 
farmers do their utmost to extirpat- it in consequence of its being ve 
injurious to wheat and rye crops, exhausting the soil and clinging ii; i 
growth to the haulms. It. is often so abundant as to make the oo'tHiel 
<iuite bright with its flowers. In Zealand the plant is cultivated f 
the sake of the tuberous roots, either by leaving the smaller o;:es in f] 

Tin- Seeds -evct ill March. The .: !!■ u! a' 1 >la«-ki: 

colour, and inwardly of a whitish fleshy texture. When cooked tht 

a chestnut, do prepare them for food' th-.-y sh old !>■• li-'t P nf into 

elav or soil and loosen the skin. Thev are then readv for ^ ■oiliiitr wh 
the skin on in water; a handful of salt should be ruhVd to a quantil 
contained in an average sized pot. They require boiling ft.r two kou 
or more, and when, ready they arc peeked and oaten with a !i?t!< la:t:e 
In Frsnce, children of the lower class eat the raw tubers simp 
removing the skin before doing so. 



Miss North's Gallery. — The collection of botan 
y the late Miss Marianne North in all parts of the 
y her with the building containing them to the Ro 

light indications of deterioration. The advice 
icighton, the President of the Royal Academy, w 



pictures frequently exhibited, :iml which would be explained by the 
paper absorbing moisture. 

Tin- preliminary treatment of the picture-; was placed in the hands of 
Messrs. William Dyer and Sons, of 7, Mount Street, W., who are 
at the Nat; 

they were then carefully washed, after drying covered with a thin coat 
of mastic varnish, and finally dried at a temperature of 60 degrees. 
They were then covered with glass in their original frames and pro- 
tected at the hack with a board. Both the glass and the hoard wen' 
earet'mly pasted over at their edges with paper so that each frame is 
now practically airtight. 

With the view of leaving no pr -reserving to 

posterity so popular and valuable a collection, Her Majesty's Office of 
Work- decide,! on inithcr lining the whole of the gallery with match- 
boarding. Upon this the pictures wen- reining in a more convenient 
way than had been m'ginally tin ployed. 

Opportunity was taken at the same time by Her Majesty's Office of 
Works to make sumo necessary repairs, in the gallery and to renovate 

bust of Miss North has been placed. This j s the w„rk of Mr. Conrad 
Dressier, and is the gift of Miss North's surviving sister, Mrs. Addington 
Symonds. 



Tropical Africa. — The Germans are very active in collecting plants in 
Tropical Africa, and the Herbarium has received considerable additions 
from these sources. Among them a set of about 1,000 species collected 
by Mr. C. Hoist, in the Usambara country, in Ka-t Africa, situated in 
about the sanie latitude as Pemba Island. This collection \va.- admired 



by Or. A. En 

Then- are.es 



icorpt':;. From the ('a 



h in novel) 


:ies, collected by Dr. Prei 


i v.. ai 


id presented 


the Director of the Royal Botanic 




den, Berlin. 








belonging to 










their nam< 


JS on record here. 


Hot 




■-Profes-or 


Macowan, Government 


anist, Cape 




th and 16th centuries of 




!h -harhnn 




was commenced by him 




Mr. Harry 
s, as usual, 




by him alone. The specimen 




any rare and desirable p 




usly known 




of novelties. Acanthoskyos 




■iirbilacci 


is plant, native of the cou 


ntry 


near Waal- 



167 

Presentation to the Library. — Miss Catherine Sharpe, of the Grove, 
Ilampstead. has presented a copy of the thirteentli edition of Linnams's 
Sy sterna Natures. This is not the _ • iih edition. 

edited by Gmelin, but one printed at Vienna in 1770, and a mere copy 
of the twelfth. It is on the same footing as the so-called third edition 
of Linngeus's Species Pla I at Vienna. 



Wheat Cultivation.— As far as the British Isles are concerned the 
ultivation of v iv.lv an English u^v. The total 

creage for the United Kingdom for lS9d was in round" numbers two 



the Pit 



. Lahore, 27th Febru 



Second Report on the Wheat Crop of the Punjab for 189c 
The area now estimated to be under wheat in the Province i 
exactly the same as that shown in the first forecast. The tot* 
7,584,200 acres against 7,o7o.:jOO acres, a slight increase of 
cent. It is an excess of 4"4 per cent, over the figures giver 
second forecast of last year, and of 0'5 per cent, over the figure 
final forecast. In Hissar the aiva is said to he 32 pi r e.-nt. be 
of last year, as the rainfall (here was neeuliarlv favourable in 1« 
failed somewhat early in autumn of 1803. This is the only 



' India be take 



the Kcu' Bi 
distributed in 


'";,'';; 


(XXIII. \v 


cm 



" 20 tons per acre may be obtained. The green root has yielded 
" 1146 per cent, of tanning, and the dry material 3162 percent. A 
" peculiar feature of the roots is that they contain 18 to 20 per cent. 
" of starch which necessarily causes some difficulty in working." A 
detailed account of Cauaigre tannin is reproduced in the Pharmaceutical 
Journal (XXIY. [3], pp. 42-45) from the American Journal of 
Pharmacy of April 1893. The latest information is contained in a 
Foreign Office Report (No. 1336, Annual Series, 1894), furnished 
by Mr. Horace D. Nugent, Her Majesty's Consul at Galveston 
(pp. 17-18). 

"Canaigre is a tanning agent. It is a species of sour dock, and the 
dried root contains about 33^ per cent, of tannic acid, or a higher 
average than the very best oak bark. It grows wild on most of the 
Xew Mexican plains or 'mesas,' and in that state yields from one ton 
to four tons to the acre, and in rare instances, five tons. Under very 
simple cultivation and scanty irrigation the yield is at least 10 tons 
per acre, and it will average 10 tons to 20 tons. The United States 
experiment station attached to the Agricultural College at La Cnnes 
' rigated, the other dry. The habits 

fi uuou; .....u^u i.nu iLTuna'd. At Doming, extracting works 
5 been erected, and the product is being shipped to several tanneries 
I the United States and England." 



Artificial products 



L. Matrucbol describe a method, first 
ptes rend us, for July 3, 1893, by which 



•haracteristic of natural spawn, and when placed in a 
jd grows and produces mushrooms normal 1 v. 

I. The production of a Pure Spawn or Mycelium.— K\ present 
cultivated mushrooms are subject to several diseases, the germs of 
which are introduced along with the spawn. 

II. Choice of Varieties. — Certain vari< ties, especially the one having 
the cap entirely white, are most esteemed in the market. By the 
method described, it is practicable to perpetuate any desired variety in 
a pure state, a condition not possible by any other means. 

III. Permanent production of Spawn. — At present the production of 
spawn is intermittent ; by the culture process spawn can be produced 
ihroughou! the year, which is an obvious advantage. 

The authorities hope to apply the same method to the cultivation of 
other edible ?pec!cs. as the Holetus and Morel. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW, 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

No. 90.] JUNE. 



CCCLXXXVI.— TREATMENT OF DISEASED SUGAR- 
CANES IN THE WEST INDIES. 



Another point dwelt upon is thai the ili-i-.-t.-.-il cunt-, diiveih they 
diow iliemselves. should bo cut out in the liolds and burnt. This pre- 
caution would prevent the- r-ptvad ot the disease during the season of 

Lastly, it has been recommended that after the canes are cut and the 
crop 'is over, the stubble and refuse left on the fields should be burnt. 
This would tend to cleanse and purify the land by destroying the 
spores, and alibrd hope for more immunity from disease for the next 



1 to Kew by the 



ped out and then the pieces within 
) Iinniedint. iy after tlie but nin^r :dl 
tools, canes, tops, bnsli, rubbish or 
d he ino^t carefully collected, placed 



(b.) hniuediately 
canes, tops, bush, 
e most carefully 
After the stools 
. ) and (6.) young 
cation of disease 



%.) That the plants be taken from fields unaffected by any disea 
and the greatest care be observed to most scrupulously exami 
tlit' plants themselves ami ro throw out all hut the strongest a 
healthiest looking; (/>.) The plants selected lor planting 



plant. 

, s|i..l„ 



|,,.!i.-.. 



t on them. 

2. As regards resolution (2) (a) the maximum limit of 14 days has 
been recommended in order to leave it to the discretion of planters to 
burn within a day or two after the cutting of the piece or to delay the 
operation until after the stools have sprouted, not later than 1-1 ilat/s 
aftt /■ cuttiiuj to suit the nature of the soil and the opinion of the 
iinih Mual planter. 

3. The members of the committee, whilst hitherto more or less fully 
convinced of the absolute necessity of some such course, have now 
heeome positive as to the dire necessity for carrying out immediately 
the measures recommended, or others as experience may hereafter 
prove as more efficacious, with intelligence, energy, perseverance and 
above till unity of purpose, as they find that preci.-ely the sarnie measures 
were enforced by legislative enactment by the Government of Mauritius 
some 20 years ago, as the only possible mean- of freeing their agri- 
culture, within a i'ew years, of an iuseet (the borer) which threatened 
it with certain ruin, and also from the terms of the letter from Mr. 
W. Thiselton Dyer so recently as March this year, forwarded to the 
Governor of the Windward Islands by the Secretary of State in a 
despatch dated 24th ultimo, on the subject of the fungus in Barbados. 

4. The Committee therefore, as the only means of securing universal 
and combined aetion throughout the Colony, urge in the most pressing 
manner on all proprietors of estates and on all and any persons having 



H. A. Hazel] t 



(Signed) d. G. Cor 



the reports that reach Kew is 

in the Kew° IhiJhfin, 1S9'_\ 
f the Rev. L. Guiklin» from 



S ground and BWU 

• The following D 









My""- v,rv 



..pinion of 
;es Depart- 



CCCLXXXVII.— THE CITRON IN COMMERCE. 



dessert and confectionery purposes. The juice of the fruit is similar to 

veiv iuterestiiej use of lie iruii < < !v come into 



In a Diplomatic and Consular Report issued by the 
[Annual Series, Xo. l.'i.VJ, 1S91I, on the trade of Tri< 

Two° kinds of fruit are imported. Odc is used for 

of' the Jews. 


Forci* 
■ste. Mi 
hrou.ii-h 


The total import into Trieste in 1893 was about 5, 
Haggard's account is as follows : — 




« The citron trade through Trieste is of great intoro 




importance. There are two kinds of fruit imported, ea 


ch inte 



called the • Citron inr th- Fan," is the natural, im 
fruit gathered from .ingrafted trees from June to\\ugust 15. The 
latter is solely used in the religious ceremonies <>f the .lows at the time 
of the Feast of Tabernacles, and from a commercial point of view it has 

through Trieste. 

"It is an enterprise „f givat antiquity. For centuries past it has 
been the custom for Jewish merchants from Poland, Russia, and 
Fa-tern Europe generally to collect at Trieste about the month of 



dy lately "this [tort has been 


the sole centre for lh< 








. it to be especially chosen for tin 




f pirates in the Levai 


ps from travelling further s 


>uth to purcliase at the places ol 



fo give some account of the origin of the trade one mus 
le Bible in Leviticus xxiii., v. 40, where are specified s 
uonies to be observed on the first dav of the Feast of r \ 
he English Authorised Version the translation app 



Jews, who th 
from its fine c 



—-*—.-- 


Chapter vii'i., 


■ ng i! viir hei 


English Revised 




■tfj£*-M 


"And ye shall I 

first day the boughs 


Lord your God 


MM 





possible, prices varying enormously 
of the specimen-. f haw been ereil 
fetched of lute year- a- much as .]/. 
for as much as 1/. each. 

" It is absolutely necessary tlml 
ih-1 tor this reason (be* 



aid that through Jews becoming gradually I 
f Europe the demand for 'Citrons for the 1 
it facts point to no such probability at. present, 
ay to plant Curl her, as prices are even now « 






owadays in favour of those from the Ho 



1 


imposed by the Rabbi 

■umv. /'All Iniit' fbr 


s upon the 


y>-\ 


, 'w^.a!; , :\;il,! i h\ ! :nu-:; 


itLT'S 


•ary 


suppression of this Ion 


inn Islands 



Thfl packing of the fruit, 



oons.Mjnence ot the prohibition by the Rabbis of the Ionian 
i citrons, there lias, of late year-, been an enormous falling of 
ply. Probably over oO.Oob ; Citrons for the Law,' with the 



:;;r : - 



" It is difficult to so]iar:itn llio quantities of citrons imported Ivy 
.Tows for thoir Foa>t from thnM> fin- ordinary consumption, bul 

boon about 5,000 tons in 1H93, almost all of which wnv .Win oxiio 



" Inquiry as t 


o the exact 


localit; 


jr of thei 


i- product i 


on has re; 


suited in 


fixing it at a pla 

ancient Hebrew 
Moses, Aaron, 
Government is r 


ee called A; 


Tim!' 


thai tin 


nkottln- 
i authority 


rhich is in 

, bv the , 
r of the 


!! ie in"m 


David, A.c 


] : { 2; 


river, "it 
s a very 


" Jewish infoi 

other place but A 


^Is-huM 


u'r tin 


■ijtid that these ' troons ' come 


th'-butl.'- 

,»-ad(.i- In 
of this 


StmlS 


s tM 'llo'i! 



CCCLXXXVII1.— NEW ORCHIDS: DECADE 9.* 

81. Dendrobium Hildebrandii, Iioif, .- p~rud<>bull>i- elongatis robustis 



/.'///>■//// 2-;{i pull. I.mgi. li'ruch-.f :\ tin. longa-. F><]/in//n |"-li poll. 
longi. Sepa/ti lf>— 18 lin. hmga, I lin. lata. Petala 6 lin. lata. 
Labellum 16 lin. longum, 15 lin. latum. Cohonna 2 lin. longa. 
Mention 3\ lin. longum. 

A handsome species collected in the Shan States by II. H. Hildebrand, 
Esq., in April 1893, and sent to Messrs. Hugh Low & Co, of Clapton, 
together with lning plants, which flowered in their establishment a 
year later. It has tin- general habit of a strong D. signatum, Echb. f., 
to which it is perhaps most allied. Tin- sepal- and petals are somewhat 



one of the plants he counted upwards ol 
ulobulbs show it to be as floriferous as 



82. Dendrobium hamatum, fiolfe , 



itrialilms l»it-\ ilnis irmieati- ].:iti lh . ronea\ i> in t cinx ■« li. » suborbicnkri 
i i-jH.iiii.lulato. disco h\i basi in callum brevein caniculatum produelo, 



This is n verv distinct specie which flowered in the establishment of 
M. Alexandre Kegnier, of Fontcnay-sous-bois, Seine. Fiance, in April 

theVvctioir/Y,///^,,,,,.l,ul. M,'i',r as can be a>eei tained." i- nciv ditlT-r.-nt 

purple d«.ts more or less suffused together. The pandnrafe lip i> light 



: - ■ ■ • . 



Ccelogyne swaniana, Ko/ft 



i appressia 



I'svi'dnuii/hi -l-:\\ poll. lODgi, \ J 

I poll, loniri. SfjHiln 14 Hi., lon^a, I lin. lata. 



Epidendnim EUitii, Rolf, .- cauli 



I. lata. Petala ],m.i11 
i flowered tl 11 



pale lilac-rose, and the crest yellowish wh. 
in the cavity in front of the 1 1 1 1 i 
86. Bifrenaria Charlesworthii, Rolfe 



IIab.— Brazil, prov. Mi 



I- alio fi-J) poll, l.-nij;.. 1-1 \ ,>,,]]. 



Oncidhuu lucasia 



Psemlobulbi 1-2 j 



lin. longa, 3-4 lin. lata. Petala 3-9 lin. k-n-a. .'> lin. lata. Labellum 
9 lin. longum, 10-11 lin. latum. Columnte alee 2\ lin. longre. 

A bright yellow-flowered Onridium which bloomed with Messrs. 
V. Sander A. Co., Si Albans, in April last, and received an Award of 
Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society. Its affinities are a little 
doubtful, but Mir united lateral -.pals and broader petals would techni- 
cally place it in Lindley's group Tetrapefubi via,- r«p< tola, of which it is 
the first-known species with heteromorphous flowers. In a revision of 
the genus the character derived from the union of the lateral sepals 
would certainly have 1o take a much more subordinate position than 
Lindley gave to it. Onr of the flowers received has the>e organs free, 
which would suggest another affinity for it, yet a search in other groups 
has not led to its identification with any described species. If greater 



Podochilus longicalcaratus, /fnffr : caulibus 



A species with precisely the habit of P. unciferus, Hook. f. (Fl. 
Brit. Intl., VI., p. 81 ; Ic. PI., t. 2145), and, indeed, confounded with 
it in both the works cited, though it is constantly different in having the 
spur-like mentum over three times a> long as' the rest of the flower 
instead of only equalling it, as in the Indian plant. It lias now been 
introduced from Borneo by Messrs. Linden, I. 'Horticulture Interna- 
tionale, Brussels, who have presented a plant to (lie Kew collection, 
where it is flowering prnl'uselv. The Mowers are semipelhieid while. 
with the petals and lip lipped with ro- \ purple, and the sepals less 
distinctly so. 



CCCLXXXIX.— COLD STORAGE OF FRUIT. 

n a prrr/s of pamphlets issued by the Department of Agrieuiti 
'ests in New South Wales, given in the First Report, 1M 

i regard to the eold -forage of •• deciduous fruit," and the 



, peaches, nectai 
fruit. The latt< 



Harbour, Messrs. Hudson Bros., lessees, having kindly placed a 
chamber of 50 tons' capacity ships measurement at the disposal of the 
I )epartment free of all charge. 

The system of eold --forage employed was one in which an even 
temperature combined with a constant influx of cold fresh air was 
maintained, and this system, or rather principle, is the only satisfactory 
one for use in the case of fruit, as a merely cold air without the necessary 
ventilation and influx of fresh air has been proved to be insufficient to 
keep fruit in good condition for any length of time. 

The fruits experimented with consisted of the following varieties, 
viz. : — Apples, pears, plums, peaches, nectarines, grapes, mangoes, 
pine-apples, tenia tees, and : is-ioit fruit, and were obtained from fruit- 
growers in various parts of the Colony. 

Different materials were tried for packing, and the fruit was tested 
under various conditions, wrapp. 1 ight eases and 

The averti p ■•! was- H'74 degrees, and was very 



mes satisfactory. 



without any appreciable loss for a period of two months, when 
stored inn cold A\y fresh air. maintained al iuichmi average tem- 
perature of 41 degrees to 43 degrees; provided thai tin- fruit is 
carefully gathered, hand I id. hi Uomishctl 

fruit is discarded. Apples will keep equally as well if the tcm- 
• perature is raised 10 derives. but the orb r fruits require the 
lower temperature. Two months allows for the extreme outside 
time required to place the fruit on the English market. 
. After heimr ivmowd from (ho cold :for:irro. the fruit keens in srood 



decay, is there! >y prove 
Soli fruit, sucli as peach 

without, deterioration 
variety, thereby preven 
markets with these frui 
The cost of cold storage by the method employed is u 
e of fruit to 



ng to a certain extent the , 

s during the height of the ■ 



present used for the conveyance of fruit to England 

At present the three u r n .it 



' fru 



ii the majority of cases. No 



maybe most, economically ; n 1 . 1 -urfv; fully <\utk 
incuts are likely to ltc of' ^rc.-it wilncto flic fruit 
Colony in general. 



CCCXC— SISAL HEMP AT THE BAHAMAS. 



Colonial Office to Royal Gardens, K 



COLOMAX OffiCf. 

ment Hoose, Nassau, N.P. 



jessarilv follow that i 
nature of the plant 



An account, with 



brought to my attention, since th 

the device patented in 1892 b; 
Joseph C. Todd, Paterson, N.J. 



lnco of tin- slKM-sniul to cl.-an and 

nmv hi- olrNHMl im d wa<h.-d aftrr 



CCCXCL-GAMBIA PAGNS OR NATIVE CLOTHS. 



I«\ <mall worms. Corn i- planted between the rows, -which i- 
iii August. By November the cotton plant is 3 feet high, and 

of cotton grown in tin- district, om ■/:% in- a perfectly white thr 



uickly, and it looks very easy, 
13 I breads broke. When they 



CCCXCII.-MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Albert Linney, a member of the pardoning staff of the Royal 



liu-bed with n.»y red. an I M n-k and of an 

Uu lbl< l'l\OM. [)l. Il-I , , III ] . m . .i\ . >| Tl» I - |»li'.t b. di. 



Rubus lasio8tylus.— Thi- i'Ihih-h -,.. u , inin.duivd i«, »-niii\ation 
ilanujih Dr. Ibnrv. i- n«m aa^vnn- in tin- IJuUb colh-ction :.l Kcw. 
It is a distinet j,l i th , , k i s -, _,,,., hha m.l whitish 

oelow, and flown.- with ro-y-pmp , tal ! i t.-r tbnn the lon£ srpal-, 
and with hairy -tyh-, Ii i- apparently quite hardy. 



Pyrus crataegifolius — Hul li 



Omar Khayyam's Rose.- 



11 l»s! nth, I /... 



Diarrhoea Plant"— The Rev. Dr. Wan 



The collection of portraits of distinguished botanist* and traveller.- 

which is exhibited in .Museum No. I, has recently received an 
liliiion in the form of u plat isiely pe i »! i< >t . .- r;t [ >h <>f Mr. (iiles Munby, 



( /„'„','„' 



Annals of tlie Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta.- 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

tt.] JULY : [ 

CCCXCIII.-COMINO TREES OF COLOMBIA- 

{Aniba perutilu, Hemsl.) 



n- for building purposes as we 



:.-ntl»v Mr. (ionlm,. at ihe • 



1892, pp. 614-615 






colour of a vello 



Mb, Vich-Oonsui, Gordon to Hovai, < I ardens, Kkw. 

British Vi.-i -On-idai.-. i\bd.llin (Colombia), 
Sir, 25th September, 1893. 

Acting under instructions dated l'.lih June 1893, from H( 

Majestv's Minister in P>oe;ofa. i ha\e the honour to advise. ha\ in 
forwarded through the British Viee-( \>n-nl in Harranqnilla, to ym 



s..m1 lor l.nildin- purposes, the latter 
Both kinds are identical in so i 
■aves, I -ranches, seeds, &c, are tin 



CCCXCIV.— ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF CITRIC 

AXSlD-(Contiuuation). 



Office to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Downing Street, 

June 23. 1894. 
Secretary of State for the Colonies to 
to your letter of April 19th last, the 
if a despatch from Her Mai. •sty's Ambassador at 
» the Earl of Kimberley, respecting the artificial 
acid at the Mainifacti.r\ of ( hinu-ai Products at 

(Signed) ' R.' H. Meade. 



Berlin, June 13, 1894. 
our Lordship's despatch, No. 29, Commer- 
I have the honour to state that, according 
have received from the Imperial Foreign 
en made at the Manufactory of Chemical 



CCCXCV.— SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE TO THE FLORA 
OF BRITISH INDIA. 



India, iind the liiuni-s in it haw pri rit\ uvcr Hio< i in !! - '■■ ir_i."- 

ffortus Bengalemis. But Bottler's paper not being at Kew, the cita- 

tbe present list has therefore been prepared for reference. In 
De Candolle's /'rotlromus, fn.m - ^i;alh mini.. 



Hook. f. Gen. PL II 
name" Gelomum. Bi 
bf Bullion. 



rtabotrys odo 



Tamarix gallica, A/W 77. />/• 
Tamarix ericoides, Rottl. ; FI 



orbiculata, Ro 
villosa, //'/'//,/ 



Erythroxylon monogynum, Re 
Eeinwardtia trigyna, Planch. 



Chickvass.'a tabularis, A.Juss.: Fl. Brit, L«l. 
odor:,!:,, Willtl.ru X< m Srhriftcn, IV. p. IDS. 
Salacia prinoides, /Af. ; 77. />/•/>. hid. 1. p. f)'J() ; 

Vitis repanda, W. rt A. ; 11. Brit. Tnd. I. p. 6 
AW//, ,7 /J7//,/. ;,, Xcr S,/,rif/r,i, IV. p. 183. (So 
p. 12.3.) 

Allophyllus Cobbe, Biutne .- Ft. Brit. Ind. I. p. (.7 

Buchanauia angustifolia, Bn.rh. : 11. Brit. Intl. II 
Odina Wodier, Ro.rb. ,- /■'/. /,V*7. 7W. 1 1, p. 2!>. 

Crotalaria hirta, /r///J. .• /•*/. Brit. I ml. II. p. 70 
Schriften, IV. p. 217. We have failed to find the 

Crotalaria mcdieaginea, l.amh. .• /•'/. />V/7. /W. IT., 
NemSchriften, IV p. 217* 

Crotalaria Trifoliastrvim, WUld. ; II. Brit, Ind. 

Crotalaria orixensis, Rottl .• 11. Brit. Tnd. II. 
Pseudarthria viscida, //". et ./..- /•/. Brt*. Tnd. II 



Rhynchosia anrea, Z?.C 

Rhynchosia snaveolens, i 
Rhynchosia densifiora, /A 
Pterocarpus Marsupium, 

Caesalpinia digyna, Rottl 



Acacia leucophkea, U'ilhl. 



Acacia Sundra, 



Ccplmlaiidr.i indicn, Xainl. ,• /•'/. Brit 
RhyiicliOi.'iirp;! fiHida, S,-finnf. ; Fl. />'? 
Coiallocarpus epigaea, //no/,-. /'. .• Fl. ft 
Trianthema crystallina, Fa hi.-. II. 
Oldenlandia brachiata, Wit/lit : II. II ri 

Randia dumetorum, Lamk. ; Fl. Brit. 
lipularis. liottl. ct IFilhl. hi Xatt Sc/in 
Canthium didynnun, Gaertn. ; Fl. Br 

Spermacoce hispida, Linn. , 17. Brit, 

Jasmiiium vigidum, Zmh.; Fl. lirit. 
Wrightia tinctoria, Br. .- Fl. Jirit. 
Sarcostemma intermedium, Decne. ; 



Ipomcca obscura 
Ipomcea Beladan 



Ipomcea palmata, JFor 
Physalis peruviana, 



Limnophila polystachya, Bern 

lemmodia nquatiea, WUUl. '. in 1 


th.i Fl, Brit. 


Lid. IV. p. 260. 
V. p 213. 


Dopatrium nudicaule, Bam. ; l 
adicaulis, Rottl et fVilld. ! in A 


Fl. Brit. Ind. I 
Teue Sckriften, I 


V p. 274. Gratiola 


Lepidagathis cristata, Willd. ; 


Fl Brit. Ind. V 


I, p. 516. Acantlius 



ri>tntus, Koeni;/ ex Rottl .' in Xe/n Sckriften, IV p. 204. 

Justicia glauca, Rottl.; Fl. Brit. Ind. IV. p. 529; Rottl. in Xcne 
<ckriftcn. IV. p. 219. 

Khinacanthus communis, Xees ; Fl. Brit. Lid. IV. p. 541. Justicia 
ichotmna, Rottl in Xeue Sckriften,lV. p. 221. 

Verbena 

t;i. Willd. 



Ud, ; Fl Brit. Ind. IV. p. 609. O. verti- 
cillatum. Rottl. ! in Xeue Sckriften, IV. p. 202. 

Celosia patula, Willd. ; Fl Brit. Ind. IV. p. 716; Willd, in Xeue 
Sckriften, IV. p. 198. C. glauca, Rottl. in Xeue Sckriften, IV. 

[Euphorbia glaucescens, Willd. (i.e., E. rosea. Rottl. not of Ret z) in 
Xeue Sckriften, IV. p. 183. Not taken up in lluoh. f. Fl. Hi it. huh 
Boissier, in DC. Prod. XV. part 2, p. 116, reduces it to E. Orardiana, 
Jiiiu.. whirl] appeals doubtful.] 

Acalypha alnifolia, Klein ; Fl. Brit. Ind, V. p. 415. A. capitata, 
A. foment.^, Willd. in Xcne Sckriften, IV. p. 220. 

Mallotus repandus, Muell. Arg. ; Fl Brit. Ind. V. p. 442. Croton 



Hottl. I 

Gelonium, Fl. Brit. Ind. V. p. 458, is Suregada, Roxb. ex Rottl ! in 
Xfio Sckriften. IV. p. 206, and GL multiflorum, ./. Juss., <i. lanoeola- 
tuni, Wild., and (1. gloinenilaturn. Hasd-. {Fl. Frit. Ind. V. pp. 459- 
460) must be repla.vd l,y Sure-ada mult illora, Bnill, S. angiustifolia, 
Baill, and S. glomerulata, Baill, respectively. 

Ficus heterophylla, Linn. f. ; II Brit. Ind. V. p. 518. F. repens, 
Rottl. ct Willd. in Xcne Sckriften, IV. p. 208. 

Cyanotis papilionacea, Schult. ,- Fl Brit. Ind. VI. p. 384. Trades- 
eautm eristata, Rottl in Xeue Sckriften, IV. p. 246. 

Cyperus nitens, Rottl ! in Xeue Sckriften, IV. p. 193 is C. Tene- 
riffa?, JPoir. 

Cyperus corymbosus, Rottl' in Xcne Sckrijh n, IV. p. 215. The 



Cyperus fastigiatus, Rottl.' in Xeue Sckriften, IV. p. 210. The 
plain eniierted December 3( ). 1799, i - < '. e.xal latus, Retz, but other speci- 
mens marked "C. fastigiatus " in herb. Rottl. belong to C. platyphyllus, 
Roem. et Sch. 



Cyperus dubius, Rottl! m Xcw Scln-ifta, IV. \ 

..llerlr.l M:,rch 4th. lNOO.isC. crpludulcs' Vahh l"-it 
erb. Rottl. belong to Mariscus dn-eanus, A'«»tf*. 
Scirpus plantagineus, Zfotf /. .' «* A r e«e Schrifte 

Scirpus brevifolius, i?o«/. ^ Aei/e Schn'fteu, IV. 
Scirpus capillaris, 7?of//. tn AY«e Sckrifim, IV. | 



Panictan sanguinale, X. 



Panicum neesianum, JF". e* ^4., C< 

Panicum cimicinum, Bete. ; /»W//. 
nd 194. 
Panicum fluitans, Retz. P. brizoide 

Oplismenus compositus, Honn. >t 
Setaria glauca. Beauv. Panicamgk 



rird. Bei 



Andropogon aciculatus, W\ 



Aristida depressa, llctz .• liottl. in Xr/tr S,lirift< ,,, IV. p. 195, 

Milium tomentosum, Kornig c.v liottl. in Xrt/e Svhriften. IV. p '" 
AVol. il v..n<,1tuuM<lKot I l,T- 1 ,e,; !! . . ,,-. \\ { , v \\,Vu 

Xr, Mi<).- A.. .iMinr-.l "Milium l.montOMi.i.. lib. Ilevne." agrees w 
Koltlcr's description. This, however, is Panicum subeglume, Trin. 

Sporobolus coromandelianus, Kunlh. Agrostis 
fiottl.! in Xexc Sc/n-ifir,,. IX p. 194. 

Enteropogon melicoides, Sees, rschsemum melicoidcs, Kocniir, 

Ischaemum laxum, II. Br. Andropogon nervosum, liottl. in A'< 
Schriftm, IV. p. 21S. 
^ Melanocenchris Perrottetii, Juab it Sparh. Ponmioreullia monoi 

Eragrostis nutans, Xcrs in Wight Cat. n. 1780. Poa nuta 
Eragrostis plumosa. Link, var. riparia, stnpf. Poa riparia, Wit, 



Eragrostis pilosa. Beam-. Poa iixlica, Kocniq cv liottl. i, 
Eragrostis major. Host. Poa polymorpha. Koeniq cv liottl. 

Eragrostis coromandelina, Trin. Poa eoromandelina, Ko 



CCCXCVI.— CULTIVATION OF VANILLA IN TAHITL 



ring the Export of ^ 



Yea, Qua,,,.,, V,,,,., 


Year. Quantity. J Value. 


1883 - - : 2,726 818 

1836 - - j 8^408 2,'522 
1887 - - j 7,610 3,044 


1889 - - - SJSU V.'.S 

1890 - - i:,,ss~> :i.24S 



"Vanilla beans have decreased greatly in value during the past livu 
years, owing to the overstocking of the San Francisco market. During 
the month of December they enhanced slightly in value ; but no marked 
improvement can be reported, and, in my opinion, none will be realized 
until the 15 tons of Tahitian vanilla in San Francisco are sold. America 
is the largest market for the Tahitian vanilla, and all grown on this 
island finds a market there, with perhaps the exception of about one 
ton. which is sent to other eountri 



CCCXCVIL— VANILLA AT FIJI. 



Despatch from the G 
a sample of the last \ 
and observations as t 



[Enclosure.] 
Sir J. B. Thurston to Lord Kn 



2. It affords me |ilr;isurc to >tatr tliiit -incc writing that Despatch, 
Mr. Leslie Iv Brown, one of the leading residents of this port, has 
taken up the subject with much energy, and upon his own account 

3. With the aid of an expert, who is a native of Mauritius, Mr. 

uhi'-h'l '.'a, r-anl' , \ } ^ -hh <u eess ul. though I do', t' m.bt 

The Bight Hon. the Secretary of State 

Royal Gardens Lew. 



The Hon. R. H. Meade, C.B. (Signed) D. Morris. 

[Enclosure 1.] 
Messrs. Bubgoyne, Bubbidges, & Co., to Boyal Gardens, Kew. 



[Enclosure 2.] 
Messrs. Bubgoyne, Bttrp.idges, & Co., to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

AViTii reference to the packing of the vanillas, the best way is to 

nit th<-in into tins holding from lo to "JO lbs., let the corners of the tins 






(Signed) H. Arnold. 

iCCOunl given in the Annual Report of the Governor (No 

>\), the following particulars are furnished respecting : 

!-d from Fiji to Melbourne. Messrs. Langton 

& Co., wholesale druggists, of Melbourne, report a? 



now before me the original sample you sent me to report upon. 
beans are plump and well cured, and are beginning to thro 
splendid crystals. In future consignments it will be necessary 



An account of Vanilla cultivation with hints for fertilising 
flowers and curing the pods was given in the Kp.ic Bulletin, l v 
pp. 76-SO (with plate). The other references are as follows : — Not, 
collection of vanilla pods in the Kew Museum (No. II.). \b\)\. p. 2 
Disease of Vanilla. Seychelles, \s\V>. pp. 111-120 (with plate) ; Vani 



CCCXCVIII.— FLORA OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 



Barringtonia racemosa, Blmm — I 



n the Solomon Islands both by the Kev. K. 15. Comin* and Mr. H. B. 
juppy ; but the description has been drawn up entirely from a specimen 
•ollrrhd by ihe oflien- of II. M.S. « Penguin," except the reference to 
" habit and Hie colour of the flowers. 

'his plant is named after Mr. J. E. V 

> collected most of tlir plants herein emi 



Bikkia gaudichaitdiana, Ad. 



tof Nov 



Brongniart describes several species of liihhia in the place cited, 
including one from the Marianne Islands ; but Drake .lei Castillo (Morr 
de la Polynesia Fmucaisc) and other writer- on the Flora of Polynesia 
have overlooked them. ll'ihhiu urauditfnru, Keinw., has been collected 
in the Solomon Island, by several persons. 

Randia coffeoides, Ik nth. <t Hoik. f. (Sty loco n/,u cojftoitles, A. 



: 



Hoya inconspicua, He. 



A( ANTHACEJE . 

Eranthemum whartonianum, Hemsl, n.s 
A'. variabiU siniilis sod mnjus floribus 



Yufex 1-2 |.e.l. altus pin- 
Fb/ta distincte petiolata, 
vel superiora intordum 




aris. J7o>w albi {(.i>i VP! ,), \-\\ poll, longi, 
i terminalibus, inferiores cymosf, cymis 2-.1 floris distincte 
iculatis, superiorcs in axillis. bractcarum subulatarum breviter 
ellati vol subsessilcs. Mipivmi intordum solitarii. Cali/ck puboruli 
ubglabri segmenta sulmlata, \\-2\ lineas longa. Corolla tubus 
s, cylindricus, angu-tus, apice lev iter wntrieosus ; limbus circiter 
^as diametro, obliquus, antice raagis productus, segmenta patentia, 
>r ina?qualia, ovali-oblonga, apice obtusissima vol rotundata ; 
alia brevissimc exserta. f'npsiila glabra, elavata. circiter pollicaris, 
i medium tantum scminiiVra. d-spenna, deorsum attenuata, apice 
indurato coronata ; semina pallida, valde compressa, rotundata, 

bis was also collected by Mr. H. B. Guppy, both in Treasury and 

»rium commun , ^ who reported 

ig received ii from the Solomon Islands. 

ptain W. J. L. Wharton, F.R.S., Hydrographer to the Admiralty, has 

:iallyin the Pacim re much pleasure in con- 

anthemum pacificum. Engler, Jahrb. vii. p. 47o.— Kew previously 
ssod this plant from tin ~ md ■ •«,, „<,', „ iU ( Milne, 544 ; Vcitch) ; 
'liristoval, (Milno, 177) : Purdio Islands (Ilollrung) ; and Dr. Engler, 
e place cited, refers specimens from the New Hebrides (Moseley), 
Vow Caledonia (Lenormand), which we do not feel so sure about, 
is species. He also refers here the plant sent out in 1878 by Mr. 
am Bull, under the name of //,■,/„//„ ,„,.,„ „u,r< seem. Perhaps 
ctly, but the venation of the leaves looks very different. 
grvtn, Linden (111. Hort. n.s. t. 404) is probably the same as the 
, and is also recorded from the Solomon Islands. 

PlPERAClLE. 

)eris species dura mdetermmatav- Both of these are plants of an 



lea hypargyrea, A. G 






Ubticace^. 
Ficus species diuu indeterminate.— Only the chin 
ition. One of them is very much like the familiar 
inch smaller. 



-This is a very (list inn ;i|^:in m l\ umt.-ni^,! -preies, 
: material is too rotten to permit of a sati-fartm-y de -eriptuni b. -nig 
drawn up. The Rev. R. B. Comins collected the Bame spe< i. - m th.- 
Solomon Islands, and the specimens are in much the same condition. 

Dendrobium lineale, Rolfe.— Also collected by Mr. Guppy, and there 
are cultivated specimens in the Herbarium recorded from New Guinea. 
It is exceedingly near D. veratri folium, Lindl., and possibly only a 

Dendrobium Goldfinchii, F. Mmll. in Kinfs Southern Science 
H,eor<L .January lss.'J, ex descriptione.— The >aim- sper„> Ma- 
collected in th. A..: ■:.!'.!;. M.mmU ^- thi- la-- IV..:..— . >i .M.-<-l-y, on 
the vovage of the " Challenger." and both Mr. Guppy and th.- Ib-v. It. \\. 
Comins had proxioush .-.dl.rt.-d it in the Solomon Islands. Sir 1- . 
Muelh-r "ives no dimensions, and his description is in other respects 
not quite sufficient to arrive at certainty with regard to the identity. 

Dendrobium hispidium, Rich. ?— Also found in the New Hebrides 
and Eastern Australia. 

Bolbophyllum, sp. nov.?— It would require too great an ex|,-,i<!hnre 
, i .;„ ,. ti> determine wlu-tlier this :, ,,n.- of the wry numerous oesenhed 
species of this genus not represented by authenticated specimens in the 
Kew Herbarium. 

G-rammatophyllum.— Detached Mowers only of a marked species. 



CCCXCIX.— METHODS FOR EXTERMINATING LOCUSTS 
IN THE CAUCASUS. 



rk-nftl,e 
option of 
ence they 

. In-nelieS, 



places where deposits of lueu-ts are di.-ci.verod ;ts early as the 
inn, it is recommended thai «l:n i 1 1 o ■ that mmmhi, sufficient i ; nan t it ;■> 
raw, when available, as \\ oil as weeds -lowing on the fields and 



is will eaeerlyerawlot.to them d, 
-e, they should be set alight on diffe 
is mode of procedure is extreme! 
the uystem previously adopted by j 



e by two feet four inches deep, 
; from each swarm of locust-, into 



of all those hitherto employed. 

The Earl of Kimberly, KG., I ba\ 

fcc. &c. &c. (Signed) 



CCCC— PRESERVATION OF BOOKS IN THE TROPICS. 

The care of any considerable collection of books in a warin country 

vm Notes, vol. iii., No. 3 

(1894). 



The 
In April 11 






renders the books t 
kerosine oil, but 1 



It may he useful to add thai in tlm Indian Mu^um Library, wheiv 

naphthaline upon each shelf, little or no damage is caused hy insects. 
From a note furnished hy Mr. R. (jhapman, latr librarian, it appears 
that tlic paste used in binding the Indian Museum bonk- is poisoned hy 
adding ahout half an ounce of sulphate of copper to each lb. of paste, 
while books already infested are disinfected by shutting them up for four 
or five days in a close-fitting box of loose naphthaline with as much of 
this substance as po-vdble bet yccii the leaves. 



CCCCL— TABLE OILS FROM BEECH AND LINDEN. 



A line >nmpl 


e of 


oil obtained 1 


'rom beecli 


I nuts (F. 


7///AV • 






> Kew Musei 




late J)r. 




his .ample is 


-till i 




Hid is of 




yellow 


,M-iv n-snuhl 


ingtl 




soil. Im 






,e,a rally ,na 




the fact that 


; "the fruits of th 




it in this coii 




at least no attempt has 






1 in quantity 


. D; 


r. Seemann's 










iv al- 


o the refuse of the nut 
o develop the product i< 


-U Of oil 


al-o fi 




i'yv/'. 


'" >">■<,;, a a, L.). The 






report props 


ired 


by Mr. Alfr 


,-d C. Jo! 




ie U.fc 


tultgart, and 


puhli 


shed in Dece 




:~ 





■en the groat scarcity of the 

. of oil, but when the nuts 
be gathered, the fact that 



CCCCIL— CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES. 



Tiik Imi'okiatiox OF Vk..i:tai;ii- 



time, asparagus has been sold l;ir^cl\ on the sire.'! stalls. What is 
more important for every-day wants, is the profusion of potatoes, which 
find ready purchasers. The question naturally arises, -whence comes 
this constant and seemingly unlimited supply? Is it wholly of home, 
or partly of foreign production ? It is, indeed, well worth the answer- 
ing. Take, as an instance, to begin with — potatoes. In the middle of 
May, this year, in the streets, and in the poorest classes of shops, new 
potatoes were offered for sale. If anyone 10 years ago had stated that 
the labourer's wife would be able to purchase such a luxury with her 
few pence, and yet be buying what she could reasonably afford, it would 
have been reckoned an utter absurdity. Nowadays it is an undoubted 
fact. The round new potatoes in question come from the Mediterranean. 
From the end of January to Paster, Malta supplies us with these new 
spring vegetables. This importation, however, seldom lasts beyond 
the middle of Mav : si ill, while it does, it comes t>ver in considerable 
bulk. Of the best-cla^s Maltese rounds and kidneys over 800 or 900 



the sweating cause,! by the long voyage in case. Following the 
first Maltese supply comes that of Maderia'aud the Canary Isles. This, 
be it said, is of far better quality, as is the case with all vegetables 
hailing from the Canary Islands. Bui the pick of the early new spring 
potatoes is undoubtedly that which arrives, rid Paris, from Algeria. 

kidneys, in every way equal in quality to tho-e which are grown in the 
home country. But the short transit must not I «rg, I en. A 

terranean (even occasionally from Lisbon, although of somewhat poor 
quality), and, not over frequently, r/V/ Calais, and even at times from 
Havre. As to old potatoes— from Holland. /•/.; Rotterdam— all the 
eastern ports and the Thames are constantly furnished with somewhat 
inferior produce, grown mostly in the neighbourhood of Haarlem. In 
September come to hand the excellent Belgian kidneys, in many 
respects the very best in the market, mcalv, drv, sweet, and clean. 
These are brought from Western Inlanders, rid the Port, of Antwerp. 
Indeed, in the vast district around Oudenarde. the campaigning ground 
of 1708, a well-dressed tourist can hardly make his appearance in any 
modesl village or hamlet without being welcomed as a possible great 
crop buyer, for potatoes, be it known, are bought up by the field. As 
to the winter importation proper, tons upon tons become the property of 



sale to 150 tons, provided prices be fairly good. The supply is as 
absolutely unlimited as tlfe demand. ( hiions are <r r own in < very part of 
Germany, from the Baltic to the Danube, many bags even being the 



produce of Hungary. As to Spanish onions the supply is rapidly 



ago fetched 14*,, 16*., 18s.," and 21*. "are now a 
market as low as from 5*. to 8*. From Western I 
the freights of the savoury root are small compared 
are brought n'ii Antwerp, Rotterdam, and Hani 
spring produce, as may be expected, comes via Pari 
Foreign cabbages are not much valued in our 
Yet it must be owned that the poor would be b 
this healthy vegetable if they relied only on tb 
which, at the earliest seasons of the year, would 
reach of their purses. The cabbages sold at the 



; i,;;:,,^;; 



Duteli and French, as "the 'Us. 
produce of our southern counti 
popularity of the caulitlower in il 
a good crop being easily obtained 
from the beginning of April to the 
to its hardiness and much slower • 
market, though never realising gr 



Five or sh 






case- of 




middling cla 


regarded as 


fruit 


■: :!, 


• market) 






one rostrum 




s few 




It 


may be fairlj 






sold 






the 100 cases 


hack. Astc 


.the 


Pnmcl 


i toniMtos 


llm; 


v are mostly gr 



Tii the early part of the year the high- 
e bought on the street stalls by the poor < 



packing to a fine art. A most 
work be slovenly, without due e 

some hail from Madeira. The ( 
supply the London market, nc 



the first early lots mostly come from the Riviera. 

It may be safely said, then, that all ont-of-season vegetables -lettuce, 
cauliflower, spinach — are of French exportation, arriving, rid Paris, 
from Africa. How is it, then, that Ave have no direct communication 



gardeners might conceivably produce sir 

■I mild vegetables; but whether they c; 
o, or, at least, they are not much to be 
Of course, the soil of Algeria is peculu 



tut Flanders can also boast a growth of the most delicate greenstuff. If 
fanning failed here at home, surely market gardening of a rough kind 
might be made profitable. Even if our countrymen have not the 
requisite skill and application, or the habitual carefulness of the high- 
class Continental irrower.s and their workpeople, they might well take 

delicate productions, high-class English cut flowers can hold their own 
against foreign importations. Why not. then. Kuglish vegetables? 
Tomato growing has been found to pay; in fact, the Knglish tomato 

before, the tomato ha- become a singularly popular food with all classes 
throughout the country. As to mushrooms, one or two very small 
mushroom farms have been started, just beyond the north-western 



CCCC III— PRODUCTION OF PURE TURNIP SEED. 



{Copy.) 

Woodbine, Upton Park, Chester, 
Sin, June 4, 1894. 

I Air not sure that I am right in addressing myself to your 
Department upon the particular subject upon which I am about to write, 
but if not perhaps you would kindly say to what authority 1 might best 
apply or refer me to some reliable printed statement bearing upon the 

J want some information to confirm or correct impressions of my own 
upon the question of hybridisation or cross fertilisation. The question 
may be hrietly stated thus. Where Swedish turnips have been planted 

(and therefore in I. loom at the same time as the s we 
upon land contiguous to the surface ? It used to be a 
standing for " seed " should he isolated and sepai 
Brassicas (all of vvhich are in flower at the same 

all in full flower at the same period. 

On questioning the seed firmer, he tells me recent 1 
be advanced that swede and common turnip separa 

perfectly -afe and would not be hybridised. 

If you would kindly give me your reply or refer me 

of recent authority or printed ■v-pori upon this subject 

Yours faithfully, 

The Secretary, _ (Signed) EdMDI 

Whitehall, London. 



Roval Gardens, Kcw, 

June 20, 1804. 
owledgc the receipt of your lettc 



CCCCIV.-MISCELLA.NEOUS NOTES. 

The Flora of British India.— Botanists will congratulate Sir Jo 
Hooker on the_ completion of ilu- sixth volume of his .-.eat work, 



British India will 
flowering plants left 



>nce the elaboration of t 

uparison of the species of the world 

j large and generally dispersed gener 



tical synopsis of the plants ol tin.- 



Flora of China. — The eoi.linuati 


on of Mr. Hemsley'* 


- Enm 








appears in the' .i,n,rn„l <f th, Li, 










:,-m; 


Master- ha- mvparod the Com 


ferrr, and Mr. C 


. B. ( 


( 'i/pi )■<<>■, „-. The present part c; 






the l-:„ L ,hvrbiuct(c. 







African species of Musa. — Musa livingstoniana, Kirk, and M. 
prohoscidea, Oliver. These two species of Musas belong to the sub- 
genus I'hijMH-aulis of Iiaker. eharacleri.-ed by bottle-shaped stems and 
inedible fruit-. .!/. lirini/stoniaua was described by Sir John Kirk, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.Ik, in Linn. Journ. ix., p. 12S, from' the mountains of 
Equatorial Africa. In habit it i- indistinguishable from Mnsu AVve,r, 
but the seed is much smaller (only one-third of an inch in diam.), tuber- 

Kew Museum there is a ii.-ckh-.cc of ".-inuiar -,■»,!> irou-ht by 
Barter from Sierra Leone. M. proboscidai, Oliver, is ti-ured and 
described in IIcoluSs lames Pluntarum, t. 1777. The stem is four 
times the height of a man. The plant is known only from seeds and 
photographs obtained from Sir John Kirk. Its habitat is supposed to 

species is remarkable for the extreme length of the rachis of the panicle. 
In Sir John Kirk'- plant thi- drooped down and eventually become so 
elongated a- to reach nearly to the ground. The seeds art- about \ in. 
long, with only a small hollow at the hilum. J/, prohoscidea has" not 
yet been under cultivation in this country. 



■2>u 



At Kew, 31. livingstoniana has barely survived under a variety of 
treatment, none of which proved successful, for a number of years. It 
made a fair growth during the summer, but invariably died down during 
ihe winter months, finally failing to stari again in the spring. 

Sir John Kirk has been good enough to give the following further 
information respecting the two plants: — 

Wavertree, Sevenoaks, 
I)i:.vn Thisblton-Dybr, June 23, 1894. 

Mum lir;„v«to, t i«,in 1 first discover* d (but not in flower or fruit) 
in the Shire Highlands, where I found the seeds were strung and worn 

It was not heard of again until a native collector brought me plants 
from the Southern Usagara Hills behind I.agameyo, in what is now 
German Hast Africa. I put him on them by shewing him the Nyassa 
seeds, which I happened to find exposed as an article of sale in the 

native bazaars in Zanzibar, where they were used by the Xyassa slave 
women. It was in geniicr nie these plants that he also brought me ripe 

to be the M. proboscidea, which I knew nothing of until it grew up and 

As to the 31. proboscidea you see although we have the plant and 
know far more of it than we do of the other, we know it only in cultiva- 

up abundantly from -elf sown seed, but whet her it is .-till there I cannot say. 
However I will have a photograph taken off the negative of the plant 

my old garden, and I will ascertain if the plant is -till in existence, 
which is doubtful seeing that it form- no rootstock but conies up always 
from seed. The only hope is that, the natives (freed slaves) used it as 

the slave population may have kept it going. 

(Signed) ' John KrnK. 

Monstrous Cone of Pinus Pine*.— The Kew Museum is indebted to 

ment of a cone in this species, which so far as can be judged from 

The cone which is apparently fully developed and normal has 
produced from its apex a stout leafy shoot, which at tirst only six inches 
long, after severance from the parent tree lengthened to more than 
a foot and produced three branches. The shoot is in fact in no way 
different from a normal branch and the feature of interest about it is 
that it was able to continue its growth for some time at the expense of 

The circumstances arc fully described in the accompanying letter; — 
l'rovineia de Sevilla (Espana) 

394. 

the Kew 



crown of that fruit. Generally these cones fall only a 
discharged their seeds. This one fell on the ground (how, Id 
with the seeds still in it. It was picked up in a large Pi 
forest which I own in this neighbourhood by one of my kee 



Handbook of the Flora of Ce; 



British India, a lifth will he necessary. 



Visit of Botanical Officer of Gold Coast to the West Indies.— ' > the 



Grenada he saw bourn ie .-tai 
at Trinidad and British G 
gardens and numerous tropica] industries offering a wide field fej 

observation. !io\i-;ted '-a numb, t of private estates in each colony 
" and carefully studied the mode of cultivation and the methods ol 
" curing and manufacturing the produce." Mr. I'rowther is satisfied 

b ■ • .- •■ -.,.:■ : .. 



that Mr. Ci i - i most beneficial in its results to the 

the wide ■ xp. ii< ... e and knowledge of an officer who had a!rend\ shown 
himself capable of excellent work in the Colony. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



U L L E T I N 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 92.] AUGUST. [1894 



he li'ibr Musccc .forms a part of the important Natural Order 
AMiNEiE, which includes numerous economic plants such as Arrow- 

Turmeric, Cardamoms. Ginuvr, and Cannas. It embraces four genera, 









rays of the hot sun from 
the dark-hued folmgr <>t' 
flowers with their ll.^hv, 
nches of green and ripe 



roves ol cultivated plant 



Tram. Ray. Hart. I 

a, with which as a 
d fruit consumed by 1 



L\ Klrsl.v-IVuit.-«I Uanan.-.s, with .1/. 
usually edible. 



Moiv re.vntly, in 189 
'„,„//' ../•/;„/„„„■, V,,l. 



" 1 " '"■"*" ? H"n,r!ili r n'linfalu.v'ule 1 ,' 'hm. it' V.^lTS]' '^' 




M 



i leaves smaller than the rest. 

Observations tm this point have been n 

stem of M. sapientum, about 12 month : 

flowering when nearly, but not quite, fu 



body rising in the ce 


litre about 


S im'-li 


es above ill 


p attachment of 


outermost loaves. From the apex oi 




the flower bud 


already started. It 








diameter. The bud 




found 






rase it had evidently just begun 




v. (2.) In , 


i plant of M:Ba.s 


apparently fully gro 


wn, the co: 




sis was 10 i 


inches in diainele 


the base, invested at 






e\v leaf-sheaths. A foot hig 


with the stem of leaf- 






in diameter, 


the flower >t,dk 


an inch and a half i 




•. By 


carefully following it, the to 


the flower bud was 




3 feet 


from the h 


aso. forming a e 


shaped body easily 
leaf-sheaths. Here 


rr£ 


bnd « 


, bulging or 

a- round nb 


it of the innerr 
out one-third of 


way up the stem. 


<:].) Fina 






sapientum that 






aed. 1 




12 feet high. . 


foot above the conical base the 




g stalk, cut i 


hrough, was one 










! same diameter 










12 feet high, ch 


invested by the leaf- 


sheath*, m 






amongst the pet 


of the leaves. It the 


■n became < 


•olout'e, 


1 green and t 


tarred downward 



emerges the flowering spike, which tapers very slightly upwards. 
Only tin- uppermost pari ot it becomes exserted from the leaf-crown, 
and it is often furnished here with comparatively diminutive eauline 

the rachis. Each cluster is subtended by a large spathaceous and 

the spike is erect, as in .1/. IVhi. In .)/. ,lis,ol<n- it is drooping, and as 
long as the leaves. In M. probosculva is nearly as long as the 
pseudo-stem (5-6 feet). 

The bracts are most conspicuous and large in all species of Musa. 
They are imporianl in the discrimination of species. They entirely 
cover the half-whorls of flowers, and are so densely laid one upon the 
other that they form a sort of flower cone, which the Malays call 
djantong. The lowermost bracts are always larger and more elongate, 
and bear usually no flowers in their axils.* The nature of the outside 

smooth and glossy to almost polished, f'uriiidies good distinctive 



uiped protuheranee- of the rachis. They are usuady arranged in two 
iws and subtended by the bract. The lowermost clusters of flowers -"v 

■n.'iallv female 01 pi-tillat< or «> Km, describes them le 
male, as the >i;u.^ - an iv b, •■ 1 or absent. The whorls fu. ' 



general sense the lowermost lh 
male flowers. Hence it is o; 
that produce fruit, and the nor 
at this part, while the male 

cone formed by the innermost bracts of the male flowers. Fertilization 

in banana- is probably alb-cted by the action ol' the wind ; the pollen is 
spherical and smooth. In M. AVv<-/v, Km/, describes the pollen grains 
as tubercled. Tn many cases the conditions are favourable to seli'-fert ili/a 
tion, especially when the whole spike consists of hermaphrodite flowers. 
I nder glass it would no doubt be an advantage to fertilize the ilouer-, 
:ti titicialK . as theivhy a in..n abundant crop •>! (Vail would be pi ml need. 
and rare species preserved. This was successfully done at Kew in regard 
to M. Knsetv in lsbt). and repeated with other species later. Cross 





lli. 


apex. Tl„ 


• p<fuL 


place 


ill 




others the ; 


mfhersa 


im.m 












tin 


'I:: 


i fruit is s 

:,o; eylmd, 
d)jecied in 


the wh 


.r.iy 



, In one motion ,P/^oc,,/;> ! ,l,einn, 

dible-fruited species the fruit, when ripe, 

ged with blood red, straw-yellow, yellov 
vhite. It may be from 3 to 10 or even 18 

lueed, as in the singular "duck plantain" 



quite recurved pointing upwards parallel uith th. ■ raohiu and over- 
lapping each other. Again, the fruits may be loosely arranged, hardly 
touching one another ; or they may he compactly or even densely 
crowded together so as to completely hide the rachis. The Jamaica 
banana, for instance, has the fruit- "compactK hut not densely arranged. 
recurved, almost parallel with the axis." In the Surinam banana 
; laxly arranged, the first series somewhat re-curved, the 



t spreading nearly at right angle 
arf banai 



iding outwards, hardly over- 
pping." The plantains (the vegetable) have generally fewer and 

> wards like a horn.'' The individual fruits are usually larger than in 
u- banana. The pulp firm and the colour yellowish-green, or yellow 

The frail clusters are called "hands." Each hand may vary from 
to 10 (or in exceptional instances) to 18 on each spike. Again, a 
md may consist of 8 to 18 single fruits or "fingers." The total 
amber of fruits produced on a " bunch " may he as low as 24, or as 

igh as t>50 or more. The weight of a bunch may be from HO to 90 

A tier fruiting the stem dies. Its place is however taken by several new 

mots or stolons thrown up from the base. These grow closely to- 
'ther, and the next year two or three may bear bunches of fruit. 
Hien once planted the produce of banana trees on a small area is 
^•optionally large. Hence Humboldt has calculated that, although 
'ss nutritious than wheat or potatoes, yet the space occupied l.y their 
ilture and the care required render the produce of bananas compared 
• wheat is as 123 to 1, and to that of potatoes as 44 to 1. 
The bananas (using the word in a general sense) are amongst those 
iltivated plants of which we know the wild stock ; we are also 
jquainted with one or more intermediate forms between the wild and 
iltivated so that the transition in the evolution of the puh>\ Inht 
' the 
I New Caledonia, accord- 
ing to Dr. Sagot well-formed seeds are not very common, and hence 
this species exhibits even in the wild condition a tendency to abortion 
of the seeds and a compensating hypertrophy of the pulp. * Musas in a 
wild state are chiefly found in India, the Mala v A ichipelago, Cochin- 
China, Philippines N'orl hern Australia, and the "islands of the Pacific. 



iizi mm of M. olcracni is boiled or roasted like a vim: and the inner 
ml of M. Ensrtc is a .source of food supply in Abyssinia. In some form 

ie numerous uses to which they are put in various parts of the 
orld are only equalled possil.lv by the palms and bamboos. 
The three sub-genera into which Mum is divided by Mr. Baker 
re as follows : — 
1. Sub-genus PhySOCaulis (Swollen -stemmed Musas). — Stem 
bottle-shaped and usually not stolonirerons. Flowers many to 
a bract. Petal usually tricuspid;, te. Fruit not edible. In this 



31. proboscidea. Of 
■ ad M. t 
lis ofN 



xuperou ami M. mpalaisi 



Wallieh and is .niite unknown at the p 
2. Sub-genus Elimusa (true Musas). — £* 



Bracts brig 



Male flowers, about L() in a row - 'd. M. Buchanam. 



Hilum of 

depressed 
Indian : 



Dwarf species, 



Sub-genus K'n.uxx iii.amvs, tiuher. Stems slender, 
ylindrieal. .Male flowers few to n bract. Fruit not 
enerally edible. Usually stolon iferous. 

Fruit edible; bracts yellow-brown - 24. M. metadata. 

Fruit not edible : 

Leaves large; fruit distinctly stipitate - 2,3. M.mmalnnu 
Leaves smaller ; fruit not distinctly stipitate : 
Bracts pale or .lark lilac: 

Fetal shorter than the calyx - 26. M. violascens, 
Fetal nearly or quite as long as 



Bracts pale r 
Bracts blood- 
Fetal much shor 



Sub-genus Physocaulis. 

Swollen-stemmed Musus. 
risk is prefixed to those species and varieties of which 



MusaEnsete, iimvl, Aby»inian Hanana. Native name "Ense 

igh. Stem swollen at the base, not stoloniferous. Leaves ob! 

sometimes 20 feet long and :> feet broad with a red mid 
^densely imbricated 9to 12 inches long, dark claret brown, h" 
eons, dry, 2 to !i inches long. Seeds 1-1 Mack, glossy, nearly 

road with a prominent raised border round the hilum. Dis 
/.- — Mountains of Abyssinia to the hills of equatorial Afr 
,vard of Victoria Nyau/a Lake. The largest known banana. ' 
s of a specimen that flowered at Kew in 1S7S are preserved in 
Museum ; also a series of seeds from Abyssinia (Flowdeu) : Nya 

(Kirk); prepared fibre from stem from Abyssinia (Flowdi 



.1. . iil..>M.v Mi Mnn-i- ( Xfifirc tt,n/»/Ju. l-'ihn I'hnils. 
as having- ■' leaves 20 feet long; the stem about 8 feet in c 
;i! I lie base, with a height of .'50 feet: the total weigh! 
plant was not less than a quarter of a ton." An illust 
• the Ganh 
is well adapted for sub-tropieal 
California. Hernia. Algeria, and (/a nan Ha mis. and i< often put out for the 
summer in the London Parks. When establMmd in sheltered situations 
it is a very ornamental plant having a noble and majestic habit. The 
fruit is useless for purposes of food. As the plant produces no offsets 
and perishes after fruiting it is propagated entirely from seed. 



*2. M. vein 


;ricosa, Welu 








o 10 feet high. Stem n 


swollen, 4 feel 












to 5 feet long, 










red midrib. Differs i 


other specie^ - 


A' this seetioi 










Evsctv. See< 


Is large, dull 


hi a. ! 






Wstniwthm : 








Pungo Andongo, in r< 


pines near ri- 


quiets 10° S. 1 


ai.ln 


WYhvii 




M. africana, Bull. Ca 


probably this 


species in a \ 




State; : 




o a plant lately receive 














are in the Ke 


w Museum. 










3. M. Buchanani, Baker 


. Ne 


arlv nil 


ied tC 


i M. Ensete, but the bi 




ong, 1-11 f, 








broad. Flowers 10 


row. Seeds : 






1; ?' 










ved IV- 






i Buchanan, C.M.G., 1 


the Shire Hi- 


■■hhuHls, Kast 


Africa 


, 1.SS5. 







M. livingstoniana, Ki, 



M. proboscidea, Oliver, in // 



i Zanzibar. Kew Bull., loc. ci, 



Sir John 



M«,/., i. :*.S4!)-f,o. Whole plant reach- 
lc luisc, narrowed jo .*> foot below the 
i>t globose, a foot in diameter, finally 



K>-lo eaeh. Petal >hort. i rieuspidate, with a large linear central 

eds very numerous snb-glnl.ose, angled l., v pressure, \-\ inch 
imoter, smooth, brown. Dixtrihutlm, /-Western Chant's of the 
at Nasik, Chavai. According 




Inhibition] 1886. 

unpublished drawing h\ Wallh-h new at hew. Il ;- not anywhere in 
cultivation. Dr. Kin-. F.K.S.. in a lell-r dated Calcutta L>2ud Anpht 
isftt. writes:— "I do not believe in the existence ot the species which 
Wallich called 
find, any sp< 



\Vallieh"says il -iw<. Wallieh must have d-scribed Roxburgh's 



Subgenus Eumusa. 




diameter ;ui(l crowned with 



i ground. The spike is ci 
i> \-t\ 1,.«-<1.;.' This intei 


oif'the^ouSde 




■d ,1/^sr/A/. 1 


e'ol , -n-m, the imb.M, 
v of pulpVu tV..' In.it." Tin 


t.-ncv'ol' ill! th< 
s Abbe Del avai 



e h:is grown il in his garden for fo 
ok/v/. r/r 7A>/., vol. iii. (lSftfi), pp. I 
*9. M. Cavendishii, Lamb. M. cl 



obtuse, narrows 



stout. Spike dense, oblong, 
own or dark brown, ovate, the 
inches ; male flowers and their 

Fruit as many as 200-250 to a 



hire's s.-at al Chatsw. !, m i!i Samoa, Xai -ato. Island.-. 

again, in 1848, the Rev. Geor-e Prit.-hard carried it to the 
i or Friendly Island,, as well as to the Fijis. Its introduction 

an effectual stop to those famine.- widen pi< \ iously to this event. 

easionally experienced in some of these islands. Never attaining 

r la igbi i ban i> feet, and being of robust growth, the Cavendish 



l" M. Cavendishii is in the Kew Museum, 
Nathaniel Wilson. 
■unk cylindrical, 5 feet long, \ foot diameter. 

■I hi"h : snike -hor!. M-curv-d ; flower- ab 



13. M. corniculata {Humph. Amhni,,. V. 130), Lour. Fl. 
Corhinch. 644; native name in Cochin-China, Vhnoihoi. Stem 
cylindrical, 10-12 feet high, as thick as the human thigh. Leaves 
oblong, green, 5-6 feet long; petiole 1-U feet long. Spike droop- 
ing, only the 2-3, rarely 4 lower bracts and flower whorls 
developed, the former oblong-lanceolate, a foot long. Calyx deeply 
live-toothed. Petal ovate-acuminate, nearh as long as the calyx. Fruit 
cylindrical, a loot or more long, 1^-2| inches diameter, narrowed 

thick; pulp reddish-whit.e, firm, dry, sweet, very palatable when cooked. 
Distribution : — Malay Islands and Cochin China. Kurz compares the 



No doubt this i 

al Eeirandaa 

*15. M. Fel 



//. Sor. liotauiquc <h /',;,, n 
M. Banksii, /'. M*eU t M 



\\ \l i.< ■' . I .1 s ' K.'n'm . ■ the fruit (fron 

Sir F. von Mnellei ') and seeds (from Mr. L. A. Bernays, C.M.G.) are Urn 



- - i 



ff.textilis, AV, ,- (M.nimdauen^,////^,/,). M 
high, stoloniferous from tin- ba.-e. Leaves < 



a! all pruinosr, 1,,-nwn. l-nude Mowers in several laxly- 
listen. Fruit green, oblong trigonous, curved, 2-6 inches 
i diameter, not narrowed to the apex, but narrowed to the 
i stipe, not edible, but filled with seed. Seeds blark, 
< inch diameter, angled by pressure. Distribution: 
tribute,] and "uhivnfd in fh- Philippine Elands undci 



M. Basjoo, Sir/,. ot Zm 



in Southern Japan. Inlmiluci <\ inm ciilliwuion in Engla 
Veitch of Chelsea. Describe! from a plant iii..t tlo 



Mr. J. H. 
*M. Ma 



21. M. malaccensis. A'"" 



M. flava, /frd&y. Lo 



entioned by Roxburgh {Corom. Pt. t. 275) as grown from seed 



Plantain am. Uanwa 



Alexander saw it in In. 
pr.sUs in Malabar. Sm 
fruit. Hmr,- ihc l.otani. 



ami ,.r Pmmlise." 

Again, "there is an immense numbe 
the south of Asia, both on the islam 



useful plants, wild or cultivated, in Me 
of the discovery of America the l.anana 



ntam, being also more mellow and soft, 
cate taste. They use this for the making 
s, and it is best when used for drink, or 
good for bread, nor doth it eat well at all 
only necessity that makes any use it this 



Qrisebach describes the stem of the plantain as "green' 

fruits " ascending " (or curved upwards) " about a foot lone 
curving upwards is characteristic of the Horn plantain. Inn 
distinctive enough to separate plantains and bananas in genet 



shorter and usually covered will 
flowers. The individual fruits 
firmer and less saccharine pulp 



"When in fruit, however, the case is different. Thine is then a 
character, observable at sight, which only requires to he pointed out for 
the merest novice in the .subject to he able to tell which is which. 

Thi- character is that, in the banana, after the fruit has set and begun 1o 
develop, the succeeding (dusters of Mowers, often a hundred or more in 
u umber, and their large embracing bract- arc deciduous. /., .. drop away, 
leaving a clear absolutely naked, long extended and still elongating, 
stem or axis, hanging tail like 'J-'-l feet beyond the fruit, with the 



* specimens, (iaertner. Iiowcwr, pointed out that 
n seedless and seed-bearing plants was valueless, 
the original wild forms of all the numerous 

ertain uell-d, ■lined area-, siieli as those of Ceylon, 
, Siam, Cochin China, Indian Archipelago, ami 
vild forms and the eultivateil varieties are growing 



jruinota ("Keling" 

Leaves very glaueo 
outside, red inside, 
.j inches long by I 
| inch diameter, p 
Seeds of this are i 



I)!-. Kin- thiiiU ill- 



Sub-genus Rhodochlamys. 
Red-braeteated Musas. 



ping or erect; bracts pale HI uc or i eddish-lilac. Fruit ohlung, 
inches long, hut 111 t i< • pulp, scarcely edible. Seeds }, inch 

oiH-.-m. Flowered sit Kew in 1HS1 and 1800. Introduced to Europe 
.Mauritius about 1805. 



29. M. vehitina. Wt-utU. and Dnuh. in UvqcL Cartcnfl., 18/5,65, 
t. S23 ; M. dasyearpa, Kvrz. llal.it of M. *<,,,</>'< inn, . Bracts bright red. 
pubescent on tlic outside. Calyx pale yellow. Fruit velvety, bright red. 
Distribution .- -Throughout the forests o!" Assam (Mann). Introduced 




Oi. EF 



Cultivated Vakieties. 



(Min- s, 


jctiou. There arc, l.ow- 






■f conf, 






hi i.Kt. the information 






"" "f ' 


>nr knowh'iljfc it is only 



1'fi! 



tor rooking purposes. The rustali is, however, tin- s.-rl generally -old 
as table plantains, though not of so good a quality :is the former. A 

rooking fruits of the Presidency. The pau-valaij or llower plantain 
of Madras is described by Ivurz as " curious and rare." 

In Bengal the table plantain \< the be-t. This is grown entirely for 
the consumption of Europeans and well-to-do natives. The. champa 
is the next best, and, like the piveedim:, is ,,( lin.-i quality during 
the rains. The term kuuch [katch] holla is employed genericallv to 
embrace all field-cultivated plantains. These are hardly ever allowed 
to ripen, and are mostly used when unripe a- a vegetable. 

The dacca plantain (described by Horaninow as M. darn/), although 
mentioned as one of the common Indian forms is dismissed by Km/ 
with the remark that, "although much cultivated in European hot- 
houses, it is little known out of them." The stem is pruinose : 
leaves paler-green than in M. sapientnm, glaucous beneath ; border 
of petiole red. Fruit 4 inches long by half as broad, remaining tijitiv 
on the branch; its tip and stalk bright green ; -kin very thick. 

If identical with the dhakhai mentioned by Liotard, and -aid to have 
a long fruit, with light pink soft flesh, it is found in abundance hi India, 
but only in the east of Bengal. It may also be \\w (larva mentioned 
below by Firminger. 

hardening for India, 
plantains cultivated 



Daccde or darrar-amrtaban. Has a thivour surpri-ingh i 
iscious. The plant is recognised by "the large quantity 
ke powder coating the stem and under-side of the leaves. 'I 

4 inehes ion-, with a very thick rind." [A specimen of t 
nit of M. dakka is in the Kew Museum from Mr. H. II . 
rown at Alexandria, Egypt. It is very angular, and in sec 
aeentas are strongly marked.] 

Kuut.la. An inferior in, it, t hough the one cultivated mo- 



, probably t 



Mdkl-bhSg or mohun-bhdg. Highly esteemed by some, but probably 
not much superior to the kuntcla. 

Ram kela. In good condition a remarkably fine fruit, much resem- 
bling in flavour and buttery consistency the daccde. The stem and 
footstalks and midribs of ;i dark red colour. Also the flowers. The 
fruit is about 7 inches long and rather thin. This Firminger names Musa 
rubra, now reduced as a variety of M. mpicntum. On the other hand 
M. rubra of Wallie-h is a seed-bearing species allied to M. coccinea. 

Dwarf or Chinese Plantain [M. Cavendishii]. In Calcutta this is 
exceedingly difficult to obtain in perfection, as it is uneatable till quite 
ripe, and en its becoming ripe commences almost immediately to decay. 

Arracan plantain. 9en1 from Arracan by Captain Ripley, who 
observed, " If well manured the fruit of this tree is one of the best 
plantains there is ; the old trees yield particularly fine fruit." Besides 
the above, Captain Ripley sent to Calcutta eighteen other named sorts of 
plantains from Arracan, of eleven of which he wrote in high commen- 
dation. The monngbya has the skin " of a dead white and very thick." 

Captain Ripley was acquainted with 10 kinds, described by him 
from Arracan in the Proceedings of the AgrL/lorf. Sac. India, x., 
PP 50, 51. 

The hnet-pyau-meng (ro\al planiaih) lias fruits up to 15 inches 
in length and as large round as the fist. It is generally eaten roasted 
whole in the skin. Rakoing-hnet-pyan-bhee or Arracan plantain {Musa 
arakemensis, Ripley) mentioned above is also valuable for its fibre. 
Nothing further is known of this plant. Specimens of it are desirable 
for herbarium purposes. 

Tnthe Punjab \\u- hela, whieh may be a true plantain (M. jjaradisiaca), 
is largely grown towards the east of the piains of this province. There 
are fewer varieties and the quality of the fruit is poorer in the Punjab 
than to the east and south. At Mussooree, in the North Western Pro- 
vinces, there are only three kinds of bananas cultivated. These are 
rai hcla, bara /tela, and chota kela. In Oudh the only plantain 
that flourishes is a large-fruited one called desec kela. A small sweet 
fruit called jmritban, probably a local corruption of Martaban, and the 
chance champa or red Bombay, are also grown, but neither thrives well. 

Moon, in 1; ... phm -.give- only lhe Singhalese 

names and their English equivalents. His list of bananas (pp. 71-72) 
comprises as many as 47 kinds, thus rendering Ceylon richest, in 
varieties, the Indian Archipelago alone excepted. 

Of Musa para, tisiaca (•• anawalu-kes.d " of the Singhalese) Moon 

hesel aetamburn (seed), and anawtilu-kf^cl-gal (rock). Cultivated: 

black, buffalo, champa... lion, and monkey. 

Of Musa sapicntnm (" kesel " of the Singliale-e) there are wild. 



I ' fce* are mch names 
diya), black {kesel kalu), and others known as i 
cornered, scented, golden, cracker, pingo, clustered, bitter, k 
powdered, &c. 






■2C>:\ 



Mu.su Trnyhflj/hifiint <-f M.H.ii (- u.-.w.-.ri kesel " ol t lie Singhalese) 
is said to be wild in the mountains of Kandy, although not mentioned 
by subsequent writers. Of this there are said to be three cultivated 
sorts, nawari-kcxd sm/ii (while), itawari-l.usc! huln (black), and 
nawari-hesel tis (thirty). The wild plant is nawari-kesel acta. 

Thwaites mentions only one wild species in (Vvlon. bis " wal-kaike! 
gas" (Mum sapieatmii), and lie adds this is the species from which 
have originated the numerous varieties of sweet plantains in the inland. 
K1117 remarks : " There seems fo he >emcthine, u-ioii.u" in 1 1 1 i - statement, 
considering that Moon has eight wild kinds, of which one (his M. 
Tnu/Inihitm-iiin) should have an erect spadix." 

Sawers {Mem. Wcrn. Soc, iv., 403), refers to the wild species of 
plantain found in the mountains of Ceylon as follows :— " It was on 
the sides of these rugged hills that we 'fust saw the plantain-tree in a 
state of nature. When uncultivated the fruit of this plant is com- 
paratively small. It contains a great many seed- and has but little 
pulpy matter." 

Philippines and the Indian Archipelago are regarded as the 



t regions in bananas. Blanco's researches were chiefly confii 

se of the Philippine islands. He divides them into two classes, 

st containing thick-skinned bananas and the second thin-skinned 



Vee observed 27 varieties of 
or any remarks upon them. 






in/ nilit tubal (golden banana). The fruit is live-cornered, and 

ihiekeM -kin of all t lie bananas. 

ng medji. The dessert-banana (M. mensaria of Rumph), is 
jst of all bananas" The fruit is about 4-G inches long; it 
prickly, is yellowish, and the skin is easily removed. The pulp 

sweet, and deliciously scented, as if with rose-water. Always 

■ of M . <■< ///a), is similar 
ty. It is, however, much smaller, 
rdly the length of a finger and an inch thick, smooth with a thinner 

iere it is replaced by the preceding kind. Probably nearly allied to 

Pitting sin/nt/i i> short and thick. The pulp deep yellow or red. 



s small, short r 



eating raw when fully i i p« - ; otherwise it is 
st be boiled. 

Pisang cananya ketjil. This has the short cs 
\e-. and is onlv about as high as a man. 'I'll. 
n very thin, fragile, and can' hardly be remove. 
,- that "'they can be taken off with the mout 
d on a bunch. The plant is only sparingly sol 
} , isuii(j to.ihul hint/it has an upright fruited >]>; 



ang nun, (Musa sylvestris of Colla), is the 
a. One form (the Mindanao of Rumph) is 
ig Manila hemp. The other (Ambon vane 



'th'.Vir very bun- are of a brownish-red a- well a< their hunches of 

nisang batoe or bidgi (stone or seed pisang), which is not 

beaten. Therein vet another kind of Mum the wild pisang, " whose 



Nooten's Java, 18G3). 

Rigg, in his dictionary of the Sunda langua, 
10 names of plantains in Western Java. The ? 
for pisang or plantain. The ino>( lingular i- (lie 
described by Kurz as " a very rare variety ; I In 
the stem before it is protruded hence, likened i 
the sambatu the limits grow together, as if 
Marsden, in his history of Sumatra, menth 



pisaru, I„„<1 I \ rved in spirit, ai , ih. l'vn Mil, u 

Mr. J[. X. Ridley, F.L.S., Singapore, 1894. 

varieties of plantains and hananas that eaiue under his ol»er\ 
the East, as follows :— 

"Last on my list, but by no means least amongst the tropical 
Eastern gardens, eonm- the pisantj. or l.anana, which liere, as e 
wherever it is cultivated, is represented l.y many varieties, whieh 



from Mr. II. F>. Guppy, and from Tir 

plantain- (probably forms of M. Ft 
grow wild in the mountains. " Th 
baked, hut most unpalatable when r 



The different varieties of banana- and plantains cultivated in trop 
Africa have not been investigated. The oative names quoted appro 
stand simply for banana or plantain, and, except in one or two iDstan 



do not apply to the varieties. At An i with a very 

ornamental variety of M. sapientum, which he named .1/. mnq inea. 
In this the "leaves and fruit are strongly ringed with blood-red." 
Another ornamental plant, also belonging to M. sapientum, and from 
West Africans M. vittuh, figured in jint. Mu<, t. 5102. This has 
the leaves and long fruits copiously Griped with white. The bracts 
are bright red inside." It was imported iub> tins country in the first 
instance from the Portuguese island of Sao Thome, in the Gulf of 

Burton {Central Africa, p. 58) states that in the hilly countries 
around Uganda there are about a dozen varieties. . . . The bed fruit 
is that grown by the Arabs at Unyanyembe. . . . Upon the 

Taiigain ika Lake there is a variety called m Unit's t'h, nthtt, or elephant's- 
liands, which is considered larger than the Indian horse-plantain. The 
isty-brown ; the pulp 
is harsh, strong, and 
-like. 6 

tanl.-y i Ihn-lifst Africa, I. p. 252) refers to specimens of plan- 
s found beyond Yamhuya that were "22 inches long, 2\ 
"^ iu diameter, and nearly 8 inches round, large enough to 



Bojer {Hot 

lnntains wer 
i M ue, and the 



is probable that the first 

wild form of J/, mpu ntum 
Home, F.L.S., late Directc 



: UA- 



■ ' they are shorter and 

.! een lurning brown ; 
A variety of this has the fruits very like 



those of the preceding, hut tln-y :ir*i only slightly curved, angular, the 
pulp whitish, of nn rxqui-itt' taste and odour. 

Akundru-makni-fahai (htiixiius Junius <>v Ixindnrs u. n'tfim.c cmrrf) : 
fruit medium size, straight, cylindrical, the skin and the pulp yellow, the 

Akundru-bara-ha- <k (hiinaixs Huthirtic or ln/uancs rout/<-x): fruit. 
straight, cylindrical, i. the skin thin ami of a 

red colour when ripe, th.- pulp veliow-ivddish, of a very sweet taste and 
odour. 

liaumies ninhiri >:■ r, rt<s of 1 1 to Fr.-nrh. Fruits exactly like those of 



Akuiidrii-lamhu Of fcl A Chine Df hanonir r 

mous size that one man cannot carry it. Fruits yellow or green, 
slightly curved and cornered; pulp yellowish, of an exquisite taste and 

Akundru-zazn (child's banana) of the Malgachees (bai 
th.' French) : fruit very small, straigh 
yellow ; pulp yellow, very sweet and of a 



fruit somewhat 



len, Mauritius, sent by Mr. John Home, ] 
icea. This is probably a garden varietv of 3i 

tin- stem, fruit, and often the leaves' bene; 



ical, tin 


(s ifint/cli of 
This kind 


an that 


of the pre- 




kes) : fruits 
te, the latter 


dwarf 1 


banana (if. 



' World received 



herbarium mat. bis assumption, 

to the subject or collected ad. opiate material upon which to base an 

Martinet enumerates the three banana.- cultivated in Peru, in the 
neighbourhood of Lima (Jetrd. Bot. Lima, 1873, p. 51), as follows :— 
platano ffuineo, plata d* laisla. 

1 1 iiml cdih siatos hat i lYr'uiau banana called meija is known in 
the market of Lima as platano de Taiti, being supposed to be introduced 
from Tahiti. 

British Guiana.. 

Messrs. Harrison and Jenman, in their Report already cited, state : — 

There are two varieties of plantains chiefly cultivated in British Guiana, 
namely, the, Whib plants e lied also the Cow plantain, Common 
plantain, or Maiden plantain), and the Black plantain. The others are 
the Giant or Horse plantain and the barooma. Both of the latter are 
very large fruited kinds. The barooma is not much grown. 

The White plantain with a green stem and green leaf-stalks is the 
kind chiefly grown. It is prolific and very valuable, as the fruit is of 
the best quality and adapted l'« t all purposes for which plantains are 
vised. The Black plantain is exactly .similar to the White plantain in 
character, but tin leat-stalks and -in tths of the leave- (i.e., the stem) are 
purple or blackish. 

For the banana the local name is bacooba, a term of Indian origin 
(evidently borrowed from it- resemblance to the Heliconia, a native 
plant common in tropical America), but now generally adopted by 
the Creoles. Bananas are not largely grown in British Guiana, tin- 
quantity produced is, however, fully sufficient to meet local demands. 
There is no separate cultivation as for plantains, and they appear to hold 
quite a secondary place w. of the colony. Plantains 

are regarded as an essential article of food, while the bananas are an 
added luxury, and they can be dispensed with or not according to the 
circumstances of the moment; 

The most abundant banana in 1 lie market at Georgetown, as a rule, 
is the dwarf or Chinese banana,, and next to that the large and small 
fig banana. T people. The 

varieties grown in the colony are as follows : — 

Small Fig or Lady's finger: fruit densely packed, clear straw- 
colour when ripe, 3 to 4 inches long, pulp melting, flavour good. 

Large Fig or rokerite : fruit curved as a rule, 4 to 5 inches long ; 
good bunches contain 300 to 400 fruits ; strongly recommended for export 
purposes 

Martin'mitc or Jamaica : fruit greenish yellow, 8 to 10 inches long, 
of sweet flavour with a - -r-taste. 

Surinam or sour: fruit slightly curved, 6 to 8 inches long, clear 
straw colour when ripe, texture of pulp rather woolly when broken, the 

Giant green or Canaan : fruit stout, densely arranged, 6 to 7 inches 

: . i -,;;■:::, 

Giant red: fruit stout, dull red, 5 to 7 inches long, flavour good. 
Both (hi- and the last are too stout for ordinary dessert purposes. 

Arrab'tha or apple : fruit of soft texture and slightly sub-acid. 7 to 
> inches long, skin very thick, pale yellow when ripe. "A peculiar 



urnised in Venezuela 
7), pp. 37-43. 

AY jthitmio or pltitaito art on is the common plantain widely distri- 
buted throughout tropical America. 

Platano domini co, the royal or sir. - very similar 

to the common i and habit; the fruit, however, ia 

smaller and the plant somewhat hardier, that is, it bears better the cold 

Platano topocho or the topocho plantain. Diaz regards this, to which 

plantain and the red banana. It approaches the former in the character 
and flavour of the fruit j the latter in its robustness, habit, and power 



and all the feathered family." 

colour of the stem and fruit. The fruit uf this red banana is special 
suitable for preserving by being dried in the sun. 

Cambur criolloov the Creole banana The plant is sn 
of the above, the stem is stained with blotches and black -treak-. t 
fruit is small and very palatable to rat with dessert. In a green stat* 
is most suitable as an addition to the Spanish olla or stew. 

Cambur manzano or the apple banana. The stem and lerves ; 
tinged with red ; the fruit i- as -small a- the Creole banana. It hai 
very delicate flavour and it is the most highly esteemed of any. 

Cambur pigmeo or d wart banana. This hardlv attain- a !u iirht 
5 feet (probably the Chinese banana, 31. Cavendishii). The bunch 
fruits is so large that it sometimes touches the ground. The fruit 
slightly larger than the Creole banana, but with a similar flavour. 

Fresh fruits preserved in spirit of two kinds of plantain- and banai 
from Venezuela are in the Kew Museum. These were 
to the International Kvhihitmn of ISfio, and presented by the Repuh 
of Venezuela. The first is marked platan,, <{,»ninicn, "batman 
royal" or Royal plantain; the fruit is about S to 10 inches lot 
2 inches diameter, rather prominently ribbed, almo-t quadi an^ul 
much curved, With the point produced hut blunt. The other t- nam 
cimlii'rl i/ifini'o, "■ tigue- banane- de (imnie" or tig banana. The fr 
is 6 to eight inches long, 1^ inches diameter. -lightly angular and aim 
terete, moderately curved, rounded at the tup and crowned by t 



p. 160. 

" There are a great number of varieties of the banana, as might be 
expected when it is remembered that the plant is cultivated throughout 
the whole tropical world — on different soils, in different climates, and 
under different conditions. The kinds most liked, however, in the 
American markets are the Martinique variety, with its large yellow 
fruits, and the Cuban variety which has shorter and thicker fruits with 
a dull-red skin. The Martinique kind is now the principal one 
exported, and it is known throughout the United Stales as the' Jamaica 
banana.' In Dominica it is called * figue la rose,' and in Trinidad 
' Gros Michel ' banana." 

Of plantains, as distinct from bananas, there appear to be in the 
West Indies two principal snri-, 1 1n- •• horse plantain " and the "maiden 
plantain." The distinction between the two is given below. 

Acosta, quoted by De CandoHe {Cult. JPkmtt, p. 309), says that in 
Hispaniola or San Domingo " there is t\ small white species of banana, 
very delicate, which is called in Espagnolle ' dominico.' " 

The cooking plantains cultivated in Jamaica are described by Lunan, 

"There is a variety known by the name of maiden plantain, the 
common kind being called horse plantain, which differs from it in being 

(if a. smaller and mere delicate growth, and having red streaks on the 

the maiden plantain bunch growing 
containing often from 80 to 100 pit 
pounds, whereas the hunch of the CO 
more than 20. These trees bear fruit fit for use in from 9 to 12 
months after the suckers are planted, according to soil and seasons; the 
horse plantain fake- three months to fill from the time it first shoots, 
and the maiden plantain four ; the latter is the most delicate food." 
Dr. de Verteuil describes the plantains of Trinidad briefly thus : — 
"Like all cultivated plants, the plantain has many varieties : there 
exist, however, three distinct sorts. The horn plantain, from the 
l of a young hull: the French 
The horn planta 



Her than that of the former, but the bond 
iter number of plantain-fingers, averagin 
etimes from 100 to 130. This species is i 
i the others, particularly when ripe. Dor 



Cultivation. 

The fruit-bearing Musas, require a moist and uniform heat. 
They do not necessarily require an abundance of light, as many will 
grow in the shade of trees. They require, however, a deep rich soil 
and newly cleared forest land, containing plenty of vegetable mould. 
Outside the torrid zone the plants are chiefly ornamental, as ihey 
cannot be depended upon to produce fruit in anything like the pro- 
fusion they do in the tropics. In cool countries also banana- do 
not grow continuously as in the tropics, but they have a resting period 
during the winter when the leaves cease to develop, or even partial !y 
wither. They break forth, however, on the return of warm weather. 
In such a case the life of the plant extends over a longer period, and 
stems, which usual! \ la^t onh a year, may live for two or three, or until 
fruit- i- produced. In many countries, even in the tropics, where the 
plants are liable to injury from hurricanes, their cultivation is either 
wholly abandoned, or only dwarf sorts are grown, like the Chinese 
bananas, under shelter of houses or walls. In spite of the usually 
luxuriant growth of bananas and plantains, they \ ield very poor crops 
in land that has long been under Ci -lie humus is 

exhausted, even though the soil remains productive for other plants, 
such as sugar-cane, cassava, maize, millet, and sorghum. In very sandy 
soils the banana may flower, but it produces no fruit. Abundant, but 
not stagnant, moisture in the soil is necessary, and the finest plants are 
generally seen on the banks, and in the neighbourhood of streams. 
K'iiy stab- thai -'transplantation of the shoots improves the quality 
of the fruit." This may moan either that the shoots should be severed 
from the parent stem and planted singly, or that it is an advantage to 
■\oIiango -h ,,ts from one district to another. It has been proved in 
the West Indies that hanauu- <_ r row most luxuriantly in warm, moist 
valhys. shut in amongst the mountains. There they succeed better even 
than in the open plains, probably on account of the shelter they obtain 

elevations of 3,000 to 4,000 feet, but they begin to lose some of their 

-lower, and the hunches are not so large nor so abundant. A mean 
annual temperature of 75° to 80° Fahr. appears to suit them best; 
although Dr. Ernst states that he has seen a plant of Must/ sapient nm 
laden with full, ripe t'ruit, near Caraea-. at a height of 5. 1 75 feet, with a 
mean annual temperature of 66 '2° Fahr. Lieutenant Parish found two 
or three banana plants cultivated in an enclosure at an elevation of 
'.'■■•■•' ' 

■:■: ;: ri ■•■:.- ' ■: ■ ' . - : ]-'■.■■■■■'. ■ • >■;•■■■ 

India. Further south, in the Nilgiris, Kur/ - 

grows on grassy plate mux at an elevation of 7,000 feet. There are seeds 

31° N. lai, "but there is Utile pn»ha!.ilit\ of obtaining good fruit from 
them so far north, as the frost cuts down the plants in the cold 
season, and they only recover themselves, so as to begin to bear fruit, 
when the cold season comes round again, and they are unable to 



amongst tin: cultivated fruits of 1 
dwarf variety," possibly the Ohir 

In Borneo, Burbidge says : — 

"That most generous of all food-giving plants, 1 1n - banana, is every- 
where naturalised in Borneo up to an altitude of 3,000 ft. It fruits all 

Seemann, in the Botany of the Herald, p. 336, speaks of M.sapieutuui 

bears fruit at Durango, 24 X. lat., where it is cultivated only for its 

It is recognised everywhere that the dwarf banana (.\f. Care,«lishii) 
does not require so much heat a- varieties of M. sapientum, and on this 
account it is usually selected for cultivation in -ub-tropieal countries. 

"This sort," remarks Sagot, " I have seen in the Canaries, cultivated 
in abundance, with the help of irrigation. It grows well, and gives 
an abundance of line spikes. The growth is suspended from November 
to April; its leaves, however, remain green and fresh, and unless the 
wind, too much laden with saline spray from the sea, blackens them." In 

gardens near the coast. Mn'su l-; t ,s<-tr, however, -row. well there, and 
fruits freely. In Lower Egypt, according to Broinfield, the banana 



lore than once in four or five y, 
sheltered gardens) from Sou 



rther north than Putnam County, and e 
icre are few large patches, though near! 

e killed to the ground. In the excej 
rnia in N. lat. 34° (corresponding to tl 
>ened in the open air, as, for in statu 
>unty. The principal Musad grown ii 
iv-inian banana (Mxsa Emete). 'I 
lich plants are now growing in many p; 
nan banana also flowered and fruited at 
73. The flower spike was over 5£ feet 

■■ : \ -•■... ■. \ ■ < , i, ,. i 



;in.l abundantly watered 
than three steins to each ; 
spriiiLriii'j; int. dmnhl (>•■ i 
The stem that has .nice 



nade of the plantain. The an a under cultivation n 

s in almost every oilier country in which it is ten 
lleness. Dilke calls it ' the devil's agent ' so littl 
or the rich return in fruit." In the absence of i 

he fresh fruit, only enough is -n.wn to supply loca 
In 1S92 the "Jamaica banana " (known also i 



" I have hopes that in the future they i 
from this ' 



A great i 
of Polyt 



They r 



horoughly established." 

Jeseribed by Mr. John Home, F.L.S., in A 

UMna plantations abound evervwhere, and 

mountain districts of Viti Levu. They I 
>f the road to shade the traveller from the s 
■s miles in lenirth or more. The fruit on tl 



274 

upon the cultivation and selection of the fruit, and when this has been 
done the banana disease {Ken Hid/ctin. 1*90, p. 272, and 1892, p. 48) 
has nui made much headway. 

In the year 1891 two Wardian cases of the Jamaica banana, the fruit 
of which is so largely exported to the Inited States, were received at 
Kew from the Botanical Department, Jamaica. These were forwarded 
at the request of the (Jovernor. Sir .John Thurston. K.C.M.G., who was 
desirous of adding this sort to those already under cultivation in the 
Colony. After being cared for and repacked at. Kew, they were 
sent to the Botanic Station at Suva by way of Svdney. Many of 
the plants survived the long voyages to Fiji, and in May 1892 they were 
reported as " growing apace." 

i {Cent. Africa, ii., p. 58) says :— 



plantain-tree is apparently an aborigine of thes 
, Karagwah, and " 
ngle bunch forms a load f 



Usumbara, Karagwah, and I'ganda, 



found in the island and on the coast of Zajizihar, 
of the alluvial valley, and, though rarely, in the mountains of r<:ignra. 
The best fruit is that grown by the Arabs at Unyanyembe ; it is still a 
poor specimen, coarse and insipid, stringy and full of seeds, and strangers 
rarely indulge in it." 

Speke says the plantain or " N'deezee " is the food of the countries 
one degree on either side of the equator, acres of ground being covered 
with its groves. On the high lauds of the interior it ceases to grow at 

Amongst the Monbutto, west of Uganda, Schweinfurth (Heart of 
Africa, ii., 87) remarks .— 

"The growth of their plantain (Musa sapicifnm) gives them very 

slackened by the ram, the old plant- are Buffered to die down just 

the propagation of these plantains, however, the Monbutto have a 
certain knack of discrimination lor which they might be envied by any 
Kuropean gardener: they can j udge whether a young shoot is capable 
of bearing fruit or not, and this gives them an immense advantage in 
selecting only such shoots as are worth the trouble of planting." 

More recently beyond Yambuya, in the heart of the great tropical 
forest, Mr. Stanley {Darkest Africa, i.. p. 2. 32) found "a clearing three 
miles in diameter abounding in native produce and hitherto unvisited 
by the Manyuema. Aimost every plantain stalk bore an enormous 
bunch of fruit, with from 50 to 140 plantains attached. Some speci- 
mens of this fruit were 22 inches long." 

Also at Indeman (vol. ii., p. 55) : '• The plantain groves were extensive 
and laden with fruit, and especially with ripe mellow plantains whose 
fragrance was delicious." 

And in approaching Andata and Andikumu " in half-an-hour the main 
body of the caravan filed in, to find such a store of abnormally lai^c 



toted a day's ration allowance, no one could possibly complain of 
insufficient food." 

Dr. Parke speaks of " grim starvation " and " grim despair " which 
overtook the expedition {Equatorial Africa, p. 113), and rejoices at 
last in the " great luck " which brought it within reach of the generous 



plantain trees. 


"Just opposite 


our cam] 


On i 


linking the discovery all tin 


























,,v I;:,, 


of 2< 








In 
do 11 


Mr. Mori* 

a ina7l t-M-nt. 


7a Report on tin 


■arln- Mi 



been largely tried. Being a sn 
feet high, it would grow well 
house, and under these cireuni 



The plantain described as » a highly 

t'ruii appears to he itbsenl from St 



Coast of Africa. It would require shelter, and a moi.- 
rich soil. The latter conditions are easily attained ii 
lean by irrigation." 

West Indies reference might usefully be made to Dr. Ni 
Agriculture (London: Macmillan, 1892), pp. 159-165. 

Father Thomas of Herlanga* from the Canaries into 5 
151G, whence they were introduced into the other 
mainland of tropical America. 

Hughes {Barbados, p. 183) gave, so long ago as 17 
account of the cultivation of the plantain in that island :- 

"Before the mother tree decays two or three large so 
trees grow up from the root. The largest of the-c in 

the root fresh young shoots ; so that there is an annu 
trees without any trouble to the -planter. However, it 
most prudent method to replant them once in seven or 
doing this to great advantage the situation must be ric 
from the wind ; i led for this purpose 

holes 2 feet deep, l{ broad, and 12 feet asunder. Tl 
manured large roots of Mipei ■ i 1 1 1 < • li - plantain trees arc cut 



Theyi 



12 months, and the yield will vary considerably according to the 

nature of the soil One field of 10 acres gave in the 

second year a return of 2-10/. net. whilst smother field of IS acres gave 
a net return of only 701." This disparity was due, not only to an 
original difference in the character of the soil but to the fact that the 
latter field had been already cultivated for some years previously, and 
the vegetable mould (so essential to the growth of the banana) had been 
exhausted. 

In a note by Mr. Henry Cork on banana cultivation, reproduced in 
the Bulletin of the Botanical Depart meat, .la nun,,, (1893), 49, p. 2, 
it is stated that plants on level land thai cm he ploughed are put out at 
14 feet square; the rows are kept perfectly straight. The suckers 
allowed to remain for fulure crops are carefully selected at regular 
intervals, from two to four months (according to the quality of the soil), 
all others are removed. If too many suckers are left the bunches take 
longer to mature and hence the fruit will not be ready early in the 



- 






weeded, ploughed, and harrowed seven times during the year, forked 
round the roots once a year, and have the redundant suckers removed 
regularly as they appear. The actual gross returns on good land thus 
cultivated (with 339 stools to the acre) was 271. Is. 3d. per acre. The 
cost of cultivation and delivery per acre was 61. 18s. 6d. The net 
profit per acre was therefore 20/. 2s. 9d. Forty acres of this estate 
bearing 



profit realised on the particular estate above mentioned was probably 
exceptional. On the other hand it shows what high cultivation 
and judicious management can do in the production of bananas in 
thoroughly suitable localities in Jamaica. 

In Trinidad Dr. de Verteuil says :— 

"The plantain requires a good deep soil and a sheltered position, 
being easily prostrated by strong winds. It is propagated by sprouts 
(improperly called slips) which arc planted at 10 feet apart. From five 
to seven of these young shoots or suckers spring out of and around the 
parent stem. The fruit, ,.r rather the bunch of fruits, makes its appear- 
ance between eight, nine, and twelve months. The young shoots then 
give their fruit in succession, for two, three, or even many years, accord- 
ing to the climate, fertility of the soil, and the care bestowed on them. 
A plantain ' walk ' requires only occasional weeding and pruning." 

In British Honduras the cultivation of bananas and plantains has 
become an important industry. In fact the fruit exports are now 
almost two-thirds of those of the great staple industry of the colony — 
mahogany. Further it is stated (Kew Bulletin, 1894, p. 98) that 
"the one cheering fact in the agricultural condition of British 
Honduras at the present time is the gradual and steady development 
which has taken place during the last few years in the fruit trade." 

In the early stages of this ,-nterpri-' the following suggestions were 
offered by Mr. Morris (Colmp p/ British Honduras, pp. 92, 93) with 
a view t.i establish successful plantations; — 



"The profits on banana cultivation would appear to range from 12/. 
15/. per acre, after the lapse of 12 to 18 months. The cost of est 
Wishing a plantation, including the price of land (at a dollar an aen 
will not exceed some 8/. to 12/. per acre until the tii>t crop is leaped. 

I.anana culture in this colony, which :»ffer everv inducement to e: 
perieneed tropical planters to settle down and reap the returns whir 
iiiust inevitably attend the judicious and careful culture of this t'rui 
Practically, the export trade in bananas has only arisen since >t.-ai 
eouiinunication was established with America. The export in lSS 
was 8,9,58 bunches of bananas, of the value of 700/.; in ISSI it ha 
risen to 22,229 bunches, of the estimated value of 1,469/." 

[It has since attained iarge and increasing proportions, and the annu: 
value now is not less than 40,000/.] 

A later account, written from personal experience, of banana plant in 
in Mritish Motnlui-a-. ua- ■■ontributed to the I )einerara . Iiv/,m, ■ b\ M 



Diepen. 
is follows :■ 



.• The suckers are pur out at 18 feet by 
18 feet. This wide planting is claimed to be ultimately advantaireou- 
in producing tine large bunches as well as in affording space for the 
cultivation of cacao, rubber, and other plants of a more permanent 
character. Bananas so planted give 134 stools to the acre. The 
largest Backers only are used and care taken not to injure the eyes. 
When suckers are produced all except two or three of the strongest 



to April 


, r^'Sn^are^ut 


" Fruit c 




to New i 


Orleans." The perk 


the sued 


;er is planted unril 


" After 


the bunch is cut the 




inches from shoots t 


months.' 


' Each bunch may w< 


%'|J 


utitiij: Unless the bi 






Prate* 


stfoN from wind: Hi; 


Hence e, 




the plant 


ation Oil the north am 



consumed in the Colony." 

The later developments in fruit-growing in Nicaragua are described 
by Mr. Consul Bingham, in a Foreign Office Report, No. 92, 1888, on 
the cultivation of bananas on the llama River, Nicaragua : — 

•< The first shipment, consisting of about 500 bunches, was made in 

rate of 50 cents (Nicaraguan currency) per bunch. The success that 
attended this iirst attempt induced many persons, including several 
foreigners, to commence the cultivation of' bananas, and now the whole 

from the liluetields Lagoi n up to the junction of the Rivers Escondido 
and Serpiia, and such parts of the last-named rivers as are navigable 
for canoes, have been cleared and cultivated. I he hanks of the Rama 
River, for about 20 miles from Bluetields, are not adapted for culti- 

1>S , til. n .Mil i 1 in pit I w s.MOl Is,-, | Kl,{)| li in 



during the year 1887 there were six stean 
thly trips to the United States, where tli 
two of these steamers carrying their cargo t 
dy, and on 



liladelplua alternately 



llil\o 



it is (with abundant moisture) the 
be plants along the sea coast. 

the suckers should not be removed 
ted its fruit, otherwise 1 the latter will 
ut out at a distance of or 12 feet, 



ditions to the production of first-cl 



\'lri„ Pottderoven, «>n 



Cultivation of Bananas in England. 



■■i high t.-nipej-:iriin- all the year round. At Kew, Sion House, C hats- 
worth, and many other c-l.il >i islmn'i i I - with spacious "palm" houses, 
plants of large size are grown, and m mces they fruit 

freely. 

M. Ensete and M 
Temperate House. 
Card. Chron. 1860, [ 
that year. The female flowers were specially fertilised with pollen 
tak.n from the scarcely opened male flowers. The Palm House affords 

specimens of Musu sapn „f ,>,„ alt.-, in ,-, height of 18 feet to 20 feet, 
Their large, emerald green leaves remain unbroken, in marked contrast 
to their usual condition in the tropics, until they begin to fade. The 

most esieemed sorts for fruit purposes are selected from time to time lor 
distribution to botanical institutions in the Colonies. Of these the 
" champa " and "ram kela " (or rubra), two choice Indian sorts 



hme.se banana grown by sir Henry Peek, exhibited 
lie Royal Horticultural Society in 1877, weighed 
lit," according to the Gtmfrn, XT., p. 345, " which 
iay enjoy this, and possibly other tropical fruits, 



''tended the cilinaiion of many tbrms of bananas, at Edinburgh in 
1N40, under the management of Air. McNab, and he specially mentions 
the immense quantity of high-flavoured fruit which had been produced. 

Al l->'!<l"'l<U nt-ar \\ oreester, according to the Gartlnu-rs' Chronicle, 
1Sili 1 ■ P ■■'«->. tw.. plants „| ,|/„,„ r,mW/\/,/7 - w ,., v ( ,,rrviu- 

jsj red Mint weighing between 80 and 100 pounds each." 

Mr. \\. \Natson, the Assistant Curator, gives n \ !V \,. f account of the 
nanas at Kew as follows : — 

" A selection of edible-fruited Musas is cultivated in the Palm 
House at Kew, in addition to the collection of species, of which l>i> 
Jf those recognised in this paper are represented in the various 
"'"-'- Uir " S..U..R an ( VMj.tK.n tie n an- all eas\ to cultivate ; they 
!kl r,dl -"'• ' f'l"' allowance of root-room, plenty of sunlight, and 



'' ' '■- !; '- '• ; - ■ '■ ■•■ ■:■ ■ ! . • '.-' - ■ 



cleared out and filled vvitl) 

;rown uncle 

ntrodnced : 



tin tin; persistent watchfulness of tin: 

been found, hut inquiry ami experiment are still going on." The 

subject was discussed in Kew Bulletin, 1890, pp. 272-273. 

Sir John Thurston <tat- d thiii t'm di-ease broke out in the first' 

from Vanuca ro ih. neighbouring island' of " Motunki. Here .\fusu 
Camirfishn for export), was first attacked, but in 

the course of a few mnntli- tin- lar-r •? :md st render plantain was affected, 
and ultimately not a -high- banana or plantain could be found from one 

place. I, iv, .,. f ml ■ dm i , r.lnl Ih <J..\< i nor wa able to 
report in 1*91 that afl.-r a period of rest the land even there was able to 

grow plants almost free from disease. 

It was believed that ihe Fiji di-^a-e might lie eaii-ed by a nematoid 
worm, a minute parasite similar to that found in Unci; island attacking 
the roots. It was recommended, failing success with various insecti- 
cides, to plough the land, leaving it fallow for a time and alternating 
some other crop. The ground was sul.-enuontly to bs replanted with 
suckers from an unatVeeted locality. The view that the disease was 
caused, in part at least, by nematoid worms was apparently continued 
bv investigate \,-n by Dr. N. A. Cobb at 

Sydney. Sew South Wales. The results are given in Ken- llulhti^ 
L892, pp. 48, 49- The remedies suggested by Dr. Cobb were :— 

4i 1. Where the bananas are cultivated, a system of rotation should be 
adopted; no attempt should be made to grow banana plants on the same 

plant- is infested to an extraordinary degree with nematodes, therefore 
it is best, in cultivating, to plough deeply, or lo occasionally subsoil the 
laud. These nematode, attack the root- of plant-, and exist largely 



plants is thought 
new plantations. 



ice of she leaf 
mass." The 



nurse unfit for food." The nature of the disease, according to Mr. 



British Uuhm.-ii 

An obscure di 

be related to it. 



the disease." It 1 
for those under trc 
ashes of the burnt 


EH 


The bana 
same way as 


tin' ]) 


Uriii> 



2.S4 



"So tar as m th< growing 

parts of the plant, and then induces decay downwards to the roots, the 

whole ,inn eventually rotting. 

'• As a tentative measure I would suggest the complete destruction of 
in fee led plants, and the removal of all that are healthy lo well-. [rained 



nth -East AjYiva.— Although the fruit-yielding Musas a 
to any extent in Cape Colony, specimens of diseased h 
received from Professor MacOwan in 1893 growi 

on. The disease was very similar, if not identical, wit! 

species of Glreosporium in Queensland. It affects botl 



Economic Uses. 

■nil., ind (hey are universally used in the tropics. The taste and 
avour of the banana fruit are very various. Some are acidulous, others 
■id-sweet or swe. t like sugar. In the best varieties the pulp is soft and 
leltiug, with a delicate fruity thivmir resembling apple, strawberry, or 
ine-apple. The ia-te tbr ripe bananas of late years has largely spread 



.is - Xew Voyage round the World," 1679 to 1691, 
<<f the plantain and banana. "The plantain," he 
le king of all fruit, not except the coco[nut] itself, 
•aised from seed (for they seem not to have any) 
of other old trees. If these young suckers arc 
■round and planted in another place it wiil be 



fruit makes ;ils.> very <^hhI 
d the <rrcen plantains slice! thin, an. I dried in tin- slni ami 
ill make a sort <>(' flour which i- very good to make pudding-, 
lanfain. sliced and dried in the -mi. may he preserved unreal 



t both refreshing a 
itaple food of millic 



when it becomes quite dry ;m<l a jjooii 
en I ■ wifli meat instead of potatoes ; 
t lengthways i 



mal, p. 648, enumerates the uses of 
hip from the stem washes the hands, a 

tli- Wiurauda : tlnv:id and lashing 



m.iiKi lcavi-s arc n->ud to idiadc voim^ coll'cc ■ 

jerj beds, and to <-o\er tin- i-ai-a<> l«-ai> during lln- |i|-(icc.-- of 

1. The midribs ar<- ol't.-n placed in 1 lit' -;. inpof Muscovado 



Musa Ensetc 
thout further 



■ square boxes for 
S3 in the open air, a 



cattle. Tli.' nut,,- sh.-ath* form a valuable fodder for elephants. Thr 



Dr. Dvmoek fouu.l .-, sweet tr ; m<lucei,t j.-llv-like r 
the -Arm of Mvsa superb*,. This when dried at 



Amongst the specimen* >1k>\vh in the Kew Museum 
Musa Fehi dried for use as a packing material. The 
leaves is stouter than in the ordinary banana. Neat 
from plantain leaves, as well as a native rope from ti 
are shown from Madras. Siamese " burees," or cigaret 
kok at 8*. 4 d. per 1,000, with wrappers made from ba 
received from Mr. F. W. Burbridge. Banana chut 
Natal, was shown at the Col.-Ind. Exhibition, IS80, v 
banana vinegar was received from Fiji at the same lv\l 



Plantain and Banana Fibr 

The fibre produced by the stems of various s 

received atlention from the earliest times. Dam] 
Mindanao, in 1(>SI», '' the ordinary sort of people < 
plantain-tree which they call Satfi/en, by which 
plantain." To prepare this cloth thev cut the jilaii 
quarters, •• which, put into the sun. the moisture 
take hold of the threads at the ends, ami draw th 
big as brown thread ; of this the\ make cloth, whi 
new, wears out soon, and when wet it is slimy."' 1 
of tins century the Government of .Jamaica otter 



av. Tlii' causr „f tlii-.M- failuivs 




Wohlen in Switzerland. The lace lor millinery purp< 
pure Manila (Lupiz) hemp. It is used plain and dyed 
and bonnets are woven from >imilar fibre stiffened 
vari<.u> patterns. Some of the hats are made of Ma 



ems "of many of 1 
5 but not of so goc 



nearly to the fine glossy cha 
weighing 108 pounds yielded 
of 1 -44 per cent, of tin- gn>s 
pounds yielded 1\ ounces of c 
per cent, on the groffl weighl 
banana at Trinidad in ISsfi ^ 



prospects of •. , <my. The figures supplied 

are very valuable : — 

" The fibre < 
Colony from the want of a simple and inexpensive 

tin.* Mom containing tin* fibre is allowed to rot on the ground. Could 
an efficient and cheap machine be invented, the fibre would he almost 
entirely profit to the planter. The banana yields less fibre than the 
plantain tree, and its fibre is generally tinted. 

"Various attempts have been recently made to construct machinery for 
manufacturing the plantain fibre. Subsequently to the Exhibition at 
Paris, in 1855, strenuous efforts were made to establish the production 
of (Wire in this Colony as an article of export, ami the Messrs. Watson 
had fibre-making machinery put up and tried on their estate. H/kkjs- 
ficwfi, but it was u,,t Ibund well adapted for the purpose, the stems in 
their natural state being so much more bulky than u as allowed for in 

furnished the following interesting particulars relative to fibre from 
the plantain : — The experience of 10 years on a cultivation of from 



ir other reasons. 2° The planting of the* suckers' 
! feet apart has never been tried ; but I am of opinion t 
nd cut down every eight months for the stem alom 



some plan might be devised for turning the fibre to account. There 
are at least 50,000,000 banana stems cut down every year in the West 
Tndies, and at present little or no use is made of the fibre. It is 



[Mii.su Eusete) at 
nil-looking ; it had 



1 from Jamaica 8 



Banana Wine. 

The preparation of a palatable drink sometimes (tailed " wine " and 

from remote times. The practice is known in Central Africa, in the 
West Indies., and in the islands of Polynesia. The remark that is 
usually made on the subject is the following : — 

" The fermented juice of the banana is made at Cayenne and the 
Antilles into a palatable wine called " Vino di banana." A similar 
liquor is prepared in the Congo region, where it has the reputation of 
being a ] 

Oneo 



there a night, we straine it and bottle ir up, and in a week drink it; 
and it is very strong and pleasant drinke, but it is to be drunk sparingly 
for it is much stronger than Sack, and is apt to mount up into the 

A few years later Dampier {Voyages, I., p. 316) gives a somewhat 
similar account of banana wine in Jamaica : — 

"When they make drink with them they take 10 or 12 ripe plantains 
and mash them well in a trough ; then they put two gallons of water 
among them ; and this in two hours time will ferment and froth like 
wort. In four hours it is fit to drink ; and then they bottle it, and 
drink it as they have occasion ; but this will not keep above 24 or 30 
hours. Those, therefore, that us. this drink, brew it in this manner 
every morning. When I first went to Jamaica I could relish no 
other drink they had there. It drinks brisk and cool, and is very 
pleasant." 

One sort of plantain is mentioned by Speke as yielding in Central 
Africa "a wine resembling hock in flavour." 

On the other hand Schweinfurth found that " any fermented drink 
made from plantain to be almost unknown among the Monbuttos." 

Mr. H. H. Johnson, C.B., in the neighbourhood of Kilima-njaro, 
speaks of MandaraV -o !i< - during , < -agemenl quenching their 
thirst " with liberal draughts of banana beer which the women were 
constantly brewing." 

Mr. Stanley {Darkest Africa, ii., p. 239) remarks that at Awamba :— 

" Two large troughs — equal in size to small canoes— were stationed 
village, in which the natives pressed the ripe fruit and 
1 their wine." 

Finally Dr. Parke in his Personal Eipvncuas, p. 332, adds :— 

"Nelson treated us to some poml» (banana wine) to-day; it was 
really very good, although made from bananas which were not at all 
ripe. This beverage is prepared by cutting two or three bundles of ripe 
bananas into pieces of halt an ineh in length, adding two gallons of 

becomes very acid. In a day or two more ii ehanges to a fluid having 
qualities very like those of vinegar; (pule as -our in taste and smell. 
If boiled down on the third " ' 

In Polynesia the banana 
but consists of fresh pulp i 
thee 



Trad 

■■■in the .f / //vV,/////;v//7,V,v, / v/„r'|-ni 1 



:.s sm- l.rou-lil to New York 



t times 10 days. Our 

months limit ionnl .'iliove, an 









principal exports, n^ direct communication between 
Grand Canary and London is established. During 1885 from 40,000 
to 50,000 bunches of this fruit were shipped to Europe, averaging 3*. 
per bunch, Grand Canary alone contributing between 25,<>i)<) nud 
30,000 c' 




Mum Cavendishii, Lam 






■ooin for 2.000 i 



'ealer in foreign fruit at Co 



o.lr of t 
l^.imi.a- 



Mexico represent » consilium- po 



ew Orleans rose in 



in 1879 to 1,580,2C 
The exports fror 



conip rati\eh .earee Thoro is 

grown if a demand arose for thei 

favour of exporting bananas only, in- - a staple 

food for the coloured population. It is quite possible that in a few 

years there will be a change. People in temperate countries who know 

as an inferior banana. This is far from ,-. Hue appreciation of its merits. 
In a cooked state, whether ripe or unripe, it is a wholasome and 

nutritions vegetable, ft certainly will become in larger demand in the 

also it may come into use in Europe if once it bad trial under suitable 
resembles that of a chestnut, but it is not then sweet ; when fully ripe it 



apple fritters. 
This is more f 






sells his bananas at 50 




bunch 


(of not 


less than 


eight hands) 












it of the year. 


The cost of production 








lecisp, 


ir bunch. * All 


these prices are 5n Unite 


.1 State- 


- silver < 




. Plant, 


ins are sold at 


25 cents a bunch of 25, 1 








81 25c. 




profits of this business 




usual, 1, 








middleman or the steamer com 




For ( 






100 bunches of good fru 


it ; the < 










the steamer. He is paic 


I iii the 






) in silve, 






gold. 








er a voyage of 


four days, during which 










the passenger 


li*t and' the Government 


m; : su 




el! the 




n the wharf in 



or fried. Few of our Northerners appreciate the wondnfi 
ve qualities of the plantain, which in this respect surpasses Ih 
i, and it may he authoritatively stated that 1,607 square feet o 
ind will produce 4,000 pounds of nutritive substance froi 
ins, which will support 50 persons, while the same land plant© 
rheat will support but two. 
In- comparative cost and profit of cultivating bananas and plantair 



Cost of one acre of land - 


- 1.00 


300 bunches of 


15,000 froits of 


Clearing and planting - 






plantains at SI -25 








fan- of plantation per acre t 
















• lathering and shipping crop 


- 10.00 







"The second year' the increase would be in favour of the plantain, 
and the product has reached more than 35,000 per acre. Of the fibre, 
no account has been taken, although this bids fair to become an im- 
portant by-product. Tl>< plantain contains more fibre than the 
banana : the inner portion in both stems being much finer. At present 
the possible four pounds of fibre in each stem is wasted; and as the 
stems should be cut to the ground after The fruit is gathered, these large 
fibrous trunks are much in the way of cultivation. It will be remem- 
bered that the Manila hemp is the product of a species of banana 






planted in I 



„/■/<//<; 



Preserved Ripe Bananas. 

For some years bananas have been preserved on a small scale in 
.J.-nnaicn. and it is hoped by this means to make use of small bunches of 
fruit not large enough to be shipped in a resh state. Small bunches 



are, as a rule, unsaleable, although the individual fruits may In- ;is line, 
if" not tincr. than in the large bunches. It has lieeii already shown that 
while 2 to 3 dollars will be paid in New York for large bunehes 
the small bunches will not sell for over 60 or 70 cents, and, as a 
broker has graphically remarked, "be a drug in the market even at 
these low prices." 

If a good opening were established for well-preserved bananas, 
a very attractive ami palatable food, capable of being kept for some 
time, would be available to the population of temperate climates. 
them to enable 



as have sufficient su"-{ 


They cannot always 


and the fruit, often a: 


esting acetic fermentati< 


jasi, north of Bassein, 


lanas, which if done 


lake the fruit in thai 



In Western India at 
have a way of drying 

export might probably make the fruit in thai iorm a- popula 
England as dried figs." 

A sample of preserved hananas or plantain- prepared at Kurunegala, 
Ceylon, by Mr. Morris, the Assistant Government Agent in 1840, was 
presented in that year by Dr. Wallich to the Agri.-Hort. Society of 
India {Trans. VIII., pp. 58-59). The kind of plantain used was that 
known in Ceylon sis ,: Suandelle.*' Dr. Wallich slated, " The plantain- 
appear to me to be little inferior to figs, and I should think them as 
wholesome and nutritious." Attached to Dr. Wallich's letter (as 
published) is given an extract from Captain Colquhoun's paper read 
before the Society of Arts on specimens ol' dried plantains called 
platario passado from Mexico. " The object of Captain Colquhoun is 
to direct attention to the dried fruit of the plantain as an article of 
produce hitherto unknown in British Colonies and in p]uropean 
commerce which would probably obtain a considerable consumption 
in England, and also be very acceptable as a useful and agreeable 
article of food on long sea voyages." 

Dr. Shier, of Demerara, is quoted in the "Catalogue of the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867, " in regard to preserved bananas as follows:— 

il Ripe plantains and bananas. — l\ was supposed b\ the Society of 
Arts (Trans., vol. L., pt. i.) that the dried yellow plantain [or banana] 
might come into competition with figs, and the sample exhibited at the 
great London Exhibition of 1851, which had been prepared in Mexico 
many years before, proved the great superiority of the platano passado 
over figs in keeping properties and in immunity from insect ravages. In 
Mexico, the simple exposure of perfectly ripe plantains or bananas to the 
sun's rays is. sufficient to prepare them for the market in an exportable form, 
as maybe seen by the 'Method of Drying the Plantain,' described by 
Mr. Percy W. Doyle in a communication to the Earl of Malmesbury, a 
copy of which was transmitted to this Colony on 2nd August bsoli by 



ripe fruit , hate of lime .hard water); and ;• 

by a similar parboil in syrup. 



opaque yellow surface 


win':;;;;;;.; 






hand, the drying procc- 








This condition is easih 


discover 


absence of :i dm' amoun 


! ot s/u-ift, 


1 he sunshine a bamboc 




com rivanee by which 




They must, however, b< 






iy weathe 


tlio oven should be left 




instead of dried, and 1 




hand, else the grape suj 





heat of an oven is requisite, bu 
juth, els.- the fruit will be bak« 
1 be comfortably bearable by tin 
amelized, and the core of the I'nii 
endered bitterish. Tight close packing in drum 
under considerable pressure, as with ligs, would no doubt contribute 
materially to the preservation of dried ripe plantains and bananas." 

fruit. What arc called - American " fruit -dryin.i: maciiines have been 
rendered so effective that little difficulty is experienced in drying tin 
most succulent fruits in a few hours, and at the same time (.reserving ai 
their fresh flavour, and also in many cases even the colour. Tin 
fumes of sulphurous acid, in no wa\ ■■» "nt vain. >.i 

- i i! attra. ive col. t , ai d th< re is no doubt, ilthough it 

V applied to the bananas. A dark colour would oaturallj 

give dried bananas an unattraefive appearance, and pi-event then 

rlj worked, the dangei 

previous aid ol 
sulphurous fumes the fruit might 1, produced ot , , .1 buff colour 



has been observed between apples and bananas, with the ivsul 
apples yield onh ll' per cent ol tin ore. il weight in.'ii 

desiccated fruit Professor Church, with fruit grown at Ke 

In 1881, when samples of dried ripe bananas were forwai 
country by the late Mr. W. B. Eapeut F.L.S., of Jamai 



English taste. Ilio dried banana is no novelty io us, as for so wral 
years past West India merchants have endeavoured to introduce it to 
the London market, but with doubtful success, as in no instance have 
we heard of their being imported by the same firm a second time." 
Messrs. Mart So Co., of Oxford Street, gave a somewhat similar 
opinion : " the samples are very good, but we do not think any large or 
done in them . . . about 2~) years 
^ananas, in sealed tins, were sent to us 
i dried ones were sent from Eatatonga ; 
these were quite black. On another occasion some arrived in London, 
wrapped in Indian corn leaves ; they were in neat parcels of about 
li pounds weight each, but much darker than the present samples." 

Again in lS.xs a very at t motive sample of preserved bananas was 
received at Kew from Mr. W. Fawcett, E.L.S., Director of the 
Botanical Department. -Jamaica. In this sample the Fruit was preserved 
wholc.it was of good colour, and put up in a neal small bo\. evacth 
like the best qualities of figs. The report in this instance was, how- 
ever, not very encouraging. In GalVs Weekly News Letter of 
August 9, 1890, the subject of exporting preserved bananas from 
Jamaica is revived. The new process of drying the -urplus bananas, 
it says, " opens up a vista of future prosperity, and presents a pleasing 
picture of agricultural welfare before our eyes. Samples of dried 
bananas were submitted to the Ttoval Agricultural Society, and other 
samples have been sent to prominent fruit importers iu England 
and Scotland, and the reports have been of an exceedingly satisfactory 



e: — "I submitted the -ample to Mr. Jamie- 

'ruit importers in Edinburgh. By a strange 
shown a sample of the same article from 



[ be a large demand for them. He says 
figs, dates, See., and would eagerly turn to 



In Venezuela the best, banana for preserving is the camlmr mora<h 
or red banana, because, says Diaz, " it is larger and it has a better 
flavour." In the dry climate of the lower hills the process can be 
successfully carried on by simple exposure to the sun. The bananas 
must be quite ripe, they are stripped of shell and fibre and placed on a 
cloth in the sun. being turned every two hours without crushing them 
like Ihc plantain; at night thev are irathered in and the next day 
put out airain, and so on until thev are perfectly preserved. "If they 

It would appear that the United States and Canada are likely to 
afford as favourable a market for [(reserved bananas :is (or the i're-h 
fruit. Most of the preserved bananas hitherto prepared in the West 
Indies have gone to these countries. As showing the result of an 
interesting experiment tried with preserved bananas in Trinidad 
the following account of fruit, shipped to Canada, is taken from the 
Apriculinral Record of Trinidad, 1891, pp. 143-144. 



Messrs. Gordon, Gr 



planters, and this -hows thai ill 
li confidence to the purchasers of these plants j 
jive lcjiriit in the experiments made in aid of 



proved a failure. This, however, has neen remedied by the use of a hot 
air fruit-drier known as the -Etna Pneumatic Drier." The fruit in 
this "can he dried within 21 hours at a temperature from 130° to 160° P. 

The drying is done in the daytime and the tire put out at night. Any 
kind of fuel answers tor lirinir. from patent fuel to cocoa-nut wood 
chips. The fruit should be as large as possible and ipiite ripe; the 
skm to be removed and the fruit lightly seraped. Whilst in the drier 
the fruit is to be turned twice or three times carefully to ensure even 

Preserved bananas from Fiji have recently been sold retail in 
Loudon at 7(7. per pound. To ensure a large demand for the fruit in 
a preserved state it must compete successfully with figs, dates, and 
niisins, hotli as regards quality and cheapness. 

Preserved hanamis are represented in the Kow Museum from Mr. 
Espeut. Jamaica, I 881, dried ■ whole. Also from British Guiana, Col.- 
Ind. Kxhil.ition, 1SH(5. " Cannore figs" from Siam, shown at the 
Health Exhibition, 1834. "Dried bananas" from the Straits Settle- 

A torpedo-shaped package tightly tied round with banana cord containing 
dried bananas received from Sir Ferd. von Mueller from Queens- 



Plantain Meal. 

A good deal of interest has been taken lately in the production of 
plantain meal for food purposes in temperate countries. This in some 
measure is due to the frequent mention made of it in Mr. Stanley's work 
(In Darkest Africa) giving an account of the Emin Pacha Relief 
Expedition. But for the plantain, either in a fresh state or made into 
meal, this expedition would probably never have accomplished its task. 

For instance near the Amiri Falls (Vol. I., p. 450) "the foragers 
returned, often in couples with an immense bunch of plantains between 
them . . The more provident, however, bore larger quantities of the 
fruit, peeled and sliced, ready for drying, thus avoiding the superfluous 



;ory we were now in, understood the art of drying 
gratings, for the purpose of making flour. We 
during our life in the forest region, that the 



native- diil not appear to have discovered what invalunhle, no 
and easily digestible food they possessed in the plantain and 
All banana lands— Cuba, Brazil. West Indies— seem to me 

consumed in Europe. For infants, persons of delicate < 
dyspeptics, and those suffering from temporary derangement 
stomach, the flour, properly prepared, would be of universal 
During my two attacks of" gastritis, a light gruel of this, mi: 
milk, was the only matter that could be digested." 

Dr. Parke, surgeon to the expedition, also speaks (J'erso 
periences in Equatorial Afrcia, p. 322) of the use of ha nana or 
flour :— 

* We found a little porridge of scalded banana flour, which h 
just freshly made ; and a few leathern belts, which is the on 
article of apparel. The discover^ of this sample of porridge bet 
me as very peculiar ; the first place where we had seen hanan 
and pounded into flour was at Ugarrowwa's camp ; even the Za 



t the few 
dghbours what they had seen us do. 



Prod, of India, 
i|ate«l 10 by°L. Ri< 



■cords thai in the Malay archipelago - n 
I the meal is used for making pap for n< 



be Diet. Econ. Prod, of India, Vol. V , p. .".(H). fin- -ante point is 

ii interesting to notice that the large crop of food produced by 

as ami plantains may lie pivscrvi'il Tor an indeiinile period either 
ing the fruit or by preparing meal from it. Both of thes>e pro- 
, which have long been known and carried out in the West Indies 



rtain part of the sugar contained in the Inn! crystallizes on the 
nit I acts as a preservative. The slices thus prepared, if made 
• liner varietie-, make an excellent ilessert preserve, and it' from 



is prepared by stripping off the husk, slicing the core, drying it in 
the sun, and when thoroughly dry reducing it to a powder, and 
finally sifting. It is calculated that the fresh cote will yield 40 per 
cent, of this meal, and that an acre of avera-c <|:iality will yield over a 



A good account of 


plantain n; 


tea] 


and its value for food 


purposes was 


published by Professc 


,. Johm 






ie Highland 


Society, No. 20. Tli 




prod 


need in the Barbados 


Afjrin.lt,, ml 


Reporter, August 8tl 


i, 1848. 








The inquiry was st 










sent to Scotland from 






tilth (iniana. It is remarkable that 








s the starting of a fat 


story for the 


manufacture of plan 






the same Colony shoul 




bring the subject into 


i notice. 








Professor Johnston 


says : " 1 




ain meal is of a sligh 




colour, and has an 




o,|oi 


ur, which becomes more'perceptible 












to that of orris root. 










" When mixed with cold ws 




it forms a feebly tern 




more adhesive than 






sal, but much less so 1 


than that of 


wheaten flour. When baked 




i hot plate, this dough 


forms a cake 


which is agreeable to 


the sense 


of s 


tnell, and is by no meai 


is unpleasant 


to the taste. . . . 










" When boiling wa 






























sago in colour, but p0 
Jn the plantain « 


:^;;vi 




nTlK^teL 


insipid; the 


fMs iSSedin tke 


"ad!!-"'' ; 


S 7 i 


it table SL^r'pb 


,," oMHva.'h 








iceous food. In Son 










and become hard, 




translucid like horn. 


Under 








state, taken as travel 




in 


sea voyages and long 


journeys by 



easily extracted, but, according to Dr. Shier, the starch from the 
piantain (in the unripe state) cannot be extracted in a perfectly white 
condition, in consequence of being associated with a colouring 
matter from which it is almost impossible to separate it. l?his 
colouring matter resists the action of the most powerful bleaching 
re-agents. 

In 1890 analyses of the unripe banana and plantain fruit wen; 
published by Messrs. Harrison and Jenman {Hi port on A<)riadtiw( , 
British Guiana, p. 59) ;— 



" Composition of a Sample of Bah 


anas (unripe). 


- 


Dried. Fresh. 


Water 

Oil or fat - 


5-75 


•29 


Gums, &c. - 

Digestible fibre .... 
Woody fibre ..... 
Ash (mineral matter) 


I 1 .! 


'"1 




100-00 100-0.. 



" Composition of ! 
Fleshy matter or pulp, 



- 


Fresh Pulp. 


Dried Pulp. 


Water 

Fats - 
♦Albuminoids - 

Indigestible fibre - 


"IS 


II 




loo-oo 


K.0-00 



pp. 429-445. I 

fruits sent to him from Brazil in August 1875. The bunch was 
in transit to Lille. He found 34 per cent, of peel and 66 per 
pulp. His best fruits, while sound, gave 15-9 per cent of sua 
5-9 per cent of glucose. His worst gave 2-84 per cent, of suci 
11-34 per cent, of glucose. 

(p. 43G) :- 



following complete analysis of the pulp 



Composition of fresh Brazilian Ban 

Water 

Sugar (sucrose)- - 

Sugar (glucose) - 



composition of the ash (from the 


pulp) 


is oivell 








to the magnesium carbonate present. 




kai. Composition of the Ash from the 


Pulp of 


Banana. 






Potassium sulphate 




3.61 


Potassium chloride - 






Magnesium phosphate 




2-21 


Potassium phosphate 




27-12 


Potassium carbonate - 






Magnesium carbonate 






Calcium carbonate 




1 17 


Ferric oxide 




0-3G 
2-96 



« yielded by Mtisa ('amulixhii 



The nut 

The " i] 



ProiY.>M,i 



Deau JIh. Mn,:iM>. Fobniur 1C, \^X', 

examination. The Jamaica t-ampl.* is dr>i<rn;iled by the letter A, 
Surinam sample of the meal made from tin' interior ol the fr 
,\[usa sapiiiitmn by tin- letter B. ; and meal from the peels of the 
fruit by C. 



Nutr 


iont ratio - - l':82 j 1:85 1:22 


Nutri 


outvalue - - 82 83 74 


I, Is notice 


able how widely the nutrient ratio (or proportion of 














the above dix 


ergence seems less marked, For Ik- has calculated the 




iitroi£rn present as it' it existed in the albuminoid form. 


I find that tin: 


cent, only of the nitrogen present is albuminoid , in his 


above) 71 per 




le from the peels. 77 per cent. In other respects my 


results and his 


agree well. 


I would furl 


Inr remark that sample A. (from Jamaica) \va- prohablv 






preparation of 


U. and C. _ For in this meal no more than . "56 per cent. 


B'lSl'v 


"SS 


In all the a 


^.VO-MJ.^ 


The eonstiti 


,l,t 'set' .lira as "oil " in the table of analyses is the 


ether-extract o 




the peels, it co 


nsists partly of wax and colouring matter. 


In the ash 


of the meal prepared from peels a notable quantity of 








Tours truly, 




(Signed) A. IT. CiiiiRcn. 



following hitcrolinu; -uir^otiuns 
n meal are taken from a report pre 
iron-producing Plants of British G 
ogue of Contributions transmittal 



amaica in 1S<M <Aiu tU 



312 

cation of the desiccating process to bananas would be that 
able us to turn to account a quantity of raw material 
goes to waste. There is practically no limit to the 

•ananas which we could get from the islands if we could 
They are shipped green and ripen on the voyage. When 



e contents of the waggons will be a total loss. 
had a desiccating plant that could convert the fruit into < 
lour we could largely increase our importations and tun 
which would command a sale all over the coast and ii 



nd bunches of a certain size only possess a niarketaUe 
■e practically useless except for consumption locally, 

nt the largest producer of ha lianas for export, it 



in use at the PuUio Hospital in Kin-sfon, and was considered a whole- 
some and nutritions food. It formed an excellent diet for patient- 
si !'( e_r from d n m i, d . tery, and d ed liluients. 1 hi- is con- 



i small per-centage of tanr 
a report on the Exhibi 
ition, 1893, Colonel Wa 



5 and invalids, provided the prodi 
sssary amount to advertise it exi 

Messrs. Spragiie, Warner, A Co. 



to rho exhibitors, i 
fortunately those gentlemen were unable at the time to adopt t 
proposed, and the matter is still in abeyance. I am strongly < 
that with a judicious outlay of capital, and with a reasonable 
that no sudden changes will bo made in tariff regulations, t 
market open for banana meal in the United Stal es. 

" I have seen ripe bananas offered for sale in the streets of 
at almost the same price as they are in Kingston, though of < 
quality is distinctly inferior." 



The following account of the preparation ol plantain meal at 
convict farm. Trinidad, by Mr. C. \V. Moaden is quoted in the Bull 
of the Botanical Department, Jamaica, xxvi., p. 5. The meal was ] 
pared from a plantain known in Trinidad as the " Moko." Thi 
usually grown as a shade for young cacao (roes. Tt appears, otherv 
to have little value. Mr. 1 [art refers to it in his report for the year 1! 
p. 18, as " the useless Moko or Jumbi plantain or Fig." It is so 
what remarkable that the meal prepared from this despised but ^ 
widely distributed plant should prove of so good a quality. 



meal. The slices dry in two 1 
prepared meal, which at Gd. 
women could prepare .">(> lbs. < 
packing, &c, has to be cor 

obtained in this way for th 



In a letter to the Port of 

Mr. Meaden gives the followi 

" It is proved by analysis t 



profitable market 
bunch well within 



Hague, Holland, tl 
Guiana.' Already- 



because it is believed iu Surinam to be a strong. t plant - and less liable 
to be injured by rain and storms wbich are particularly severe on the 
plantain." The meal was obtained by slicing the fruit by machinery 
into thin pieces and drying tla-m in a fruit-i hying apparatus. The dried 
slices were then ground into a meal in a mill and carefully sifted. The 
analyses o! various meals made in Surinam show that the meal prepared 
i'rom both plantain and banana has almost the same composition. A set 
of preparations has been forwarded to Kew by Mr. Asser, consisting 
of the following articles. The list is given in full as it shows the 
numerous commercial uses to which the fruits of the plantain and banana 
may be put : — 

(1) Dried slices of the entire fruit (pulp and peel) in the starchy 
state suitable for the preparation of alcohol or for making into a 
nourishing bread ; (2) meal in a starchy state from the pulp only for 
making into a superior kind of bread or porridge ; (3) Hakes and meal 
in a dextrinous state- for use in breweries or for making into nourishing 
soups, puddings, &c. These Hakes are of a rich brown colour, and 
retain the banana flavour. Another preparation, very similar but sweet. 
is intended loi us, cakes, biscuits, A:c ; 

(5) dried peel and coarse meal prepared from it intended as a feeding 
material for cattle and pigs; (6) banana marmalade; (7) dried 
bananas entire and without peel put up like dried figs in boxes; 
(8) raw alcohol prepared from fresh bananas and also from dried 
banana meal; (9) sugary syrup of bananas "of agreeable odour and 
flavour," suitable for confectionery purposes, for preparation of 



The use of banana meal in the preparation of alcohol is no doubt 
borrowed from the example at St. .Michael'- in the Azores, where since 
the failure of the orange cultivation sweet potatoes are largely gi own, 
cut into thin slices, ground into meal, and then converted into alcohol 
During the year lss-1 
of the value of 40,588. 

It is estimated by Mr. Asser that the cost of banana cultivation in 
Surinam will be at the rate of 21. 10*. for every ton of meal. The cost 

of gathering the crop . ml making the meal will be at the rate of lS.v. to 
20*. per ton ; while the cost of freight to Europe will be about 25*. per 
ton. The estimated net cost of delivery of banana meal in Europe is 
therefore placed at 1/. lo.v. per ton. Considering the market value of 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



ULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



No. 93.] SEPTEMBER. [1894. 



CCCCVI.— VEGETABLE RESOURCES OF INDIA 

An interesting Me-moraml 
lately been prepared by Dr. 

Products to tbe Government of India. A copy ha; 
to this establishment by the Secretary of State for India in Council. 
The following extracts will -i, ■ i general view of the present position, 
and the proba chief vegetable resources of the 

ipire:- 

British India, as covered by this Memorandum, consists roughly of 
699 million acres, which support a population of, say 221^ millions. 
The ;nin<-nlni!.ii pr< >dnct- utv u r :'" .p '•! -r- follows : — 

(a) Food crop- (wheat, i 'ice, barley, millet:-, pulses, sugar, spice?, etc.)- 

(6) Oil-seeds (linseed, rape and mustard, castor, sesamum, ground- 
nut, etc.). 

(c) Fibres (cotton, jute, hemp. rhea. silk, wool, etc.). 
i 

(e) Drugs and narcotics, etc. (opium, tea, coffee, tobacco, cinchona, 

(/) Miscellaneous products, catch, lac, india-rubber, palm sugar, 
cocoa-nut [fibre and oil], myrobalans, etc. 

Wild Products. 

Miscellaneous products, such as ciitcli. lac. india rubber, are not 
rxactlv agricultural crops ; hut these products form a son i. 
iicant feature of India as compared with European experience of the 
present day,— namely, a source of wealth derived from wild or semi- 
u ild animals and plants. The cocoa-nut palm cannot, strictly speaking, 
be treated aa planted, and 

large tracts of country are devoted to it. So, in the same way, the date 
and palmyra palms are- sources ol wraith to many parts of india. 
The- itHihirn tree nia_\ he spoken of as our id' ih 

or semi-cultivated plants of lame tract- of coiintrv. affording, as it does, 
food, oil, and alcohol. The singhara, or water-chestnut (like the 
water-cress of Europe) is of considerable importance to wide areas of 



India. On the lower hills and scrubby forest lands the collection of 
such articles as lac, cutch, india-rubber, wild silks, gums, dyeing and 
tanning materials, medicinal products, paper-making grasses, etc., etc., 
afford by no m< ins in nsigniiii mt contribution to the resources of the 
people who inhabit such regions. These non-agricultural crops (as 
they might be designated) are too numerous to be separately dealt with. 
and returns of the areas devoted to them cannot be ascertained. We 
can judge of their value, however, by the returns of foreign and internal 
trade, so I ng as it is not forgotten that the major portion of these 
products are locally consumed, and hone" trade statistics irive but an im- 
perfect conception of their total value. It may safely be said that in 
few countries in the world do wild products as-unm such importance .-,- 
m India. Not only do the poor eke out their daily subsistence by wild 
and famine vast communities have 
been enabled to tide over the ruin that has overtaken them through the 
the knowledge of the wild products of their country. The husbandry of 
wild-food materials and the extension of the fuel and fodder supply has 
according gaged the earnest consideration of the Government o! 
India for many years past. 

It is hardly necessary, however, to specialise here and there the wild 
or semi-wild products that deserve consideration. India can count 
these by the hundred, and need not, therefore, look to foreign countries 
for new crops while she has a long list of unexploited products which 
waste in every lam tn trjr. i n the 

\ tension of the effort to bring these hitherto 
unknown pmdiict- (unknown to European commerce) into a position of 
definite recognition, is more worthy of serious consideration than the 
attempt to acclimatise the plants of other count™ s. Much mi-lit, f.n 
example.be done by encouraging the people to grow, as hedges" round 
their tields, ii-eiul bushes instead of useless plants that have the exclusive 
recommendation of rapidity of growth or efficiency of protection. 
These hedges might, for example, be made more and more fuel reserves, 
or sources of dyes, tans, fibres, and other such products. This idea 
seems to be gaining ground far more in the Bombay Presidency than in 
other parts of India. It is not uncommon in Guzerat and Kathiawar. 
lor example, to find miles of road-sides planted with the ornamental 
and useful bush, Cassia auriculata. But it may safely be said that in 
Western and Central India, thousands of square miles' of country have 
been overrun by scrubby bushes of Anona squamosa. These are 
serving no useful purpose at present, while the fibre from the bark 
might be found of value. Opmiti<;l>- ... : ,r), thouirh 

it affords an inferior fibre, might be utilised ; it is a noxious weed, the 
utilisation of which would be of immense advantage to extensive tracts 
of country, especially in Southern India. Bauhhna Vahlii (the main 
fibre) is a prevalent climber in the jungles of the lower hills, and might 
at little cost be cultivated over rocky country at present next to useless. 
Its fibre has the advantage of being capable of being bleached and dyed 
by the same processes as wool. At least one, if not two, species of 
AhutiloH are wild plants in very nearly every district of India. Their 
fibres very mo s; da. Another bast fibre, Pavouia, 

is probably .superior to Sidn, Malachra was once on a time experi- 
mentally grown in Bombay as a substitute for jute, and reported a 
failure; bin even if that opinion be correct, it might very possibly be 



found a success in Madras or Burma. 

dyes, tans, oils, medicines, and 



These are only a few out of the many fibrous plan 
i: - night be given of d 



le substances well wortln of . -tilt iva t ion. It is. in faei. easy 
t many such examples of possible revenue from useless tracts 
r of wild products which, if experimentally grown, might 
3 of wealth 



; rank among the recognised and valued 

> stand, the physical c( 

> warrant but slight departures 



stand, the physical conditions of large 

"ight departures from the 

of the people. But while admitting all this, it 



is impossible to accept the verdict of enthusiasts who have pronounced 
the native systems of agriculture as superior to those of Europe, and 
who would have us believe that improvement is impossible and 
midr.-drable. In relation to existing <■( itnlit i. .n< the native systems are 
indeed admirable, and need but to be evolved to attain a high state of 
perfection. But there are few aspects of Indian agriculture in which 
improvement is not only possible, but in which it is not, as a matter of 
fact, taking place. Witness, for example, the startling revelation 
obtained from a study of the present crops of our fields and gardens. 
Some 50 or GO of our most generally grown plants came to us, within 
historic times almost, from other parts of Asia or from Africa and 
Europe. Of this nature may be mentioned the onion, leek, rape-seed, 
cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, pomelo, water-melon, coffee, hxpiar. soy- 
bean, ochro, lettuce, flax, litchi. poppy, field pea. apricot, plum, peach, 
apple, betel-pepper, chena, and Italian millet, Sec. Sec So again 
has furnished India with many 



cultivated plants 


, such as the 




lean : 


aloe, pine-apple, custard-apple, 






uid ehilics. 


, papaya, cinchona, pumpkin, 










tobacco, pricklv-pear. u,uava. < 'apc- 










., &C 


Turning from our fields and 












rs, to the jungles and c\en 






c pialiv 1 






intage of exotics. Indeed, it 












to Lahore 50 per cent, of the 












has been imported by India 






:. But we 






iminate only the plants named, 






rstems of 




ihure 


and horticulture necessitated 










add be called ancient ? There 








the i 




ty of the crops grown are not 


exotics. Hence 


h ' 


vould be ; 




-ale t. 


) assume that everything the 



antiquity as if would be to believe that his present religious and social 
observances had been derived exclusively from the Vedas. Rather than 
hold that India is incapable of chaiisre. it would ho safer almost to 
helieve that her greatest weakness lies in an inherent tendency to 
appropriate the results of foreign agricultural skill, in-teud of pi rfecting 

vated plants of the world to be expressed to area, India would be found 
to rank very far down in the scale. She has borrowed far more than 
she has given, and it would seem, therefore, that the improvement of 
the future should lie as much as possible in the path of natural selection 
and evolution of indigenous materials and systems. That improvement 
of Indian agriculture in these directions is possible and desirable is a 
point on which it would appear there cannot be two opinions. 

Possibilities of Development. 

The possibilities of development on new lines are then discussed 
under the following heads : — 

(a) Extension and improvement ol [j of existing 

products ; and (b) the introduction of new products. These two 



Horticultural Societies of India, of the Superintendents of Botanic 
Gardens, of the Conservators of Forests, and of the Government 
Departments of Agriculture, for many years past. To enumerate the 
many useful trees, ornamental shrubs, and valuable crops that have been 
and improved, would fill many 
The prosperous 
Jey Ion may be said to have 
:ed from the Botanic Gardens of Calcutta, and to have obtained 
direct aid from Government until private enterprise was prepared to 
undertake its further development. To the same institution has to be 
assigned the honour of having brought cinchona cultivation to its 
present -t ate of perfection, thus not only giving to the fever stricken 
people of India but to the whole world quinine at a price within the 
means of all. The Forest Department has taken up the question of the 
conservation of forests, the re-afforestation of denuded tracts, and the ex- 
tended cultivation of such useful trees as mahogauy,india-rubber, &c.,&c. 
The Agri-Horticultural Societies, like the Government Agricultural 
Departments, have taken an active interest in the introduction of new 
crops or superior races of existing crops. Such subjects as indigo, jute, 
cotton, sugar, wheat, sorghum, silk, cattle, sheep, &c, &c, have from 
time to time been carefully considered and extensive experiments con- 
ducted. No small share of the successful development of the trade 
in these products is therefore due to the societies and departments 



Cotton. 
Little more than a century ago it was felt in England that the time 
might arrive when India would have to be regarded, from political 
reasons, as the chief source of supply for cotton. A Polish botanist 
[Dr. Anthony Pantaleon Hove, employed as a collector for Kew in the 
last century], was sent out by the then British (lowrnmeut to study the 
indigenous cotton plants of India. His report, though not published 
until many years after his death, is full of interest. It shows that the 
crops grown in Western India a century ago were very different from 
those of the present day, and that the systems of cultivation pursued, 
even on the black soils of Guzerat, were in some important respects 
dissimilar from those now followed. During the first few decades of 
this century the Honourable the East India Company entertained the 
somewhat unfortunate opinion that the true way to enable India to par- 
ticipate in the greatly expanding British traffic in raw cotton would be 
to acclimatise the most highly prized forms of America. Large sums of 
money were accordingly spent in Bengal, Madras, and Bombay that 
might (as we now learn) have been used to better advantage in an effort 
to improve and develop the indigenous crops. Year by year America 
steadily improved the qualit\ and in.Tea-e.d the length of her staple, and 
the demand for Indian cotton accordingly declined. Ultimately, however, 
India succeeded in producing New Orleans cotton at Dhanvar — a staple 
of a far superior quality to the Indian. The high price paid for this, 
unfortunately induced adulteration instead of encouraging greater 
effort. In July 1863 a law had sieeonlingh to be passed to repress the 
frauds perpetrated, but this, while being wholly ineffectual in its main 
object, very frequently punished the wrong persons, and accordingly did 
great harm to the industry. It was in consequence repealed, and the 
Indian cotton trade was thus left to take care of itself. The effort to 
participate in the British traffic had practically to be abandoned, and not 



:;!f) 



because Indi; i h. - 5 ■able of producing a staple of the 

kind required. But this is not all. The reputation of India for its 
once famous indigenous cottons had at the same time been completely 

destroyed. ;<i • into disfavour, rapidly 

<:■_-■■ crated .:. <i'im!:i . nfii ;it the present day it might almost be 
described a- interior to many of the indigenous cottons. rn-Uii. -d and 
impecunious cultivators wen- in India left to compete against the 
enlightened agriculture of America — ; jimratvt of the 

i . the\ migl liav. developed rhe produce to meet 
the best market, instead 'of being content to allow it to drift into an 
inferior position. As matters stand, they may now be said to glory in 
that they are able to dispose of a worthless staple at remunerative' 

That improvement towards a higher and better-paid standard is 
possible may be accepted as fully demonstrated b\ past experience and 
by the fact of superior races of cotton being found where attention is 
given to the crop, and still more so by tin further fact that within the 
regions of superior prodi - are folly aware that 

degeneration occurs with neglect and with the prolonged continuance of 
oc the same soil. Selection of 
seed and the cultivation lants for the production of 

seed might easily improve the Indian crop of any district by 50 per 

For many years past th< fting into a 

restricted groove. Our produce goes to mills that do not wish for a 
superior or long staple, but only a pure one (that is. not a mixture of 
several lengths of staple), so that it may fairly be said many of our 
large-! buyers discourage improvement, The dangers of a one-sided 

trade of tins nature need scarcely be mentioned. India i- thus destroyed 
as a possible country of supph for the English mills. The India:, mills 
are at the same time com])' lied to look to foreign, countries for their 

confined in their operations t<> one class of good-. It might almost be 
said thai progression Is d - of centuries 



.'-. 


■ thrown away, and a In 


-e and import 


ant indue 


stry practically 


cornered 












uce the plausible axiom 






'trolling power 




:tion. Hence improvement of the staj 


)le may be emphatically 


affirmed i 










tion of cotton should be looked f 




asting traffic is aimed at 


the destr 


i the good fe 






fibre, if not of 


• 


lity of both grower am 


1 trader. It i- 






traffic, as 






ms and objects 


of most of those concerned are di 






iment of a high 


yield of J 


i worthless staple. 








What 




wer, equally a] 








fact, to almost all the i 


irticles of Iiu 




. Little or no 


et! r; i :i> 


i been put forth towards developing, oi 


1 ..-iemifi, 


prim iples, the 



?en concerned with acclimates.", the products of other 
the result, as already miowu, that India has obtained 
«t widely grown crops from foreign sources. 



from October to March, the major portion from October to January. 
The latter does not commence to come into market much before Februarj . 
and is, as a rule, over by April, though exceptional crops are not ripe 
before June. The early crops are represented by the " Bengals " (such 
as the cottons of the Panjab, the North-West Provinces, Oudh, and 
Bengal), the "Oomrns" (the chief cottons of Khandesh, Berar, &c), 
. the '"Ilinganghats" (of the (Vntral Provinces, &c), and many of the 
Sind cottons. The late crops are represented by the " Dholeras " 
( inqu.i l.tnt crops oi Kathiawar. Kutch, and Guzerat), by the "Broach 
ami Surats," by the "Coomptas" (indigenous cottons of Dharwar, 
Bijapur, Belgaum, Sec), and by the " Cocondas " and "Tinnevellys." 
This purposely leaves out of consideration the American cottons, 

"Coiinhatnrcs," which are a!-o. however, all late crop-. While we have 

nn.v revealed as more or less the expression of meteorological condition-. 
since within almost any one of the regions of these crops widely different 
forms are separately classed in the trade mi, lor the names of the district - 
where produced. These when examined botaniealiy are often found to 
be afforded by distinct races, varieties, or species. Nothing could 
-" Al -i complexity of the Indian cotton traffic more 



forcibly than a tour through (rn/erat during the months of Jai 

~* ach (more especially in The 
i rich l)l ; ick cotton -oil is found to 



March. At Surat and Broach (more espocially 



yield one of the finest of all Indian long-staple cottons. Durin 
months mentioned, however, the -oil is split into great blocks, the c 
penetrating to such a depth as to render perennial crops an impossi 
As the result, trees are very rare and hedges all but unknown. . 
miles off, the lighter soils of large portions of Baroda are al 
support perennial cotton-, trees become frequent, and hedges univ 



the north of Baroda (in Wftdfav ai ther change is 

met with, viz., the occurrence of close-podded forms of Dholera cotton. 
These are far more dissimilar from Suiat, Iiroaeh. and certain Baroda 
cottons than are the Dholeras of the southern division of Kathiawar. 
Indeed one of the chief forms of Broach has undoubtedly been derived from 
Kathiawar, so that the trade distinction of " Dholeras " from " Broach 
and Surats " cannot be upheld botaniealiy. What is more curious, the 

year. And these illustrations of (iuz« .. f d Kail an ir cottons are 
more or less true of the whole of India. There are often very narrow 
limn- indeed within which an extension of the area of cultivation can 
can ied without destroying completely all the special properties of the 

The total area in cultivation under cotton in British India in 1R92-93 



hipped from India. The export 



1892-93 was slightly less, being of the 

1.. the value of Ks. 301,077; in 1S02-: 



possibility of this large -i..ek of valuable fibre not onl; 
but to its being found profitable to open out aloe-fibr 
an extensive scale. So in the same manner the fibre o! 
time to time been urged on the consideration of the tc 
comparatively little l 



admirable fibi 



ng accordingly collected for experii 



gentlei 

and it is hoped that through 
the ordinary cultivators to tal 
sspects superior to jute. So, ag 



k might largely participate in the i 
y most useful fibres known to tl 



trade created for them. Amonj 

{(rot din via juncea) and Decea 
light of the fixation of nitroge 



this foum 




lo. in th'o I! 




temp ( 


Mnrsilatio 




no) India possesses a fit 








rhea. It 




g Indian fibres the big] 












.-id. i-aldv le- than nnv 








acid purification, while its weight 


i- groatlv 




./wor"-! 






t of it broke when dry t 








t 343 lbs., 




similar line of the finest hemp. ' 






190 lbs. 


But a volume might be 






xph.it. -d 


i fibres of 




o.-t of which con Id easi: 


:v be add,. 


I to the 




. 




1 crops. If those :ihva.h 




do not I 


■;;;';;;;;• : 


/Llw*; 


Calotrop 


is. /?,/;,■/< ns, Mahirhm. 


.'bV,v/. )>d 








vnuhnr, 


da, &c, &c. 











Competition with aniline ha- ruined many of the Indian dyes, such as 
-afHouvr and madder, but there seems no good reason why others should 
not take their places either as regular crops or as important forest pro- 
duct-. Among the form, r ma\ be -pecialiy mention. >d the Chay -root 
i Oldcrild dliaHiuhcllrttii) and At ( M< ri,i<l« ntnf»\\u\. which might be 



regularly avd . i. as these plants furnish dyes of a 

purity and depth of colour that defy imitation. And there appears no 
reason why a dye-stuff, much after the nature of indigo cakes, could 
not be prepared from either of 1 1 1« --. - dye-plants, ready, as it were, for 
immediate use. What has apparently prevented their coming into the 
Kuropean market is the difficulty in utilising them according to Native 
methods. 

The demand for lac far exceeds the supply, and in this product 
India hold- the market. Ilithertn the !ae of commerce has been drawn 
from wild sources, but there is nothing to show that the insect might 
not be regularly semi-domesticated. 



As tea may be said to ha\ - tin n hate cans. <>t ti;e separa- 
tion of America from Great Britain, so indigo may he regarded as the 
cause of the collapse of the nnee famous maritime power of Portugal. 
When we first read of India exporting indigo, it went by the Persian 
• G-ulf and Alexandria to Mai>eilles. where it was known as Bagdad 
Indigo. In the fifteenth century the new route to India was estab- 
lished and the Portuguese became the chief traders. Amongst other 
articles they trafficked in indigo, and < 1 succeeded, in -pite of tin- 
opposition and persecution of the woad cultivators of Europe, in 
making that tiuetonal reagent a lmcositv to the European dye-works, 
especially in Holland. At that time and even down to the seventeenth 
century the English manufacturers sent their broadcloths to be dyed by 
the Dutch. Difficulties, however, arose through the absurdly high 
charges made by the Portuguese for the indigo which they brought to 
Europe, and through which trali'n-. wv\ largely, thev were enabled to 
establish their position of the chief shipping agency (so to speak) in 

as a depot for Eastern produce, but the skill of the Portuguese stopped 
short of utilising in home industries the materials which their maritime 
enterprise brought to their shores. In quarrelling, therefore, with 
their chief consumers, they directly led to the formation in 1631 of the 

Dutch Ka-t India Company, by whom r-U"iigh indigo was soon brought 
to Holland to suffice for the whole of Europe. 

It may be said that some doubt > till e\i-t- as to whether or not the 

indigo plant can botanically be called indigenous to India. Several 

It i- certainly -igu'tieant that the Sanskrit name mid (or the modern 
nil, acf) was not carried to the countries supplied as the name of the 
new dye. This might be viewed as pointing to the specific application 
of in la to this particular blue <]ye (out ot the many other plants known 
. in India to yield a similar product) as of comparatively modern date. 
Further, the industry w-oiild Appear to have originated on the western 
side of India ((iuzerat and Sind being its home)— a region where its 



the earliest European writers. 


The P 


ersian and African influence 


(especially in dyeing and weavir 


!<:) are ev 


en now and have for centuries 


been so strong on the western 


, side of 


a [ and iSmXcIure Vindfeo 


countenance to the idea of t be- 




having very possibly been inti 
for its rapidly spreading to othe: 




y them. This might account 


r and bet 


ter-suited regions. Indeed, it 



stry would almost naturally tit- 
home with greater pertinacity 



udia of her natural trade— the adulteration of wl 

pauish, Portuguese, and English colonists accord 

dll soon ruined or all but mined the Indian 
•ouhles that iihout this time arose in Kurope m 
stored to India her old industry. The British K: 
;alising that the English manufacturers were now 
it on the French and Spanish for indigo, eneourag. 
:' indigo fact >n'es in JJeiigal, and therehy ind : 
lanutiictiire were made to migrate from the westeri 
['the country, and from Native to European mannfi 
lat continues to be paid for Native-made Madra- ii 
uropean Bengal article (or that made by Na 



:I24 



conservancy laws many of them are being deprived of the right to eut 
down (hitch trees, and are therefore taking to other occupations. The 
existence of a separate people or a people recognisable as different from 
the other inhabitants of the forests shows how ancient the art of 
••■net must be. The seats of the trade have doubt- 
less been repeatedly changed through the extermination of the tree or 
ihe administrative regulations that have prevailed. While to a small 
extent it is manufactured wry nearly in every district of India, there 
may be said to be three chief forms of ordinary Cutch, viz., " Pegu," 
from Burma ; " Peng-al," obtained from Nepal, Kumaon, and to a small 
extent from Chutia Nagpur; and "Bombay," prepared chiefly in 
Dharwar, South Konkan, Khandesh, and Surat. 

But there are also different qualities (if not perhaps chemically 
different articles) such, for example, a-. 1st, the dark Cutch or Catechu 

; ' _ 
substance exported;' 2nd. the Cr\.»tidlim „ r pal ■ ( af.-ehn (often in trade 
specifically designated as Kath in contradistinction to Cutch), which 
is prepared i i Kumaon and eaten i /( contest ,_ thereby the market 
of the mipurte'l tlambier ; and ord. K< y.sal or crystalline substance 
same fashion as the Barus 
Camphor. Although an effort has been made to recommend the pale 

'■:•■.■:.■..',;.: • ; i 

commerce, it is believed litile pronr IV> , ] 1;l s as yet been made. The 
difference is effected by the method of preparation followed in Kumaon, 
recognised the exports might easily 
enough be chat present exported 

from Pegu and the cakes of Bombay, into the crystalline article, the 
" J process of has recently been 



discovered. 

The trade 
prosperous c 



this 



Ji.de 



way of comparison those of 1879 to 


orts for the pa 
1884:— 


t five yea 


r S and by 


Years. 


Cwt. 


Its. 


Years. 


Cwt. 


Bs. 


1880-81 - 

1882-83 - 
1883-84 - 


316!o77 


. ■■ - ■ i 


1889-90 - 

1891-92 - 
1892-93 - 


290,896 
221,986 
156,493 

229,'316 


4,4-2 ;;.2 1<» 
3,824,840 



About two-thirds of the exports usually go from Burma and the 
major portion of the remaining third from Bengal. The United 

Kingdom takes fully a third of the total exports.' 



ugar factories < 



are in India, five in 
Madras, seven in Bengal, and two in the North-West Provinces. The 
more important are the Cossipore Sugar Factory (near Calcutta), with 
a capital of Its. 1,000,000; the Rosa Suirar Factory, Shahjahanpur, 

with a - a; it:.! of lis. 1.(500,000 ; and the five factories in Madras, vi/., 
the A>k Facton. (lanjam; Parry A: Co.'- Factories in South Arcot ; 
and the Tinnevelly Sugar Refining Co. The Sujanpur Factory at 
Gurdaspur is also a" rum distillery. 



vrir, 



The history of the Indian sugar trade is very instructive. At first 
the exports were made exclusively in the very finest crystallised 
qualities, and went from Bengal, restrictions having been pineal on 
Madras and Bombay from the idea that it was essential that sugar and 
silk should become the main articles of the East India Company's 
dealing> with Bengal. Had the repressive action of the British Go- 
vernment in imposing a very much higher import duty on East Indian 
(as the Bengal article was called) than on West Indian sugar not 
existed, ii i- probable Bengal would have taken a very high place in the 
world'- production and supply of cane sugar. As matters stood, the 
honourable company soon found it would not pay to carry Indian sugar 
to England with a heavy disadvantage placed on'the article. In oour-e 
of time, however, a radical change took place in the demand, through 
the establishment of English and >c«»tch refineries. A large export 
trade sprang up in raw sugar, but the Indian traffic may be said to have 
then changed from Bengal to Madia-. There has. moreover, been a 
steady decline of the export trade in refined sugar since 18-15. But 
while this change in the location and character of the export trade nun- 
be said to be unfortunate, many persons arc disposed to view the 
revolution effected by the still more recent import traffic as fraught with 
positive danger to the Indian cultivator, lint so far it may be said 
that the yearly increasing foreign supply would not appear to have 
caused a decline in production. The first effects of the beet sugar of 
Europe on the Indian trade were (a) to dose the markets to which 
India had previously exported refined sugar, and (b) to throw on the 
world large quantities ot • , -tigar which sought an 

outlet in India. In time beet sugar was also exported to foreign 
market.-, and consignments were accordingly made to India, -o that we 

yearly increasing quantity of a still cheaper article in the beet sugar of 
Europe. Ii the refined sugar imported be expressed to the standard of 
the raw sugar exported, it will be found that India now import- about 
7 cwt. for every cwt. exported. 

While this altered nature of the Indian sugar traffic has told heavily 

must not be forgotten, namely, that, cheap though refined sugar, no 
doubt, is, it has in no way as yet affected the consumption ot the raw 
article, which is mainly u-ed 'in India. It has released the quantity of 
that article formerly required by the refiners and thus lowered 'the 
price, but this has, so far, only extended consumption. The raw 
sugar used in India, after making a correction for the foreign traffic- 
comes to 2,()00,000 tons, or, say. 28 lbs. per head of population. This 
reduced to refined sugar would be equal to about 9 lbs. : but there is no 
occasion to make that reduction, since refined sugar is not likely to be 
used by the millions of India for many years to come, and the key to 
the Indian sugar traffic is therefore the relation of the price of imported 
refined sugar to Indian raw sugar, since by the majority of the people of 
India the latter will continue to be preferred to the former until a 
material change takes place, if that be possible, in the relative prices of 

Formerly imported sugar came mainly from Mauritius, and was im- 
ported almost exclusively by Bombay. At the present day the following 
may be given as the order of importance of supplying countries : — 
Mauritiu-. Germany, China, the Tinted Kingdom, the Straits, Austria. 
The European countries supph beet sugar, but, as manifesting the 
strenuous efforts that are being made by the foreign countries of supply 



326 

to obtain a holding in : maybe added that cot 

Bombay alone, but all the provinces of India now import foreign sugar. 
The effect has been disastrous on the Indian relining industry, and 
hence imported sugar may be said to be rapidly taking the place of 
Indian ivtined tuirar. The export- of raw suirar (cane and palm) from 
India in 1892-93 were of the value of nearly 5,000,000 rupees. 

Tea. 

In 1788 S 



i l '. ni[ imv that tin effort should I 
>rd William ~ 



India. Lord William Bentinck, on the eve of his departure for India, 
accordingly received instructions that he -hould give the subject his 
careful consideration. Some eight years previous to Sir Joseph Banks' 
suggestion, Colonel Kyd had actually raised China tea in the Botanic 
Gardens of Calcutta. Lord Bentinck, on his arrival in India, lost no 
time, however, in taking action. A tea committee was founded, with 
Dr. Wallich as secretary. In addressing his council on the 24th of 
January 1834, His Excellency made it clear that he was to leave nothing 
unturned that might help to attain the object aimed at, — viz., the 
acclimatisation of the best Chinese plants. The tea committee do not 

Assam. Much expense and considerable delay was accordingly incurred 
in sending several expeditions to China to procure Chinamen m 

committee) Captains Charlton and Jenkins re-discovered the wild Assam 
plant. 

It is perhaps needless to traverse the somewhat beaten path of the 
suh-equent iii-torir events, the repeated failures but ultimate successful 
establishment of the tea industry in India. One point may, however, 
be specially mentioned. It was found (when very nearly too late) that 
the indigenous plant was far superior to the acclimatised. 

The first distinctly public (..r commercial -ale) of Indian tea was made 
in the Calcutta market on the 25th May 1841. 

The total area under tea '.i, India i- ;;:W.M5 acres. The exports in 
1891-92 from India were 120,000,000 pounds. 

At the present dav it mav be said that Ceylon is now a more formid- 
able rival to India than China. In 1885-86, Ceylon exported not quite 
8,000,000 pounds of tea. In 1891-92, Ceylon had increased its exports 
to nearly 68,000,000 pounds. 

Coffee. 

The early history of coffee in India is very obscure. Most writers- 
agree that it was brought to Mysore about two centuries ago by a 
Budan, who on his return from 
Mecca brought' seven seeds with him. I.insehoten, who travelled in 
South India from 1576 to 1590 and described the countries through 
which he passed, their people, agriculture, and industries, makes no 



still be seen some of the original coffee plai 



These 
uperintendent of 
he regularly prepares his own coffee 
supply from these plants. Though numerous experiments of this 
nature were conducted all over India, and continue to he made to the 
on-out dav, coffee planting has attained a commercial position almost 
exclusively in South India. In British India there were la.-t vear 127.5 H 
acres under the crop. But the area devoted to it in Mysore," Travaneore, 
and Cochin would have to be added to that in British territory, thus 
bringing the total up to more than 200,000 acres. There are 31 coffee 
works (for cleaning coffee ,: *!,. M., ras Presidency, giving employment 
to 1,379 permanent and 5,433 temporary hands. The export, of Indian 
coffee [in spite of the prevalence of coffee-leaf disease] have shown, if 
anything, a steady tendency to increase in value if not in quantity. In 
1-77-7*, the exports were 293,587 cwts. of the value of R>. 1,3H,63S. 
Since that time the quantity and value have, with slight fluctuations, 
risen until 1892-93, when • L'!»:*,337 cwts. of the value 

of Rs. 2,082,439. 



A statement showing the condition of the Cinchona plantations in 
British India and the Native States on the 31st March 1893 appears in 
Appendix IV. to the Return* of A, />■ imltnral Statistic* for 1892-93. 

A few particulars are added from it in order to complete the review 
oftheprine < - of India. The Cinchona planta- 

tions are divided into two categories : (!) Government plantation-, and 
(2; private plantations. 

'['-.■■ • ■■ . ■ -„■ ' - - ■■■.-■•■; 

the charge of Dr. King, C.I. Iv. P.R.S., consist of 2,342 acre- planted 
with Cinchona ledgeriana (1,000 acres). Cinchona "hybrid" (700 
acres), and Cinchona s»ccrr»hra { 600 acres). The other Government 
plantations tire in the Madras Presidency on the Nilgiris, under the 
charge of Mr. M. A. Lawson, M.A. These consist altogether of 900 
acres, but the area under eaeh variety has not been reported. 

The privat< < ■:■.■ I in the Bengal Presi- 

dency at Darjee it 1 lt ; In the Madras Presidency at Madura, Malabar, 
the Nilgiris and Coorg; and in the two Native States of Mysore and 
Travaneore. The area under cultivation on private plantations amounts 
to 6,278 acres. Of these 4,807 are in the Madras Presidency, 
and chiefly on the Nilgiris. The out-turn of bark for the year 
1892-93 from the Government plantations was 423,873 pounds, and 
from private plantations 1,458,707 pounds ; total, 1,872,580 pounds. 

On the 31st March 1893 the total number of mature plants on 
Government and private plantations was estimated at nearly 10,000,000 



The subject of wheat growing In India I- nor separately treated Ly 
Dr. Watt in the Memorandum, but from the Table B. in the Appendix, 
giving the acreage under food crop- for the year ending 31st March 
Is','2. we find that the total ac.vage under wheat in the whoh of Briti-h 
India is over 20,000,000 acres. Of this the Punjab has nearly 7,000,000 



acres, and the Central Provinces nearly 4,000,000 acres. The 
value of the wheat exported from India in 1892-93 was over 7 1,000,000 
rupees; but in 1891-92, under exceptional circumstances of demand in 
Europe, Indian wheat was exported to the value of nearly 144,000,000 
rupees. 

Dr. Watt remarks : " The fact that India was able to respond, arid to 
thus double her normal exports of wheat, shows that the trade is a per- 
fectly natural one, and one which cannot be regarded a- drawing away 
abnormally the food supply of the people. The production of wheat, 
cotton, oil-seeds, or other Indian exports, can be readily demonstrated 
as directly governed by the conditions of the European' market. When 
favourable prices are anticipated the area of production is at once 
increased." [A Memorandum on wheat cultivation in the Punjab for 
1893-94 is given in the Kew Bulletin, 1894, p. 167. 



CCCCVII.— BOTANY OF THE HADRAMAUT 
EXPEDITION. 

The Kew Bulletin for June (p. 194) contained a brief notice of the 
return of Mr. Bent's expedition to the Hadramaut Valley, an. i of the 
botanical collections brought back by it. These were made by Mr. W. 
Lunt, a member of the gardening staff of the Royal Gardens, who had 
accompanied Mr. Bent's expedition with the permission of the First 
Commissioner of Her Majesty's Works and Public Buildings. 

About 150 species of flowering plants were secured, a satisfactory 
result taking into consideration the manifest poverty of the flora • 
these include about 25 new species and two new genera. Of the former 
nine will be figured and described in Hooker's Icones Plantarum. An 
enumeration of the whole collection is given below. 

R-ANUNCULACEiE. 

Nigella arvensis, Linn. — Amongst crops at Katac, alt. 1,100 feet. 
A common weed of the Mediterranean and Oriental regions. Native 
name, " habbeh soda." The seeds are put into bread to assist 



Katan. 

-Amongst crops i 



Cleome arabica, Linn.*- 'Near Abrail, alt. 1,800 feet. Extends to 
Egypt and Algeria. 

Cleome ?—Eetween Tokham and Ghafit, alt. 2,000 feet. A very 
curious perennial herb, with densely hispid branches and petioles, and 
small lobed orbicular leaves, with the lobes tipped with Imp.'. ■ L r Iand>. 
Gathered also by Schweinfurth, in Southern Arabia (Riebeek ex- 
pedition, No. 178), but unfortunately none of the specimens show either 



Cadaba heterotricha, Stork* in l/no/i. /,-., tab. S.30.— Dense bus] 
4 feet high. Between Tukham and < ibatit, alt. 2,000 feet. A very ra 
specie?, known also in Scinde. 

Maerua uniflora, Vahl. (M. rit/ida, R. Br.).— A bush 10 feet higl 
Al Had, alt. 2,400 feet. In the valleys, widely scattered, but n 
plentiful. Extends to Senegambia and Angola. 

R-ESEDACEJE. 

Ochradenus baccatus, Delilc— Ascends to 2,600 feet. Some of tl 
specimens b tsciated stems. Extends to Northei 

India, the Dead Sea, Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia. It grows on sand 
banks, but is not common. 

Reseda pruinosa, Delile, var. B. amblyocarpa, Fret. — In the palai 
gardens at Alrail, alt. 2,000 feet. Extends to Palestine and Egypt. • i 
is the sole representative of the genus in tropical Africa. 



Helianthemum argyraeu 
Dubaibah, alt. 4,000 feet. 
Lippii, Linn. 

ii is abundant on some of 
stony ground. 



Tamarix mannifera, Ehrenb. — A shrub 6 feet high, v 
branches. Sea level to 200 feet. Extends to Egyp 
Afghanistan. It is found usually in the dry beds of the 



Gossypium herbaceum, Linn.- Alrail. 

Stehculiaotjb. 

Sterculia arabica, T. Anders. — A tree 14 feet high, with a bushy 
bead. Tabiyeh, alt, 1,300 feet. Also Aden. 

Tii.iace^. 
-Hills at Dobaibah, alt. - 



Ztgophtlleje. 
Tribuliis. — A scrap, gathered by a Bedouin, between Tahiyeh and 
Alrail, alt, 2,000 feet, ii probably a new species of this genus. 



dense breviter pubescentibus, ramulis junioribus 
-triatis. tbliis l.iwi--ini- p iplicibus, obovatis obtusis 

basi cuneatis, stipulis spinosis parvis folio brevioribus, floribus solitaries 
axillaribus breviter pedicellatis, sepalis oblongo-lauceolatis pubescenti- 
bus, petalis ru! .<-!ii- se|>ali> . iuplo longioribus, fructu globoso mucro- 
nato inter coccos acute angulatos profunde sulcato. 

Sharl Burrock Valley, Mokalla, alt. 100-200 feet. It is found 
plentifully along the coast growing in sand, but does not extend far 
inland. Folia 3-4 lin. longa et lata. Sepala 1 lin. longa. Petala 2 lin. 
longa. Fructus 3 lin. diam. 

Zygophyllum amblyocarpum, Baker in Hook. Icon. ined. 
Shari Burrock Valley. Mokalla, alt. 200-300 feet. 

Another species from the same locality is perhaps also new, but the 
flowers are not known. A third, also "without flowers, was gathered 
between Tokham and Ghafit. 

RuTACEiE. 

Ruta tuberculata, Forsk. — Cleared cultivated ground at Katan, alt. 
1,100 feet. Extends from Scinde to Nubia and Algeria. 

Peganum Harmala, Linn.— Hills at Bir-Backban, alt. 3,500 feet. 
Extends from Central Asia to North Africa and Spain. 



Balsamodendron Opobalsamum, Kunth, {ComnUdendron Opobalsa- 

>mnn, Engler).— A bush 6-7 feet high \V ; ,di Hadi.-a, alt. 2,000 feet. 

Five other specimens without leaves and flowers, which j>n.bablv belong 
to the same sj.eei. s, were collected on the hills at Alghue, alt. 2,000 feet 

Enghrr re-.-uiU ll, rj,Uud , Kunth. r,A />'. /-/A//,, >»h< ,■,///. Her- as 

varieties of B. Opobalsamum. 

Khamne.e. 
Zizyphus Lotus, Linn. — A tree 20-30 feet high. Very common in 
Hadramaut. Native name, " Ailb." Extends through North Africa and 
South Europe to Spain. 



Vitis (Cissus) apodophylla, Bah 

■ i, rami.- gracililms am 



pt large 
Petalr 



diaitnfa. Lam., and 



Trigonella Foenum-graecum, l.ntn.—K ihiivatcd at Katan, alt. l,loO 
feet. Native name '' Kadb." 

Indigofera desmodioides, liahr,\\\ sp. : f'rutieoxi. vaumlis praeilibus 

oblanceolatis ohm-is i h « - i « ■ tenuiter dorso densins albo-puhe-<.v tilei-, 
floribus in racemis axillaribus breviter peduncul: " 



petals ealyee' nuadruplo longioribus, legumine cylindrico 4- 
. 2,000 feet, grow 



) primum argenteo deinuin glabr; 
Av i-r, tV-rt high. Wadi Hadi 



Indigofera spinosa, Fors/t.— Hillsides near Hajrain, al 
Also Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia. 

ach III. PL Orient., 



Indigofera argentea, £*■».- 
the production of an indigo d 
tropical Africa. it is the Inrlii, 
Linnasus. 



Tephrosia dura. liak, ,-. 




JE^lu^ 


lincntibus tioiibu- solitari 




bus pedunculatis, calyce campan- 
neari polyspermo glabro faciebus 


<hibam, alt. : 
Folia 12-1R lin. longa, .'1 


'In! la',-!' 


^2 le Snot 2 ^lS h 2-21 


Allied tn '*. purpurea an 


d ^jw/fii* 




Alhagi maurorum, AC 


.— Hillsidi 


- at Sil.,h, ...It. 500 feet. Also 



Dolichos Lablab, Linn. — Cultivated in the palm garden at Alrail, 
It. 2,000 feet. 

Vigna sinensis, Endl.— Cultivated as a vegetable at Katan, alt. 



feet. Extends to Nubia and Timbuctoo. 

Cassia adensis, Benth — Bakrain near Mokalla, alt. 200 feet. An 
erect undershrub 2 feet high, with a bushy head. Only known pre- 

\ ion-iy about Aden. 

Leguminosa, near Cercis. Between Tokham and Ghafit, alt. 200 feet. 
A bush 2-3 feet high. Probably new, but material too incomplete to 
describe from. 

Acacia spirocarpa, IIu</,-t.— II ill-id. m n.-ar Sibeh, alt. 600 feet, and 
Wadi Hadiea, alt. 2,000 feet. A bush 6-15 feet high. Extends to 
Nubia and Abyssinia. 



feet high. South Arabia only. 



Terminalia Catappa, Linn.— Planted at Chail-ba-Wazir, alt. 650 
feet. 

Anogeissus Bentii, Baker in Hook. Icon, inedit. — A tree 30 feet 
high, with pendulous branches. Ghail-Omar, alt. 2,200 feet. The 
flowers are very sweet scented. 



i of the order are confined 1 



Corallocarpus parvifolius, Cogn 



Foeniculum officinale, All 



Vernonia cinerea, Less. — Irrigation channel at Khailah, alt. 3,000 
feet. Widely spread in tropical Asia and tropical Atrica. 

Geigeria alata, Benth. et Hook. Jil. — Dry cultivated ground at 
K:;tan, alt. 1,100 feet. Extends through tropical Africa to Xa:na 4 wa 
land. 

Pluchea Dioscoridis, D. C.~ Tokhara, near Mokalla, alt. 200 feet 
Extends to Palestine and through tropical Africa to Natal. 

Francceuria crispa, Citss. — Hill- at K hai h Ji. alt. 3,000 feet. Extends 
from India to Senegamhia and the Cape Verdes. 

Pulicaria leucophylla, Baker, n.sp. ; suffruticosa, ramuli- foliisqu 
utrinque dense persistenter albo-tomentos : .s, foliis obovato-cuneati 
distincte petiolatis supra medium ereuatis, capitulis radiatis magni 

solitariis. tenninalibus pedunculitis, involucro campanulato, bracte 

- 

parvis interioribus setosis ciliatis achenio triplo longioribus. 



Growing on sandy or stonv undulating i_t 
Between Tokham and Ghafit, alt. 200 feet. 
Folia 4-6 lin. lata. Involucrum 6-7 lin. diam. Pappus l-L-2 lin. 
longus. Ligula; luteae \\-2 lin. longae. 

Iphiona subulata, Baker, n.sp. ; MillYulic.-a. ram..->sima. glmim-a, 
f<>]i„nmi -o-fiunti- c;.i '. it.T t unaliculatis apice 

acinic baud pungent !>us. < ipit si- hoinogami-: pa: \ - laxe corymbosis, 

■ 
exterioribus son-urn hrevioribus, tl.>nbu> involucro, xquilongis, achenio 
oMongo -ial.ro multisulcnto. pappi -etis rigidis albidis involucro triplo 
longioribus. 

Shari Burrock valle\ . ' feet, growing on stony 

hillsides. 

U 83157. C 



. 4,000 feet. Extends 



Salvadora persica, Linn.— Shibam, alt. 1,000 feet. A small tree, 
idy soil in the beds 
id tropical Africa. 



growing in del ady soil in the beds of the valleys 



Rhazya stricta, Decaisne.—'Bei afifc, alt. 2,000 

feet, Extends to Afghanistan and Scinde. Plentiful throughout the 
Hadramaut ; the flowers are very sweet scented. 

Adenium micranthum, Stapf, n.sp., nunc.) l>a>i inora.-sato, ramis 
cras-iux-ulis lignosis cortiee ni-nVanfr, foliis in ramorum apicibus 
congestis late obovatis basi subeuncaii- apic- obm-i-nd- mnrromi!afi> 
glabris nervis lateralibus 8-9 subpatuii- distinctis. Horibus paucis 
fasciculatis, pedicellis brevissimis braefei< lineai-ibus lanceolatisve ut 
inflorescentia tota villosulis, calyce ad § in 9egmenta lanoeolata diviso, 
corollse rosea? tubo ad i an-u-r.- rylindriVo abhine obronieo dilntato 

staminnm caudis iilitormibii- -ub aph . clavato inerassitis villosulis longe 

Dobaibah, alt. 4,000 feet. 

Frutex pedab's. Folia l\-2 pod ionga. !-H poll, lata. Calyx 6 
lin. longus. Corollce tubus 9 lin. longus, lobi 4£ lin. longi. Caudorum 
staminnm pars exserta 4-4| lin. longa. 

The leaves are exactly like those of small specimens of Adenium 
arabicnm, Balf. f., to which the species is certainly nearly allied. 
The branches, however, are more woody and the flowers considerably 
smaller and of a -omeuhat did", i. ~t -hape. flu- w'dened part of the 
corolla tube being obconical. The calvx ; - d« ( ; < ? di\ k! -d with narrower 
segments and the tail-shaped appri ,,!_ -..t the stamens are very much 



to Abyssinia, stony ground, bed of valley. 

Jibeh, alt. 750 feet. 



Caralluma subulata. Decaisne. — Same station as the last. Confined 
to southern Arabia. 

Another Caralluma without flowers was collected between Tokham 
and Ghafit. 

Caralluma flava, X. Z,\ Brown, n. sp , vamis tetragoni r; inn-is plnlu'is 
nngulis MPiitH deutatis di 1 1 til u- bn \ il>us bit. Iriangulan'b :- patemihus 
iimbnlli- t.THiinalibus si-s-ilil.u- :••: - igatis glabris, 

sepalis laueeolatis acutis glabris, corolla subrotata lutea tubo brevi 

retlcxi~ glabri-, -eginentis eororap exterioris profunde 
subulati- iu-rii:it.>-div:ii , i( , .'itis. ■-. '^mentis coronoe interior is 
obtusis antheri- '■■■■ - 

Wad; Iladiea, 2,000 feet. It is found on the hillsides amongst large 

Planlo (>-S poll. alta. Rami \-\ poll. diam. PedicelU .',-7 lin. 
longi. Sepala 1 lin. longa. Corolla tubus 1 poll. Iongus, lobi i—5 
lin. Ions?., U-2 lin. lati. Corona- oxterioris iobi \ lin. longi. 

Probably allied to C. auvheriana, N. E. Br., of which I have -eeii no 
dowering specimens, but accordin; 

pedicels and much larger corolla. 

Caralluma Luntii, A'. E. Brown, n. sp. ; caulibus 
carnoeia tetrdgo nbuspurpureo-mar 

, ,1,111-1- gross d, ,!,,! - i. i tibu-< > aculeiformibus pat( 



ng at the base 



llul»t< 


it. — South Arabia, on hills near 1 


of othoi i 


,!ants. bOtKi feet, Feb. 1M»4, Lui 


Plant a 


usque ad 6-8 poll. alta. Rami 




Pedialli t -10 lin. longi, § lin. 


Corolla 


[obi 8-9 lin. longi., \ lin. lati (ex 




cum corona, § poll, longa. Coroi 


A very 






me the corona, or at least the b: 




383 included in a short tube or i 




it in C. Luntii the base of the ( 



:i3.i 



ivexus. Folliculos non villi. Iln-luc' suttnr.ieesve volubiles vet 
3stratae. Folia opposita. Cyma- uiulx-Tlit'f .rm.-s. sublatcralos, sub- 

-U'- eel |i*'(l(J!ielllaIU'. i • '. illi. 



S. Benti, X. E. lirmm ■ caulibus volubilibus gracilibus ramosis 

.jlabris Mi is petiolatis oblotiiris Vr ] elliptico-obloniiis <>btu-is mucronati- 
basi leviter con la lis <r|abris, cvmis i!mbel!if<.rmibu> peduneulatis plnri- 
fb ■!■:<. pedunculis glabris, bracteis ininutis ovatis acuiN cum pedieellis 
sepalis.qu« o\ato-lanceolatis jicutis minute pubescmtibus, corollas tubo 
campanulato, lobis linearibu- patent ibu- r» -it i - extus ^labns intus basi 
cum tuba- fiiuci- dense et minute adpresso-pubesccntibus, coronas lobis 

Chail-ba-Wa/ir. 2.30 f Ji'-t . 

^oliorum petioli 2^-4 lin. lonjii, lamina' z .-\\ poll longa, \-r, poll. 
Peduncvii 3-5 lin. longi. Pedia lit 2-3 lin. longi. Sepala % lin. 



Corolla tubus 1 lin.~longus. Corona lobi 1 



Heliotropium drepanophyllum, Baiter, 



i. St pulii '■i ! 





, foliis subcylindiieis ad nodos 










scorpioidei.s furcatis terminalibus ebi 




pilosis, corolla? tubo subcyliudrico utrinq 


tie glabro calyee longiori, lobis 


linciii'ibu< obtusis rcflcxis, genitalibus : 








Growing in tbc sandy or stony teds o 


f valleys between Tokbain and 


Cihatit. alt. 200ieet. 




Folia 6-12 lin. longa. Sepala 1^ 1 


in. longa. Corolla tubus 2 lin. 






Belongs to the section Radula of Bu 




tingui-lied by its subcyliudrical. densely 


fascicled «inemped leaves: 


Heliotropium congestum, Baker, n. 


s P . ; perenne, ramosissimum, 



parvis oblnngis compiicati.- undulatis 
?ymis scorpioideig brevibus densiseimia 
i's oblongis obtusis densissiine liispidis, 
piloso intus glabro calyce paulo longiori, 






Convolvulus hadramauticus, Baker, n. sp.; suffruticosu: 

ramulis clnris ^ r: t 'ilil.u- teretilui- glabris err.-;.- 

foliis panels parvis oblongis acutis argute serratis ml basin 

sessilibas vel su'nses-ibi - iateialibns 

peduncuiatis, calyce p le brunn 

vest i to .-cpalis ovatis subacqnaliUis val.lo imbricatis, corolla- tubo 

infundibulari glalr-o calve.- duplo lon^iori. limbo vix lul.a; 

in tubo inclusis, filamentis glabris antheris longioribus, ova 

Growing on stony, undulating ground between Tokham and Ghafit, 



Fair, :j-4 lin. longa. Sepala 5- 
Linn. 


2/5? 


longa. Corolla pollii 
Boissier, near C. Do 


Sola. 


TACM 




Solanum sepicula, Duiuil.—lw\ 


gallon 


channel at Furuth, i 


Also Upper Egypt. 






Solanum Melongena, L\n„. — t_'i 


dtivab 


id at Katan, alt. 1,1 


Solanum coagulans, Forsl; ! — . 


Urail, 


alt. 2,000 feet. Es 


Solanum pu"bescens, Wilid.—y\\ 


uibl* 


alt. 1,000 feet. 


Nicotiana Tabacum, Li, in. — Cu 
fret. Native name " Tombac" 


ltivated at Chail-ba-Wazir, 


Withania somnifera, I)uiml.—\ 


Tills at 


t Alraii, alt. 2,000 ft 


Capsicum annuum, Li/n,. —I'u 
"Busbas." 




I at Katan. Natr 


Datura alba, X,<.s.— Alraii. rJ t 


S 


feet. Perhaps only < 

« as a variety of />. 


Verbascum Luntii, Bok< r. n. -j 


;•;,/,;;; 


^oTu^rcrenuhS* 



attenuati- inicri.>ribu- p. : .' iaxo dongat... iloi ibu- 

sa3pissinie solitariis raro binis brevissime pedic. •ilaiK bracteis ovatis 
minutis, calyce glabrato tubo brevi lobis ovatis, fructu ovoideo glabro 
calyce triplo Iongiori. 

Hillsides at Alrail, alt. 2,000 feet, 

Folia inferiora 4-5 poll. Icmga, medio 12-15 lin lata. Racemus 
6-9 poll, longus. Corolla ignota, Fruetus 2-2^ lin. longus. 

Belongs to the section Leiantha of Bentham. 

-Sides of a brackish pool ui Uiiaiit. 



ACANTHACE^. 

I edulis, Pers., var. congesta, Rolfe; foliis parvis congestis, 
braetei- -fi'ieeo-hirsutis. — Near Shibam, at 1,000 feet elevation. A very 
curious form, but perhaps only a variety of the common and widely 
ditlusvd lll> (ih'tris edulis, Per-. It differs in having small, narrow, 
rather numerous leaves, from 4 to 9 lines long, very hairy bract-, 
broader, more membranaceous and more hairy sepals, shorter pale blue 
corolla, and stouter filaments. There is nothing like it in the extensive 
series at Kew, and if the differences prove constant it may have to take 



Barleria triacantha, Hochst 



Bentia, Rolfe [Genus nov 

segmentis lineari-laoceolati- aenii 
brevis, superne paullo ampliatu 


um]. Calyx prof uncle 
rinatis subajqiialibus. C< 
s ; limbus bilabiaiu-, 1; 
egro, antico patent.- tride 
3a, fanci affixa, tilauieutis 


! ihu-; antheras 2-locu 
inferiore ba.-i calcarak- ; polhii; 
trilineata, linei- la-vibns, tripor 
cupulari.-. Ovarium breve, villos 


: £i:S'SiS- 



quoque loculo 2. Capsula ignota. 

Bentia fruticulosa, Rolfe ; iruticosa ramosf 
teretibus, foliis breviter petiolatis obovato-obloi 
tninento-is coriaeeis, spicis terminalibus brevibus 
v. elliptico-oblongis obtusis margine ereuukt is -ear 
pubesoente, corolla pube-oeiiti ainpla alba palato 1 

Near Gambia, at 1,000 feet elevation. 



Frutindus •_»-:> ped. ;dtus (Linit). Folia 3-9 lin. longa, U-l iin. 

f\'t),/., /li'n. hmgus. 'r,</v7A/ I poll, longa. 

aid sniiill leave-, though otherwise much resembling liinii/ia in -tincture 

lias recently been working at Acanthaccce, and who has seen part of the 
specimen, would place it near /)>/<■,>■„<>/',,. K. Mov. (which is reduced to 
Adhatoda in the -'(leneni Phintarum "). Both these genera are 
referred to his tribe Odontonemete (Engl. Bot. Jahrb. XVIII., p. 56), 
»ut to different subtribes, on account of certain characters of the bract-. 

■orolla. The pollen is ellipsoidal and reticulated, with the exception of 
centre of which the three pores are placed. 



alt. 200 feet, parasitic on the roots of Phi 
Orobanche cerntia, Loefl. — Same locality 
of Plwhea Dioscoridh.' 



alt. 2,000 feet. Warn 



'„■ lost ar/i i/s, ne; 



Teucrium Polium, Linn. — Hills near Dobaibah, alt. 1,000 fee 
Extends to Somali Land and through Southern Europe, Northei 
Africa, and eastward into Persia. 



Xeractis arabica, O/in-r in Ii'..»' ( . Iron. ined.—Mrt* 



i Tokham and Ghafit, alt. 20 
Ides at Sibch, alt. 750 feet ; l 



Salsola hadramautica, linker. \\.-\k : frutiowt, ramoH.-siina, ramidia 
albo-pubescentibus, folds parvis ovatis aui|»lexi<'aiilibus ..l.tusis earners 
utrinque albo-tomentosis, floribus subsessilibns axillaii bus, periantbii 
fructiferi segmentis dorso ala lata rigidula rotundata basi euneata 
prgeditis, supra inaoromitis. 

Sharri Burrock Valley, M.-bdla. alt. 200-300 feet. 

Periadlhinm friietifenun 0-7 I'm. diam. lo/ia l-li I'm. longa. 

The genus Salsola is not found to extend far inland, but is not 
in the small valleys near tin- -ea, growing in sandy stony 



Allied to S. fcetidu, Del 
Salsola leucophylla, Be 



(liadit.alt. 
Folia 1 
Nearly a 



aller maturi ] 
Salsola cyclophylla, Baker, n. s\ 



Aristolochia rigida, Dn 



Arthrosolen sphaerocephalus, 
?retibus adpresse pnbescentibi 
ndentibus rigidulis gl 
ulum globosum 



. ■._;■■ gafis, bi-M.-tri- magnis foliaeris 
jvtfe.vi- ovatis \.-l oblongis pilosis pcrianthii tubo cylindrico extus piles > 



Folia 9-10 li n . Innin. Cupituht 6-9 lin. .liam. Bractem 5-6 1 
longEe. Perianthii tnl)iis .'] iin. buigus, Imibus U lin. diam. 

Nearly allied (<» ./. somafieu.se, Franchet, from which it differs in 
Joliaceous bracts and orbicular perianth lobes. 



Loranthus curviflorus, Benth.- 

to Abvssinia and Somali Land, 
Zizyphus. 



Euphorbia Schimperi, Presl. — Hills between Ghafit and Sibeh, nit. 
600 feet. Confined to Southern Arabia, where ii w:i> tir>t collected bv 
Forskahl, who referred ir to E. Tiruealli, Linn., which it closely 
resembles. 

Euphorbia (Rhizanthium) hadramautica, Baker, n. sp. ; perennis, 
inerniis, cnule eieeto era--.) carno-o ovlindrieo vel ovoideo snrsuni 
foliorum delap-oruin eientricihus n«.;aro. foliis synanlhiis ad caulis 
apicem dense rosulati- petiolatis laneeolatis vel oblougo-lanceolatis 
obtusis pubescentibus, pedunculis brevissiniis inonorephalis, involuero 
/•ampauulafo ba-d braeteis 2 parvi- ovatis folinceis sutfultis, glandu'.is 
marginalibus orbicularibus pilosis, ovario piloso. 

It is found only in very small numbers on rough stony ground, 
particularly on the tops of the hills which are flat. The specimens were 
obtained from Birdiaekl.au. at an eievaiion of about .'5, 500 feet. 

Caulis 9-12 tin. longus, 6-9 lin. diam. Folia 9-12 lin. longa. 

allied to the Indian E. nana of Roy! /'. primula 

folia. Baker. Living pli w flowering 



Alrail. alt. l.SOi) ;.•,■! 



Asparagus abyssinicus, Hochst. — 1\\\\< at IMmii.ah. alt. 4,000 feet. 
Dracaena serrulata, Baker, n. sp. — One of the Dragon 's-bloo 



Asphodelus fistulosus, Lin 
,000 feet. Extends from Inc 


Ha to Spain. 


iv^dero,, 


near Shiban, alt. 


Allium ascalouicum, Linn 


.—Cultivated 


at Shiiiau. 


Native name, 


Allium sativum, Linn. — 


ultivated as a 


vegetable at 


Katan. Native 


Aloe Luntii, Baker n. sp. ; 

'a-i-albo-viri.lil.u-inHiiacula 
-ticulatis/perinnthioevliii.li-i, 


breviter caulescens, caule simplici, foliis 

tis facie caniculatis, race mis laxis elongatis 
ivatis scariosis, pedieellis brevibus apice 
•i) rubro viridi vittato lobis lineari-oblongis 



Stony hills near Dobaibah n< ai (Jam!. In, alt. 3,000 feet. 

Folia pedalia deorsum 2 poll, lata, medio 3-4 lin. crassa. liaeemi 
b 1^—2 Ion gae. JPericm- 
thium, 12-13 lin. longum. 

A very distinct species. It was brought home in a living state 
along with two other Aloes, which cannot be safely determined till 
they flower. One of them, so far as the leaves go, closely resembles 
the Soeotran Aloe Perry i, Bot. Mag. t. 6596. 

Littonia obscara, Baker in Hook. Icon. ined. — Near Cosair. 

Palm. 

Phoenix dactylifera, Linn.— Cultivated about all the villages. 
Hyphsene. — Two species, both wild, one with a branching trunk, 
; on the ground. No flowers or fruit were obtained, so 
that the species cannot be settled. 

TlPHACM. 
Typha angustata, Chaub. et Eory. — In a stream at Chail-ba-Wazir, 
alt. 2,500 feet, a— >eiate. 1 with ... Sparganium in a young state. Extends 
from India through Northern Africa and Southern Europe. 



, alt. 600 fee 
Extends froi 



Brought recently from India. 



JEluropus laevis, Trin. — G-hafit and Chail-ba-Wazir, in 
places. Extends from Beloochistan to France. It is very < 
salty ground, especially near the sea. 



Filices. 
Cheilanthes farinosa, Ka ulf.— Hills at Khailah, i 
Cosmopolitan. 

Pteris longifolia. Linn. — Banks of the irrigation chai 
alt. 2,000 feet. Cosmopolitan. 

is. Lin //. — Sides ol 

CosmopoJi 

Actiniopteris radiata, Link. — Hill near Dobaibah, 
jxteadfl to India i J Africa. 



CCCCVIIL— DECADES KEWENSES. 

[ Novarum in Herbario Horti Eegii Cons 



DECAS IX. 

81. Pittosporum resinifenim, Hand. [Pittospor.ice.-e] ; ramulis 
crassis glabris nigris, foliis primum albo-lanatis citissimo glabrescentibus 

supra nitidis subtus pallidmribu- crassis coriaceisj longe petiolatis obova- 
to-oblongis vel oblanceolalis abrupte breviterque obtuse aeumim.'.tis 

lateralibus nuraerosis ultimis minute reticulatis nigrescentibus, floribus 
ignotis, fructu uaagno compresso-ovoideo plus minusve acumina o 
pericarpio ruguloso crassissimo duro osseo cavernulis latis resiniferis 

Habitat. — Philippine Islands, Benguet. N. Luzon, S. Vidal, 1136. 
Also a specimen communicated by Mr. E. M. Holmes, Curator of the 
Pharmaceutical Society's Museum. 

Folia cum petiolo* 4-8 poll. long*. Frintus l^-ll poll, longus 
circiter 10 lineas latus. pericarpio eiretter 2 lineas crasso. 

82. Vitis (Eucissus) glossopetala, Baker [Ampelideae] ; fruticosa, 
sarmentosa, ramulis glabris, cirris elongatis simplicibus, foliis inagnis 
simplicibus cordato-ovatis cuspidatis denticulatis glabris, floribus in 
paniculam amplam rami- divaricatis munitions corymbosis di.-p<»itis, 

tratim conniventibu.- dcmum solutis, staiiiinibus, petalis paulo breviori- 

Habitat.— North Madagascar. Baron, Oo-.b"), 6478; Humblot, 237. 
Folia interdum pedalia et ultra. Petala, 3 lin. longa. 
Differs from the many African species placed in his section Eu<iss„.< 
by Planchon by its longer Ungulate pctais and ublung buds slightly cun- 



Cynometra Lyallii, llalur Leguniinu.se, Tribe <Jynonietrea>] ; 
sissima, i ■■-■ ■ <<-. ;■>!,, >i.< 1 -." jugis parvis rigid.' 

coriaceis oblique oblongisobtusisemargiiKih- glabris-, Ih.ribus in fasciculi* 
lateralibus scs>ilibus aggre^ati-, bract,.;- ovatis coriaceis persistentibus, 
pedicellis elongatis pubescentibus, calycis tubo brevissimo, lobis oblongis 
reflexi-, | xtalis oblanceolalis obtusis, staminibus petalis duplolongioribus, 
ovario oblongo sessili. 

Habitat.— -Between Tamaiave and Antaiianari'..., Madagascar, Baron, 
5983. Gathered previously by Lyall, 217 ; Perville, 440, and in the 
X'.-sibe by Boivin. 
Folia \\ poll, longa, foliolis o-6 lin. longis. Petala 2 lin. longa. 
Distinguished from ('. ma<laga^arir„ds, Baill., by its much fewer 
pairs . t sub-quadrangular oblong leaflets. The pod is unknown. 



84. Dimorphandra megacarpa, liolfe [Legumiuosae] ; arb 

mis «y!va- ( llursh II \ t'»\h* Li; inuai,- pinnis circa 22-21-j 
50-60 jugis sessilibus conf'ertissimis lineari-oblongis obtusis^ 
supra nitidis subtus pallidioribus basi suboblique trum-atis, 
s.jii^i- prope nnrginein nmnexis, rachidibus cras^is fuiTm ar 

compressis marginibus keviter inerassati- Ili-ls-spcrini- s.-pti 

i!iter eoncavis apiec cniarginata. testa lignosa ni 
donibus crassissiun S radicn'.-i ' it vi recta inehisa, plumula [>i] 
7-jugis. 

" " i Kio Mojii, a 

Petiohdi 6-i 

lin. longa. Legumen 10-12 poll, longum, 3J-3£ poll, latum, 14 I'm. 
crassum. Semina \\-2 poll, longa. 

Tbis fine species was met with as long ago as 1829, by Burchell, who 
notes it as one of the finest trees in the forest, though lie only obtained 
pods, which, judging from their condition, may have been fallen ones. 
Although larger than those of any specie3 previously known, the pods 
arc structurally identical, and as the very characteristic leaves are also 
those of Dimorphandra there can be no doubt about the genus, and 
the species is evidently allied to I), parr {flora, Spruce. The seeds are 
separated by thin subcoriaceous transverse division-, and, owing 



pressure, tetragonous or even la 


[-■rally compressed. Mr. RaDd de- 




of which the only specimen 


I known 


in rata is iti front of my door, 


and, though it must be at 




years old, lias never been know 




«•. The 


Mowers are in round close heads, 


like some Acacias; diamete: 




ball of flowers from \ to 2 inches, 


borne on long erect yellow 


spikes; 




ivc. say 


over 100 feet, it was impossible to get perfect flowers to pies 




tree has an erect branchless shaft for about 75 feet, then 




spreading globular head. It sheds 


: its fine leaflets twice a vear, 




bare for only a few days, and then covers itself with new 


foliage 


with wonderful rapidity." 






85. Dissotis cryptantha. />'■■.</ 


[Melastomace.-e] ; fruticosa, 


ramosis- 


sima, ramulis pilosis, folds sesdlit 


ms lanceolatis tripiinerviis 




dense pilosis, tloribus paucis ad 


ramulorum apices auirreirat 


is toili- 


reductis ascendentibus suboccultis, 


calyce globoso dense pilos;,, 




magnis lanceo it-- pilosis de. idui-. 


petalis magnis orbieularibu< 










ITahitat — N'vas-aland; lim-ha,,. 






Folia 11-2 poil. longa. Calyvi 


'./tubus 3 lin. longus et lat 


us: lobl 


,„l,o ; ,- M uiloi,-i. Anthvnt- majoro- 


(• lin. longa-. 





anatropa. ( rabcoriftoea, imperfecta 

2-lucularis, polyspcrma. Sniiina matura non vidi, immatura angulata, 
erecta. Arbor parva. Folia opposita petiolata, epunctata. Flores 

parvi, in paniculas terminales dispositi. 

G. transvaalica, N. E. Bron-n ,■ arbor parva ramulis tetragonis, foliis 
breviter petiolatis oblongis obovatis vel eliiptico-obovatis apice obtusis 
recurvis basi cuneatis vol euneato-rotundatis coriaceis margine angus- 
tissime recurvis glabris eosta intra apieein -ubtu.s glandulifora, paniculi- 
terminalibusereetiscomp. -acute tetragonis glabris. 

bracteis paucis oblongo-obovatis vel obovatis obtusis glabris, costa 
subtus infra apicem glandulifora, pedicellis tetragonis glabris, caljcis 
: ' ■ - 

suhincra-<atis minute eiliatis petalis biwisHiiie unguieulatis lanceolatis 
subacutis undulato-corrugatis impunetatis glabris albis, staminibus longe 
ex-ertis lilanieiitis tilitorinibus .Ionium circinatis antheris parvis loculis 
reniformibus, ovario depresso stylo longe exserto filiformi. 

Habitat.— Transvaal, French Bob's Hill, Barberton 2,600 feet, 
April, Galpin, 889. 

A rbor 15 ped. alta. Foliorum petioli I \-'l lin. longi. lamina- 1 i— 2.V 
poll, longa', f-lA poll. lata'. I'linicuh, 2^-3 poll, longa' (pedunouli 
\--';- poll, longi inelu-i), 1 }-l \ poll. lata. Bractece ^-\ poll, longa 1 , 
1-2 lin. lata>. Pedicelli V,,-' poll, longi. Calycis tubus T \ poll. 
longus, dentes 1 lin. longi. Petala \ poll, longa, -, 1 - poll, lata 
Stamina 4-5 lin. longa. Ovarium f lin. longum. Stylus 3-4 lin. 

This very distinct and interesting plant is with much pleasure 
dedicated to its discoverer, Mr. K. E. Galpin, of Queenstown. South 
Africa, to whom Kew is indebted for many interesting plants living and 
dried. Its position in the order is & ■ probably it 

should be placed in the neighbourhood of Pemphi* and /)//>/"<, :i/n, - . 
From all the genera except ('ri/ph ,-imia. Trtra/t/xis, and Ihtcropyxix 
it differs in having all the stamens alternat \wx with the calyx-teeth, but 
the two former differ in having no petals and a different inflorescence, 
bo-ides other characters: lht<ropijxi<. which is rejected from the 
order by Koehne in his monograph of tin Lythrariea, differs in having 
alternate leaves, imbricate calyx-lobes, and the stamens inserted with 
the petals at the top of the calyx-tube. The leaves and bracts of 
Galpinia are remarkable on account of the gland on the underside of 
' " sr the apex, which I do not find present in any other 
; order. The leaves are usually rather thick and opaque, 
visible dots even under a lens, but here and there a leaf from 
some cause or other has dried thin and subtranslucent, and when held 
up to the light, and examined under a powerful lens, is seen to be 
densely and very minutely pellucid-dotted. 

87. Ipomcea (§Euipomcea) sindica, Stop/ [Convolvulaceae] ; annua 

uiultieaulis, caulibiiri pro-trati- gmcilihus hNpidK foliis triangulari- 
hastatis 2-3-plo longioribus quam latis acutis vel acuminatis [obis 
basalibu." divergentibus obtusis utrinque hirsutis vel supra glabriusculis 
sod etiam subtus tandem glabrescentibus petiolis hispidulis |-§ laminoe, 
aequantibus, cymis paucifloris saepe ad (lores 1-2 n duct is in axillis 
foliorum brevis-imo pedu revibas vel brevissinii-, 

bracteis brevibus lineari-subulatis vel linearibus hispidulis, sepalis 



mber of 'the < 



corolla infuudibuliformi calyc< 



globosa glabra, sem 


inilU,,, 


Habitat.— Narti 


-west Inc 






Stocks, 41, pro parti 


Multan'. 


Etowah, Dulhie, 6, 




Caules prostrafi 




ad 14 poll. lata. 1 
Corolla 3-44 lin. lc 




,nga. Ca 


When Dr. T. Q 




plant he suggested 




other specimens bel 




had been sorted with 






h } hi-, i 


and glabrous, densi 





irheads, larger bracts 



88. Strobilanthus (§Endopogon) reticulatus, Stapf 

caule breviter strigilloso, foliis ovatis acutis basi interdi 
subintegris utrinquo strigillMso-hirsutis nervis lateralibus 

anguste alato, spicis ovatis e foliorum superiorum ; 

subglabris intus plus minusve villosis, ealyce profunde 
dentibus lineari (subulatis tubo 3-plo longior'ibus albo-fiml 
corolla? tubo basi an-u.-fissimo supra ralycem valde ampli 
lobis rotundato-o van's staminibu- 2. ii'lamentis patule j 
faucem hand atting.'iilibus staminudiis 2 minutis dentifor 

rndia, Mahabaleshwar, Br. T. Cooke. 

Folia ad 3 poll, longa, ad \\ poll. lata. Spicee 
BractecB ad \ poll, longos. Calyx 4 lin. longus, lobi 2 
Corolla 1 poll, longa, medio \ poll. lata. 

S. reticulata is i rather marked species, allied to 
Anders, though not very closely. 

89. Alocas^a Curtisi, N. E. Brown [Aroideae] ; < 
fiilinnun pctiolo quam lamina multo loDgiore, lamina 
sagittata apice plus minusve abrupte eu-pidata nmcron; 



Foliorum jxtinli {}-'>}, }icd. Inuiri. laiiiiiiii' i>-19po'H. long,!-. 6- I i /, 
poll, lata*, lobis basalibus "4-0 poll, longis, 3.WJ poll, latis. iW,^~- 
ck/s 9-18 poll, longi. Spatha tubus \-\\ poll, tongas, 8-10 lin, 
ilium., lamina 1-5J poll, longa 1 [-1.1 p.ili. lata. Sjxtdi.v 1-0 poll. 
l:ngus, parte foeminea 5-6 lin. longa, neutra 5-8 lin. longa, masculn A-y 
L?',— 4 poll, longa, 4 lin. crassa. 

I)escril>ed from living plant- sent to Kew from Penang by Mr. C. 
Curtis. It is allied to A. decipiens, Schott. 

90. Pandanus Thnrstoni, Wright [Pandaneae] ; fruticosus, foli)s 
linearibus acuminatis marginibus minute dentieulatis eostis integris, 
druparum capitibus circa 8 racemose dispositis, drnpis sejunctis 5-0 
angulatis, stigmate spinoso secedente, semine solitario. 

Habitat. -Fiji, Thurston. 

Folia 10-12 ped. longa, ba 
Fructus 8 poll, longus, 4 poll. 
Stiy„„i lin. longum. 

Tbis species belongs to the section Rychia, and is allied to JP.far 

denticulate 



CCCCIX.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



fJard-i 




sen appointed, on tbe result 


sof acompotit 


iveexami 


befon- 


tbe Civi 


1 Service ( ommission, an a 




Itoyal (it 


to date 




ie 16th August 1894. 






Mb. 




M Lint, in the employ of 


tbe "Royal Ga 




appoint 


:ed by tl 


le Secretary of Stat<> for tb 


e Colonies, As; 




tenil. ii 


t of 1he 


Koyal Botanic Gardens, '1 


Vini.lad. Mr. 








1 as botanical collector, att; 


iched to Mr. ' 




Expedi 


ition to 1 


the Hadramaut Valley, Southern Arabia. 





ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLAXEOI S INFORMATION. 



No. 94.] OCTOBER. [1894. 



CCCCX.— LATHYRUS FODDER. 





( Lathyrv 


» sativus, L.) 


Recent 




tion to the use of the seeds 


of the Bitter Vetch (Lathyrus sa 






Die plant ia 




gardens. 


It is cultivated extensi' 


rely in Southern Europe and eastwaid 




tin plains of India. 




Jarosse or Gesse. In the Mediterranean region the dried peas or set <ls 




as food, the pods are eat 


en green and the whole plant is cut 


for fodde 


r. In India there an 


? about half a million acres uinb r 




' TT^'lll" wn'ti 




linn the s 




po-se-s poisonous properties and theii 






il< has led to injurious results. The 


Mll.jOCt i' 


■ fullv discussed in Dr. 


Wart's Dictionan/ of the Economic 


Pnuhwts 


of 'India, Vol. iv., p 


p. 592-594. From this work the 


following 


extracts are taken:— 




Food t 


, . — As air 


eady stated, this pea is cultivated 


principally as a fodder, hnt bein 




used as food by the poorer classes, largely so in times 


of scarci 


ty. It is also UM-d to 


. i .'•■ 


,/./'/ from 




• he distinguished. The followim: 






v Church: water, KM; 




,reh and fibre, 53-9; o. 


il, 0-9; ash, 32. The nutrient ratio 


is'ahout 1 


: 1-75, while the nutrie 


nt value is nearly 8"7. 


A recei 


>t_.'in;d_\-is fy A>iier ha. 


r. veiled the presence in the grain of 



,g, nearly 4 per 
18G0. That o 



'is poison, but they eal Si because it is cheap, think 
' stop in time to save themselves from its consequenees. 



. a mnnlMT oi ca-es in ulii.l, |, • 
.ih-r.leath. Tin muscles oi' the far,,, neck, auJl 
:o be affected ; those of the lower - xtiemitie-. 



Don writes regarding its effects on other animals : •• Swine fattened 
on this meal lose the use of their limbs, but grow very fat lying on the 
ground. Kine are reported to grow lean on it, but sheep not to be 
affected. Pigeons, especially when young, lose the power of walking 
by feeding on the seeds. Poultry will not readily touch it, but geese 
eat it without any apparent damage. In some parts of Switzerland 
attle feed on the herb without any apparent harm." 

Special opinions : — "I have seen many cases of paralysis while a 
Civil Surgeon in the INtnjab, which the patients themselves and their 
family all believed to be due to the use of khesari ddl, and I have 
seen the specimens of the seeds and of the bread made from them." 
■ Surgeon-Major ('. II'. (a It In op, M.D., Morar.) " The occasional 
u-e of the ddl does not bring on paraplegia, hut many poor people are 
obliged to live almost entirely on it. They eat the green undressed 
plant, cook it, make ddl of the seeds, ami clmp<iti of the flour. It is 
people of this description that sull'er from paralysis of the lower 
extremities." (Boll,, Clival Sen, Teach* r of Medicine). 



At one time it was -nmewhat the. fashion to Jeery the -mall or minoi 
> ; du-trics in our Colonies. They were, in fact, regarded as likely to be 
»f little permanent benefit to the community. During the last few 
ears, however, great changes have taken place in the economic con- 

litions of many of our tropical possesions, and small industries have 
•een more fully appreciated. 

tively "minor industry '" may, tinder suitable encouragement, j 
the rank of a staple product. Twenty-five years ago the valu 



miaica wa- practically nothing. People grew 
jut never thought of shipping them. In the 
tin- iiauanas exported from Jamaica reached 



-try. 



character ha- been called into existence, and -o advanced i 
overtop old industries carried on for more than a hut 
Banana cultivation in Jamaica has been of benefit also 
dustries. Underneath the shade of the banana trees nun: 

exren't ol nearU 2UIMHK)/ annuallv has l,ecn circulated an, 
cultivators, who are the chief banana-growers, and tin 
pro-neritvand consented v th-ir nurcha-in- power Lave he, 



lie works and other undertakings improved. The 
prosperity in Jamaica were laid mainly by the 

two able Governors (Sir John Peter Grant and Sir 
both of whom laboured most consistently for this 



end for many years. They often ha-,! to encounter groat opposition in 
the earlier stages of their measure^ but the results ha\e fully justified 
the soundness of their policy. It is satisfactory to find that in the 
Maud itself full credit is n..\v given to these men. Indeed their greatest 
r Jamaica, with its extended railways, its network of 



telegraph wires, and the renewed life and activity which 1 
forth by their efforts. There is no more striking instance of the pot 
'* small industries than this one.. The example of Jams 



■■ encourage other Colonies, whose prosperity has 
checked by economic change>, to strike out in new directions. 

Bermuda. — The small Colony of the "Bermudas or Somers Islands i-. 
the North Atlantic (about 600 miles from the coast of tin- I'liite.l States, 
furnishes also an instance how much may be done with small industries 

Bermuda furnishes Xew York with a large portion of the "spring 
onions " and vouni: potatoes consumed in that city. It also grows lily 
bulbs {Li Hum Harri.sii) for both the United States and Europe, and 
the value of these exported last year was over 21.000/. The best 
quality of arrowroot is obtained only from Bermuda. Altogether its 
small uulustrio in ISO.'! furnished expor s to the value of nearly 120,000/. 
These and other particulars are more fully set forth in the Annual 
Report published by the Colonial Office (Colonial Reports, No. 105), 
lately presented to Parliament. The following extract gives the 
exports :— The principal export to the United Kingdom in 1893 was 
arrowroot, valued at 989/. The principal exports to Canada were 
lilv bulbs valued at 1,209/.. and onions, 9,36/.; and to the United 
States lily bulbs valued at 21.1 >50/., onions at 59,870/.. potatoes 26,622/., 
specie 6,000/., and cut tlowers 1.M67/. The prices obtained for the crops 



CCCCXII.— DECADES KEWENSES. 



DECAS X. 

91. Brassica griquensis, N. E. Brown [Cruciferse] ; herbacea tota 
pilosa vel su itu lyrati- lobifl lanra- 

libus 2-4 ovatis vel deltoideis obtusis subintegris terminali majore 
oblong o vel elliptico-oblongo dentato obtuso - 

ublongi.- dentatis obtusis vel subacutK pedlcelii- floribus sequilongis, 
sepalis oblongis obtu-i-. petalis anguste oblauceolatis, sili.pus erectis 
scabris vel adpresse lrispidis, stylo brevi. — Sisymbrium Turezaninoiri. 
Ssjaa/L Enum. Polypet. Rehmann., p. 106, nee Sonder. 

Habitat— South Africa: Cri.pialand West, near the Vaal River, 
IhnrhelL 1771: Orange Free State, Holub, Rehmann, ,3483; 
Bechuanaland, Barolong Territory, Flolitb ; Transvaal. Halhvater Salt 
Pan, Holub. 

Planta 6-8 poll. alta. Folia \-Z poll, longa, J-l poll. late. 
Pedtcelli 2 lin. longi, in fructu 3-4 lin. longi. Sepala 1£ lin. longa. 
I '(tula 'lh lin. longa f lin. lata. Siliqita 8-11 lin. longa, \ lin. crassa, 



Petala -ll lin 
stylo *-f lin. 



Allied to Si,tu-jj(< pi .,.lula, K. Mey., l»ul at onee distin j.;usb;il)le -v 
its much shorter, erect, and setose pod- : it al>o appears " be a smaller 
plant, ^wjiuw.v mi-took '.t mv ;i SUymhrinnu lmt the cotyledons 
are conduplicate. 

92. Garcinia Buchanani, 2?«*er [Guttiferrc] ; ramulis glabris. folii- 
oblongo-laneeolatis rigide ceriacvi- glabris acuti- has! • 
lemineis -n;ir-b ateraiihus \cl terminalibus, pedicellis brevibus 
elavati< |>iii-.-iti> ::d *. v! -upr: basin bractcis parvi< ovari? p..-'rsi<t<nitibn- 
-uliulti-. -fpr.iis i, : - bivvi-~ ; mN. petal i- parvis oMoni; -. ovario globoso 



93. Polycardia centralis, Baker [Celastrinese] ; fruticosa vel arborea, 

riorum fascictiii- in fol'mrum medio ad costam impo-iti-. u- licollis hV. 

■■ 
parvis ovatis obtuse, [totalis ovatis obtusis calyce duplo ion^ioribn-. 



the cluster of fio\wr- in the middle of the face of the leaf. In the 
original P. ]>lti/llaut!,oi<l<s, Lam., they are in an apical sinus; in P. 
lateralis. O. ilofrm. ( = /'. Ilit,!.t>ra,nltii. I'.aillon). and P. betronia.a, , 
Oliv. in Hook. Ie. r. 2237, th- v an- in a l'au ral -inn-, i ud in P. fiber*/, 
O. Hoffm, free. 

94. Piptadenia Buchanani, Baker [Leguminosa?, tribus Adenan- 



linearibusrigidishnb 


rU-s.iis.. l-in-i-ini- 


nculatis, calyce hirs 




is, petalis linearibus 


pubescentibus 


aminibus longe es 


:sertis, ovario 



Neogcezia, Heinst. [Umbelliferarum - Snm nbarum genu* 
n]. — Cafi/cis dentes prominentes, colorati. Petafa lata, integra. 
is depressus vel subconicu-. Fr»ejns didvmus, eordiformis, a latere 



Neogoezia minor, //> < 



Uahihn. - M. ; 



datis membranaceis albo-marginatis cseteris bruuncis, li^ulis lamvolatn- 
linearibus luteis subtiis niptvi- u;landulosi>. iluribns disci luteis glan- 
dulosi?, acliamiis teivto-angulatis'pallidi- ba = i pi Us longis cinclis, pappi 
paleis orbiculato-obovatis emarginatis albis. 

Habitat. — Transvaal, among rocks, summit of Saddleback Mountain 
near Barberton, 5.000 tr., Galpi.t, 915 : T/wmcroft, 113 ; 7rood,4l65. 

Folia i-l poll, longa, segmentis 1-3 lin. longis, § lin. latis. 
Pi-dttiirul'i'is 2-1 poll. Iongus. ' Cupitnlvm f poll. diam. Ligulce A poll. 

Allied to U. apindata, DC, and U. montana, DC, but very 
07. Helichrysum reflexum, N. /.. llrt.sn, [Coniposita'-Gnapbalira'J : 



icaribus aculis ar-.-..i,.- i.iti.n- m,.,;,, tl-.iv. \An< duplo lougioribi 
ceptaculo brevissinu- limbt illii. i ... pappi -eOs snbpaucis tenuissin 
iiiutisv-imo scaberuli.-, con.lla .juui.jii. ■.-.•ntata glabra, ovario glabro. 

arlvrfon. 5.000 ft., May. Galpin, 917. 
Hamuli 1-4 poll, longi. Folia 2-3 lin. longa, |-l lin. lata. lux 



98. Cyphia tortilis. X. E. Bfoia , <'aiiipanu]a.va'-Cyphioa>]; 
caule volubili glabro, t'oliis altnni.- petiolatis glabris iiifmoribu: 
lat.i-obovaus vol oblaucvolatis t.btiiMs vol subacutis basi cuiic: 



broad, almost saueer-sbaped. calyx i 
99. Gymnostachyum decurreus, 



calycis segmentis lanceolato-liiu-aribus, 
■'■•jualilMis, corolla' tnl>o calycc duplo Ion 
albo violaceo-linoato, limbo bilabiato. la 
albo inferiore indiviso apice trilobulato 1 
laceo-punctati?. exceptis violaeeo. iiiamen 
mucronatis dorso medio affixi*, stylu s 
adpressa quadrangulari-cylindi ka, r-cmini 



■nnnn lamina 2-4 poll, lc 
i only from Mangalorc in 



■ ,w. The colour of tie leaves > :. dull gn 
*vhiti>h portion along the very dark purplish midrib. The wh. 
,(■0 is dcn-clv clothed with a minute glandular pubescen 
!;i> is dark 'violet w almost black, from which the wh 



lata. Perianthii tegmenta 2 lin. louga 



. CCCCXIII.— MADAGASCAR PIASSAVA. 

{Dietyospcrma Jibrosmn, Wright.) 



ate. Lai 



th. k.u M i .1 rX'..ii iw ar. .uh-bt, 1 to 



ticJi the fibre was product. Etui plant li:,,! • 



:,.lhy 



t.-rr,. toth< h so. , l Vthil-l<l } 



Folia 5 

1 poll. Iati 

Habitm 


i. /'/ 


dagascar. JVow. r»A/. 


: Vonit; 


This sp< 




differs from />. tt/»t»»i 


. ti. v\v 


- 
the Royal 


m .Mo 


lefiisj Kew." The later? 
is than in D. album, ar 


;i;£ 


CCCCXIW 


-THREE NEW S 


PECIE 


Under 


; Yon 


ame of Affon-tree sore 


,e leafy 1 


Kcw from 
thai of T. 
that, althoi 


iba by Mr. A. Millson 


mi .lifter 



therefore been deserihed together with two other new species contained in 
the Kew Herbarium. It d-es not appear to hav. 'neon oloarly point. m! 

fluent for a greater or lesser part of their length, the tips or only the 

peltate so lesVhieh ton n e tin h. ng fr< Th« original species of 
the genus, T. afrianm, was founded upon a t'ruil from Senegambh, but 
tin leaves of iM\ round - 1 } t ihen is ver) little 'on t iliat tin 

plant iil.-ntilM-il with it. and figured \n the ISotanieal Magazine., t. oitsfi, 

the female conccptaeles hear numerous imperteet male fl< >wer>, whu.-h 

mentary ovary. The following is a key to the -] ios at present 

PI,, v. ring hraet< terminated n i la pell ite -( ah 

Leaves 3-15 in. long, flowering-bracts free for 

Leaves 2-4$ in. long, flowering-bracts con- 
fluent to the ape\ under the peltate soale - madagamtrka. 
Leaves rather thin, parchimntdike in texture aff'ona. 



- obovoidea. 

Treculia madagascarica, .V. E. firoia, ; arbor rainulis apice puberulis 
■xeeptis glabra, t'oli'r- hi e : :er obtuseque 

cuspidatis basi late cuneatis vel subrotun * - - . bli . - eoi areis i mr 
gini'.ms vix sinuatis, \enis primariis utrinque 8-10, amento florifero 
masculo ellipsoideo vel subgloboso, bracteis usque ad apicem concretis 

-., .'.:,.' ■ i r 

ito et breviter denticulato, staminibus 2-3. 
Habitat.— Central Madagascar, Baron 3252. 



Foliorum />'■ • ■ii.'i'ntH 2- -14 poll, longae, 1^-2 poll, 

itae. Amentum floriferum f-\ poll, longum, ±-f poll, crassum. 
This species has tut- curiae, oih ie v. - < ; 7". afriva, <i. but of smaller 



s readily distil ant by having the flowering 

bracts confluent up to their apex under the peltate scale, which ter- 
minates them; in T. africana they are confluent only for %-\ their 

Treculia affona, N. E. Brown ; arbor ulabra. h.lii> breviter petiolatis 
lanceolatis breviter et obi -amentaceis basi cuneatis 

acutis vel subobtusis vix obiiquis marginibus leviter sinuatis venis 
primariis utrinque 9-13, stipulis ovato-laiic.-olatis aeuminatis, amento 
fructifero magno globoso, bracteis apiee squamis peltatis puberulis 
ciliatis dccidnis cnronatis, nueulis oblique ovoideis. 

Habitat. — N"iger Territory, Yoruba, Millson. 

Foliorum petioli |-£ poll, longi ; lamina 2h-1\ poll, longae ; 1-3 poll, 
latae. Amentum fnietiferum 12 poll, diam. Nucula 4-5 lin. longae, 
2^-3 lin. crassae. 

Known as the " Affon-tree," and the seeds are used for food in 
the same way as those of T. africana. The fruits are placed in heaps 
and fermented ; the seeds are afterwards gathered, ground into a paste 
and cooked by frying in palm oil. Although the fruits are regarded 
as poisonous to horses, sheep and goats they are, according to Mr. 
Millson, the favourite food of elephants. 

Treculia acuminata, Bail/on, Adansonia xi., p. 292. 
When Dr. Baillon described this plant he had only seen the male inflor- 
escence, but the Kew specimens have female conceptacles. These, like 
those of the male, are quite globose, and about ^-inch in diameter, with 
well protruded bifid styles. The bracts at the base of the conceptacles 
are closely appressed to them, elliptic obtuse, puberulous. The floral 
bracts are pubescent and without a peltate -cale at their apex, and are 
different in the two sexes: those of the male conceptacles are confluent 
" at -*-ths of their length, the very short, free f 
)id clavate ; those of the female conceptacle 
are free for half their length, and are of two forms ; some being trigonous, 
fusiform, acute, the others being very much stouter, clavate, and obtuse. 
" i fruiting receptacle is probably small, since an 
ures only |-inch in diameter, as is noted in 
Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum III., p. 375. 

Habitat.— Gaboon, Mount John, River Kongui, Mann, 1804. 



Treculia obovoidea, X. E. Broun ■. arbor 30-pedalis : 
puberulis exceptis glabra, folii- hreviter petiolatis oblongis 

oblongi^ apice longe lineari-.-uspidatN obfusis li:isi eunea 



:eis floritVris 
liio tubuloso 
erumque 3. 



totiorumpetwlt, 'J-6h nn. longi : tamma \- , poll. longa>, 1-2^ poll, 
lata?. Amentum fiorifennii ( immaturnm), ^-| poll, lougum, £ poll. 

This species is very similar to T. acuminata, Baill., in general 
appearance, but the leaves of that species are obtuse and emarginate or 
subcordate at the base, whilst in this species they are usually acute at 
the base, or, if obtuse, are simply rounded and neither emarginate nor 
subcordate. The inflorescence also la pear-shaped or ellipsoidal, not 
globose, and evidently much larger, as the measurements given above 
are from the largest inflorescences on the specimens, which are evidently 
immature as the stamens have only grown to about frds the leugth of 
the perianth. This has lanceolate acute lobes, whilst in T. acuminata 
the p<m ianth lobes are rounded or subtruncate. 



CCCOXV.— NEW ORCHIDS s DECADE 10. 
91. Pleuroi 




: was found growing in a clump c 
1 from Pernambuco, in the Nursery of Messrs. 
i Side, Soutbgate, N\, and flowered during Jui 

Dendrobrum subclausuni, Rolfc .- pseudohull 



Hap. . — Moluccas. 

Pseudobitlbi 1-1* pea. iongi, H-2 









•■'.I'ih.'.lii.w,' 



Stanliopea Randii. /.'{/ 



lateralia 11 I'm. lata. Petala \\ poll, longa, 7-8 lin. lata. Labellum 
11 poll, longum. Columna \\ poll, longa. 

This very distinct species was sent in alcohol, by E. S. Rand. Em; „ 
Far,!, Brazil, who describe- ir a- a very beautiful species, unlike any he 
has ever seen, and the only Brazilian one he knows which grows above 
the Amazonian delta. It is obviously allied to S. eburnea, Lindl., 
though the flowers are far smaller, and the fleshy part of the lip, formed 
l»v the unit. <l ; :i, only half as long as in that specie^. 

The mouth is also reduced to a small I .all' a line long 

by two lines broad, while the two horns are erect and situated at the 
extreme base. The flowers are described as ivory-white, with a faint 
shade of yellow on the lip, and very sweet-scented, witli a perfume like 

evidently correlated in some way with the insect which fertilises the 
flower, as the cavity inside is crowded with small papilla?, which Crueger 
has shown, in the case of an allied spories, to be attractive to bumble 
bees, though hero it is exceptionally well protected against marauder- 
by the contracted mouth and the two horns at the sides. It would be 

97. Stanhopea nigripes, llolfe ; p<eudobulbis tetragouo-ovoideis cor- 
rugatis, foliia | lads acutis plicatis, scapis pendulis 

basi vaginatis .'i-4- -tloris, bracteis oblongodanceolatis acutis convoluto- 
concavis, sepalis elliptico-oblongis acutis concavis lateralibus paullo 

latioribus, petalis linear! oblongis acuii- nndulatis revolutis, labello tri- 
lobo, bypochilio oblongo lateribus carinatis ore suborbiculari canal i 

angasto, mesochilio bicornuto, epichilic 

Hab.— Not known. 

Pteudobulbi U-2 poll, longi, 1-1 1 poll. lati. Folia 10 poll, longa, 
1 poll. lata. Svafii 3-1 poll, longi. firactcrc If poll. lwnga>. Pedudli 
2\ poll, longi. Sepala 3 poll, longa, posticum l£ poll, latum, lateralia 
if poll. lata. Pvhtla 2\ poll, i^n-a, 9 lin. lata. Labellum 2\ poll, 
longum. Columna 2J poll, longa. 

A very handsome species allied to S. JYardii, Lodd., and S. Ruckoi, 
Lindl., though markedly different in the details of the lip. The sepals 
and petals are yellow, with many small purple blotches, and the lip 
and column whitish yellow, with many small purple spots on the base, 
the epichil, the middle of the column, and lower part of the wings. The 
hypochil bears a large very dark purple-black eye-like spot on either 
side, while the interior of the cavity is almost entirely of the same 
colour, in allusion to which ihe name is given. S.Jlorida, Rchb. f., is 
also a near ally, but, besides differences in the lip, the ground colour of 
the flower is described as white. It wa- purehn-ed at a sale in 1H92, 
beyond which nothing is known of its origin. It flowered at Kew in 
August 1893 and again a year later. 

1)8. Catasetum punctatum, Rolfc ; pseudobulbis fusiformi-oblongis, 
3-1-phyllis, foliis elliptieo- v. obovato-lanceolatis acutis v. apiculatis 

acutis, sepalis patentibus elliptico-oblongis acutis concavis, petalis 
suben-otis . liptico-oblongis subobtusis lateribus reflex:.-, labello galeato 
i- rit to apiee obi -o So !- lateralibus i ' edatis obtusissimis 
eiliato-fimbriatis intermedio brevi-simo late truncato obscure apiculato 
integro carnoso intus m a to, columna 



•i- lanc< olatis ; i < ■ u 



IIab. — Npw Granada, Lehman n. 

T.^ixiobulbi \-\\ poll, longi, \-\ poll. lati. Folia 7 poll, longa, W 
poll, lata; petiolus £ poll, longus. ,SW//«f.v 9 poll. longus. liracterr 
4-5 lin. longa-. Poliolli S-l 1 I'm. I..n«ri. >//>«/« '.) lin. lmijru. 2 lin. 
lata. Peto/a 10 lin. longa, 1^ lin. lata. Label/urn Si lin. longuni, 

lon-us. f'ohnnoa U lin. longa. 

A rather pi ■ r-d in the collection of Sir Trevor 

Lawrence, Bart". I5u:iY,rd. Dm kin- in August last. It has flowers 
nearly as large as in P. barbata, Kchb. f., but the side lobes are 
narrowed into a falcate acute apex, not obtuse or nearly truncate, as in 
P. barbata. Two other species of the genus are known only from 

sepals and petal- are iiirlit tawny-l.rown -pott, a with purple, the lip 
rather whiter wit! I darker purple spot-, the di-e covered with loni: white 

100. Vanda roeblingiana, Rolfc ; caule erecto subelongato, folds 
recurvis lineari-oblongis oblique truncatis v. subbilobis carinatis con- 
duplicate, pcduneulis 2-(5-r!oris, braotci-; o\ .ito-oblongis ohlusi.-. sepalis 
oboTato-oblongis obtusis, petalis siin '■'.',■ - latoralibn- 

rreetis quadrat i- retusis intennedio patenti piano ha.-i ha-ta'o pube-- 
centi deinde angustato apice subito dilatato utrinque dolabrato dentieulato, 



Hab.— Malay Archil 



Caules 1 ped. longi. Folia 5—6 poll, longa, l-l£ poll. lata. 
Pedunciilus 6 poll, longus. Brae tew 24, lin. louu;c. I'niialh \\ poll. 



longi. Sepala 10-1 I lin. longa, 4 lin. lata. Pctala 9 lin. longa, 3£ lin. 

'•' Tales 2^ lin. longi, 2 liiUati ; 

intermedins 9 lin. hit us ; culcur 2 lin. longum. Columna 5 lin. longa. 



lata. Labellum 10 lin. longum ; lobi laterales 2\ lin. longi, 



This strikingly distinct -peeies was introduced by Messrs. Hugh 
Low & Co., of Clapton, from the vicinity of Singapore, and flowered in 
their establishment in July last. It is allied to V. limbata, Blume, but 
differs from every other in the remarkable shape of the lip, wbich is 
suddenly dilated at the apex into a pair of halbert-shaped lobes. The 
rest of the front lobe is very narrow, pubescent, and with hastate base. 
The sepals and petals are deep brown irregularly veined with yellowish 
green, most distinctly <»n the petals. The side lobes oftbe lip are white 
streaked with purple, and tbe front lobe brown with irregular radiating 
yellow veins. It is dedicated by request to the Hon. Charles G. Roebling, 
of Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.A. At present only a single plant is 
known, which bears eight spikes of flowers. There is no species with 
which it can be usefully compared, thou-h it< affinity is probably in the 
neighbourhood of V. brunnea, Rchb. f. 



CCCCXVI.— ST. VINCENT BOTANIC STATION. 

account of the history of the interesting Botanic 
nt was given in the Kew Uulhlin. IMI2. pp. 92- 
The steps taken to start the present Nation were 
nlletin, 1891, pp. 140-115. A note on the working 
given in Kcic Bulletin, 1894, p. 80. In a Report 
sued by the Colonial Office (Colonial /te/wrfs, 
JNo. 10S) the following information is supplied by the Administrator 
respecting the current work of the Station : — 

Af/rieulti/re. — Under tin- heading reference must be made to the 
Botanic Station, which shows great progress since its re-establishment 
in 1890, when a portion of the grounds of the Old Botanic Garden of 
St. Vincent, which was the first of its kind in the West Indies, and 
started in 1765, but allowed in 1849 to go out of cultivation, was again 
turned into use. It is most interesting to note that the present Botanic 
Station is of great assistance to the Colony, and of growing importance 
to the planters, who are able to study the various experiments con- 
ducted for the benefit not only of the planter class, but also of the 
peasant proprietors. During the last year grants of coffee and cocoa 
plants have been mad.- to the purchasers of Crown Lands to encourage 
the growth and produce of tli«-, valuable mvs which should ere long 
add considerably to the revenue of the Colony and the prosperity of the 
planters themselves. 

The hands of 'the indefatigable and ,-iiergetie Curator, Mr. II. Powell, 
the future success and development of the Botanic Station is assured, 
and it is to be hoped that the minor industries ,,t fruit products through- 
out the Inland will receive greater attention than has lately been the 
case. During the fall of the rear a small Met, or^logical Station was 



Garden 


at St. Yin 


101 (w 


ith plate). 


de-crib 


■d in AV/r 


of the 




on St. 


Vincent 



:?<;? 



last quarter. Though sugar is still the chief staple product, the culti- 
vation of arrowroot is largely on the Increase, and, after the intro- 
duction of a better class of machinery, since 1890, the quality of 
arrowroot has much improved. Much greater attention has lately been 
paid to the cultivation of cocoa, coffee, and spices, and several new 
plantations are now commencing to bear, with a hopeful promise for 
the future. The frequent visits of the Curator to different localities, 
and his practical lessons on planting ami pi nning, »iven on the spot, are 
productive of much good. 



CCCCXVIL— BHABUR GRASS. 

(Jschfpmum (tni/iisfifolin,)!. Ilackel.) 
A note on Bhabur grass (with a plate) was published in the Km 
Bulletin, 1888, pp. 157-160. This grass is a native of India, and it is 
remarkable as possessing the technical qualities, similar to Esparto, 
necessary for paper manufacture. Its merits were first brought into 
notice by Dr. George King, CLE., F.R.S., Superintendent of the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, in 1877-78. Since that time the grass has 
become more largely used in India, and at the present time it affords the 
chief raw material for paper-making in the neighbourhood of Calcutta 
and other parts of British India. The following additionaUnfonnation 

Hoy al Botanic Garden, Calcutta, for the year 189.V91, p. 2 .— 

"Seed of the grass, known variously a- hhi,/>ar. huhni. and sabai, 
was issued to a few applicants outside of India. This grass (of which 
the botanical name is hcltrnninn amjn>tifolii>m) first attracted my 
notice as a possible raw material for paper twenty-five years ago, while I 
was in the Fore-t Department in the North-west Provinces. It is very 
common in the Siwalik range, and in the Bhabar forest- of the (iharwal 
and Kumaon Himalaya. Samples of it, sent home by me in 1873 to a 
paper-maker in Scotland, were favourably reported upon; and again in 
ls77 a -ample sent by me to the India Office, having been submitted to 
the iale Mr. Routlcdire, of the Ford Paper Mill- (then a leading authority 
on paper-making), was declared by him to be little inferior to F.ymrtu 
as a raw material for paper. A year or two subsequently to this it was 
di-covered, by the help of Mr. J. S. Gamble, of the Forest Department. 

it were accordingly sent by me to the Pally Paper Mill, then the onl\ 



CCCCXVIII.— BULBOUS VIOLET IN THE HIMALAYAS. 

A very interesting addition to the Flora of British India is due to 
Mr. J. H. Lace, to whose zeal the Herbarium at Kew owes many 
valuable contributions from Baluchistan and tbe North -Western Hima- 
laya. It consists in the discovery of a curious little bulbous violet in 
Bussahir at an elevation of about 10,500 feet. It is not a new 
species, and it has even been collected before within the limits of the 
Flora of British India. It was, however, mixed up by Dr. T. Thomson 
in the Flora of British India with another species, and so completely 
lost sight of that it has since been described twice under different 

of the Flora ot Brit h Ind ( w, collected by t i llirh. probabh .. 
Bhootan. and by Sir Joseph Hooker, near Lad. en", in Sikkitn. at 12,000 
feet. Griffith's locality is not ascertainable with certainty, as the labels 
belonging to his specimens have evidently been mixed. They were dis- 
tributed, under No. 231, as Viola Griffithii, Hook. f. & Thorns, 
(which name was never published), partly with the indication " East 
Bengal,'" ami partly "Hast Himalaya." The latter is probably the 
correct one, and no doubt the violet in question is the plant which be 
mentions as Viola pusilla in his Private Journals, p. 292, and as 
" Viola sp. — Parvula, jJoribus parvi.s, <t Ibis, in ara.-sy spots" in his 
Itinera nj Xotes, p. 191, No. 1,064, both passages referring to a place 
above C'hii!>. 'ha, in Western Bhootan, at an elevation of 8,800 feet. 

"When Dr. Thom-on described his Viola Hooheri for the Flora of 
British India, he drew the description up partly from these specimens, 
but partly also from specimens which belong to a totally different plant, 
although he w. - u<it unaware oi there being perhaps two species among 
what he called Viola Hoaheri . As this second species was represented 
by much more complete material, his description naturally agrees 

the name Viola Hooheri for this plant, which is represented in 
the Kew Herbarium from the following localities : — I. Bhootan, 
Rydang in ripis (Griffith, No. 230 of the Catalogue, and No. 233 of 
the Kew Distribution : s<e al-o bis Itinerary Notes, p. 116, and his 
Private Journals, \). 277). 2. Sikkhn, Lachen, in woods at 8,000 feet, 
Aug. 3, 1849, and at 10,000 bet, July 9, 1849 (J. D. Hooker). 
3. Sikkitn, Khursiong.at 7.O00 feet <C. I !. Clarke. 30.562), and Tongloo, 
at 9.000 feet (C B Clarke. .'Jo. 734). The other species comprised by 
Dr. Thomson under Viola Hr.nkeri would thus have no name if it had 
not been described since from other localities. It was collected by 
Brzewabki, in 1873, and by Potanin, in 1885, in the province of Kansu, 
and described by Maximowicz as Viola bulbosa, in Bull. Acad. Imp. 
Sc. St. Petersburg, xxiii., p. 334 (1877), and in Ft. Tmujut., p. 77, 
t. 13. Other specimens of what I consider to be the same species were 
collected by the Abbe Delavay on Mt. Hee-chan-men, near Lang-kang, 
in Yun-nan, at an altitude of 10,000 feet. These were originally 
referred to Viola lloheri by Franchet (in Hull. Sor. Hot. France, 
xxxii. (1885), p. 5), and bv Ilenedey (in Forbes and Hemsley, Ind. 11. 

Plauta, Ihlavoyuiuf. p. 7< '. t. 19). A comparison of Griffith and 
Hooker's specimen, with 1'ivcwalski's, which constitute the type of 

Viola bulbosa, with Potanin's and Delavay 's, leave no doubt on 
my mind as to their identity. The Bussahir plant, gathered by 
Lace, differs from the specimens thus referred to Viola bulbosa in no 



■ wiiti:i] el aracter. though the -pecimcns are mostly stouter, with larger 
bulbs and a shorter suprabulbous axis. Their leaves are also more 
obtuse than those of the Kansu specimens, but one of these exhibits 
exactly the same foliage. 

Przewalski and Potanin's specimens were collected ''in prut is 
alpinis lutmidis ri'pihusi/iir /otitis Kint *//.'" Delavav describes the 

Lace indicates the plints as growing "in short turf amongst the grass." 
The elevations at winch J'inla bi<lbosa was found are : about 10,500 
feet in Bussahir, 12,000 feet in Sikkim, 8.800 ( ?) I'eet in Bhootan, 
10,000 feet in Yun-nan. Mid D,000 10,00 I i< el in Kansu. 

The peculiar mode of vegetative reproduction by bulbs, and their 
structure, have been very accurately described by Maximowicz. The 
bulbs, which sometimes attain the size of a pea. consist of a short 
and fleshy axial portion, and of -l- 1 -* scales, which are verv fleshy at the 
base, but -carious near the margin. The scales are rotundate, obtuse, 
or shortly acuminate, and the upper ones sometimes have short searious 
stipules attached to them. They are manifestly the modified basal 
portions of very much reduced leaves. Above the bulb the axis con* 
elongated and slender stem 



(1-2 in. long), which is terminated by e 



Howers spring from the axils of one or two of the lowermost leaves. 
The bulbscales, as well as some of the leaves following next to them, 

produce from their axil- buds which are more or less tlatteued from the 

hardly deserve this name. They grow into slender stolons, which, apart 
from a few minute scale-, are nal ed. and quite like the young stolons of 
other violets, as. for instance. \'h<hi ntitjiiiosa . They are 1-1' in. long in 



specimens thev are apparently abseni 



>n as more or less developed buds, concealed by the 
bulbscales or the leaf sheaths. Maximowicz suggests that these 
stolons become finally transformed at their apices into the bulbs which 
emit a leal' and llower-bearing avis in the next season. Although there 
are no specimens exhibiting these bulbs in their stage of rest in the 
Kew Herbarium, the plants collected by Lace are very much in favour 
of this suggestion, as a portion of what I take to be a stolon is still 
attached to the bulbs in several cases. The rootlets necessary for the 
independent establishment of the young plant spring in great number 
from the bast' of the bulb and the axils of the bulbscales, and if the 
suprabulbous portion of the axis is much lengthened also from it. 

The development of more or less fleshy rhizomes and of fleshy eata- 
phylla on the rhizomes is not very rare in the genus Viola, but the 
transformation of the terminal bud of the stolons into a typical bulb is, 
as far as my knowledge extends, quite unique in the genus. 

Viola bulbosa was compared by Maximowicz with Viola J'atri/tii, 



innovation. True, the stigma of Viola Unlit, ,sa i 
Viola biflnra, which has also similar lease-, bu 
growth, being tri-axial ! I Kill, Rlainische Flora 



triangular hyaline lip 



appears triangular \ 

Viola Patrinii. 

Viola bulbosa, Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Imp. Sc. St. Petersburg, xxiii. 
(1877) p. 334; glabrous or more or less pilose, stem short from a bulb, 
stoloniferous, leaves orbieular-reniform, very obtuse or broadly ovate, 
base cordate, slightly crenate, p.-n-.i, winded, >ripub-> narrow, ciliate, or 
oeiliatc. adnata at the base, flowers white with red veins, sepals subacute, 
spur very short. Maximowicz, Ft. Tang., p. 77, t. 13. V. Hookeri, 
T. Thorns, partly; V. tuberii.ru. Franvh. in Bull. Sac. Bot. France, 
xxxiii. (1886), p. 410 and Plant. Delavay. p. 70, t. 19. 



Perennial bulb of the size of a pea or smaller, suprabulbous stem 
\-2 in. slender. Leave- \-\\ in. broad, civiianires very broad and 
shallow ; petiole \-\\ in. long, slender. Flowers white, lower 
petal streaked with purple. Style narrowed downwards from the shortly- 
winged and minutely lipped stigma. 

O. Staff. 



CCCCXIX.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

India.— Dr. G. King has 
sheets of new or ra 
Mr. J. S. Gamble's 



. Plants. — Two important collections of dried plant:, from 
comparatively unexplored regions of California have lately been pre- 
sented to the Herbarium ; the one by Professor E. L. Greene, and the 
other by Professor F. V. Coville. The former consists largely of new 
species published by the donor; and the latin- m the plants enumerated 
and described in Professor Coville's " Report on the Botany of the 
" Expedition sent out in 1891 by the United States Department of 
<• Agriculture to make a Biological Survey of the Region of Death 
" Valley, California." Apart from the novelties described, the report 
in question is an admirable and valuable contribution to botanical 
science, and Kew is fortunate in getting a set of the plants so ably 
discussed and dealt with by the author, who was also the collector. 



Flora of the Tonga or Friendly Islands.— Mr. W. Botting Here 
F.R.S., has compiled an enumeration of all the vascular plants kr 
to occur in this group of islands, and it has been published in 
thirtieth volume of* the Journal of the /Juneau Society, together 
full particulars of the general distribution of the species represe 
This small flora is essentially Malayan in character, although more 



Indigofera disperma, Li,n>. — ThU wa> named and <I. -eribr.l ;i > a 
species by Linnaeus in the Appendix to the third volume of the 12th 
edition of the " Systema Vegetabilium," page 232 (1768). It is roundel 
on a plant drawn by Ehret. vdiich wa- publi>hed a- table :>:> in Trew's 
"Plants Select* " (1750-1773). The figure is an excellent one and 
evidently represents a mere form of Indujofera tinrtoria, in which only 
two of the many ovule have matured. The species, however, seem> to 
have passed unchallenged up to the present. It stands as a good one in 
De Candolle's Prodromtts and the Imli-.r Krn-cnsis. Our attention 
was drawn to it by receiving an application for seeds from the Director 
of the Botanic Garden of Buitenzorg. By Linnaeus the locality is 
simply given " in Indiis." In the Index Kewensis it stands as " India 
Orientalis," but the name will be sought for in vain in Hooker'- Flora 
of fh-itish India. 



Mummy Pea. — A very curious pea, of which the Director obtained 
seeds from Messrs. Thomas Sutton, of Eastbourne (who stated that it had 
been brought from Egypt by the Hon. Charlotte Ellis), under the above 
name, has flowered at Kew this summer. It has fasciated cylindrical stems, 
nearly an inch in diameter, with a large number of pedu: 
from and near the apex, peduncles much longer than tl 
bearing two or three flowers each, long petioles, three pairs of oblong 
sharply serrated leaflets, a white standard, dull reddish-purple wings, 
and a greenish-white keel. The seeds much resemble those of the 
Mediterranean region. Similar fasciated 
d bv Tabermemontamis in his Herbal pub- 
age" 49.",, and are described bv Philip Miller 



to Western Asia. 

The name " Mummy Pea " is equally applied to the 
(See Garden, 1894, Vol. II., p. 118.) 



Jamaica Walnut.— Concerning 
of the current volume of the 8 
a special study of the Flora of 
that there are valid ditfeivuc 
jamaicensis, t .DC. and ./. insula 
conviction that in this instance 

we stated before, judging I'r.mi 
o character to separate them. Perhaps this 
of our obtaining more complete material, 
of the Public Gardens of Jamaica, who is 



The Sandalwood of Juan Fernandez.— The discovery and description 

i" livinir speeiniens of a species of Santalum from this island was 
he current volume of the Bulletin, p. 110. Since then, 
igh the kindness of Prof. F. Philippi, Director of the Botanic 
len, Santiago, Chili, Kew has become the possessor of a speci- 
of his S.fernandezianum. It is only a branch bearing a few 
is, but it is evidently a true Santalum, and evidently distinct 
i all previously known species. 



Hooker's Icones Plantaram. — The continuation of this important 
work is carried on by the truster? <.f the Hentham Fund for the Promo- 
tion of Botany, under the editorship of Professor D. Oliver, F.R.S. It 
consists of figures of a - m the Kew Ilei-hannm 

Each volume contains 100 plates, from drawings by the late W. H. 
Fitch and Miss M. Smith, with de-eriptive letterpress, and is issued in 
four parts, at about quarterly intervals. The sale is entirely in the 
hands of Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37, Soho Square, London, W. The 
third series, consisting of vols, xi.-xx. of the entire work, is now offered 
at the reduced price of 51. Three volumes of the fourth series have 
appeared; price 16s. per volume. Vol. xvii. contains ferns only; 
and xxi. and xxii. are entirely devoted to orchids. The others illustrate 
a great variety of curious and rare plants; the later volumes the 
novelties, more especially of recent explorations in China, Africa, and 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

] NOVEMBER. [1894. 



CCCCXX.— TROPICAL FODDER GRASSES. 

The selection of suitable grasses for cultivation in tropical con 
matter of considerable importance. Few countries have con 
olved the question. It is evident also that a good deal of ti 
nerg\ is spent in the effort to introduce foreign grasses, when tl 



:ellent indigei 

few grasses t 



sidered ; but t 
made suitable 



and cultivation of gia--« 
qualities, or for the produ 
it w ; ll . I ..i 1 1- 1 less become, 1 



what coarse grasps li.-i w est.-iidi-died themselves almost m the exclusion 
nl everything else. Kven thes,- grasses, although in a fresh state they 
may be distasteful to cattle, become, after being cut and partially dried, 
very acceptable food to them. Such grasses might also be largely 



of manure. After the glass has become thoroughly established ait 
annual clearing after the raina is all that is required. It should, 
however, be understood that continuous feeding is injurious to the 
permanency of good pastures. The best grasses an- thus destroyed, and 
rank growing ones gradually take their place. Closefeeding foratimeis 
advantageous, but the pasture should have time to recover before the 
animals are again placed upon it. Further, it is better to keep cattle 






nnum A/imstruin) ; the Jack 
its of the last are much liked 



•dly, the Satnait. ( Kcr lt,-p,>rts. 1S7' 



dry regions not suitable tin permanent pastures the Abyssinian 
(I-Jnit/rustis nhi/ssinicii) might be grown during the occasional 
and made into hay. This grass will produce a heavy crop of hay 
c weeks from the. time of sowing. It is very nourishing, and cattle 
ery fond of it. There are other annual grasses that might be 
n during the rains for fodder purposes. In Xorthern India green 
t is used as fodder, and where a large yield is desired within a short 
n, green oats are also used, as in St". Helena, for fodder purposes. 



the village common land for their cattle. "Everyone of their fields." 
lie says, " is enclosed with a hedge, and then comes a headland of grass 



20 feet wide all round the field, and producing capital 
There is a double object in this practice, for, as the fields are 
d, and have trees round them for supplying firewood and wood 
nplements, the people know quite well that crops will not grow 
thus shaded, but that grass will. They obtain four or five 
igs of grass in the year as food for their cattle, and when the 
are empty the cattle are let in to graze on them. . . . Dub 
{Cynodon Dactylon) as a crop for irrigation gives a great yield. 
a about the only grass that keeps green in the hot weather. At 

No 



pply grass to military canton m cuts in India regular grass farms 
cently been established. These were started by Sir Herbert 
rson at Allahabad in 1882, and since then have been extended 



of the grass farm system, the practice 
from wherever they could. Owing to a full 



ivcixt saving has 


been experi 


eurcd, 


and tin 


>althier owing to 


3 4 TI 










of gnu* 






that 




ly the British 1 


roops, but e 


ran tl 


ie lialiu 


ing at Allah 0) u 




h \h,r 


Mlahahad 


ng of green fodd 


er, has been 


cart* 


Kl out .it 











australis, Ji. A'/ww.— Th»- w.ll-kn.nvn 



Anthistiria avenacea, F. v. Mm 



asiurcs." The land should. 
Cynodon Dactylon, Pert- 



idia is taken from Firminger's Manual of Gardening for Bengal and 
'/)/>< -•/• India [Valcuita. IsT 1 j p. 2(5 : — " The gr;iss principally u,-ed I'm 
wns in this country is that called I)..nb-gra>s ( Ctjnodon Dttcti/Ion), a 

.'a --It .l:irk givn hue. ['tlhri\ - v." 1 1 iv -.•;.rtvh ah\ ..iTierkind will. 



Eragrostis abyssinica, /.in/:.— A -lender annua! irrass, known in 
Al»yssinia as " Ten'." " TthehY' or " Thai).'" It i| indigenous to the 

plant, others on the colour. According to Richard, there are green, 
white, icd, and purple 'left's. The grain crop requires four months to 
ripen. " In good years it returns 40 times the seed, and only 20 times 
in had years." The flour of teff is very whit. , and produces bread of 
excellent quality. Seed of teff was ntiaiued by Kew in 1886, and 
distributed to numerous establishments in India and the colonies (Keir 
/hd/rfin. 1887, January, pp. 2-G). The plant prefer, light sandysoils, 

stem-, and supports a large weight of ear. The grain is reported to 
make " an excellent fine hay " in British Guiana, and to mature in six 
or eight weeks from the time of sowing. " For this purpose teff is 
well worth cultivating. It is cleaner and brighter looking than any 
other grass, and is readily eaten by cattle and horses." The reports 
from Australia and India are equally fa van able. The value of this 
plant for fodde: pm-p.- < ■ -h. Its chief merits in 



■was treated exactly I 
that, he has saved 80 

to keep the seed an 



grain which might prove useful for India. 1 have a had opinion of it 
as a food-grain, Inn think better o! it as a fodder, and have therefore 
classed it under the head of ' fodder plants.' 

"Teff consists of two varieties ,,ne with white seeds and the other with 
red seeds. The white-seeded kind is said to he eidtivated in Abvssinia 
during the dry season and the red durinc 1he rains. We fried the two 
th seasons, and found, a^ stated, that the white 



seed sown, iiiul proves that in hill tracts teff may yet prove ;i prolific 

" The hay made from the teff was of exceptional good quality and 
was greedily eaten by the garden bullocks. When it was offered to 
them they were being fed upon jowar or sorghum stalks, and, as is well 
known, these are remarkably sweet, and cattle, when fed upon them, 
generally refuse other kinds of dry food until they find that sorghum is 
not forthcoming. Our garden cattle, however, seemed to prefer the tett' 
hay to the sorghum, as they would not touch the latter until they had 
devoured the whole of'ihe teff placed before them. 

"The experience earned here, in the cultivation of teff during the past 
year may therefore be summed up as follows : — 

" When sown in the dry season il will yield a light crop of grain, and 
when sown in the rains it yields little or no grain, but produces 
abundance of green fodder which may he cured into very palatable hay- 
where the latter is preferred. In my opinion, teff is destined to become 
the rye grass of India, and is well worthy of more extended trial on 



Euchlaena luxurians, Micrs (Reana lnxurians, Durieu). " Teosinte." 
An annual grass of huge ?ize from Guatemala allied to the maize. The 
Brs1 published illustration of the plant was given in the Botanical 
MiH/aziae, tab. 0,414. It attracted a good deal of attention about 20 
years ago as a fodder plant (see Km- Reports, 1878, 1S70 and 18S0). 
Seed- of it were widely distributed from Kew to the East and West 
Indies, Australia, and tropical Africa. It is a tall, densely-tufted grass. 
sometimes reaching 15 feet in height, the stems are as thick as the 
thumb at the base, and the leaves 3 to 4 feet long, by 2 or 3 inches 
broad. Dr. Schomburgk in 1880 wrote from the Adelaide Botanic 
Garden, S. Australia : " I have now cultivated Teosinte for three years, 
and it is one of the most prolific fodder plants." 

.Mr. W. R. Robertson, Agricultural Reporter to the Government of 
Madras wrote as follows in July 1883 :— " A small plot was sown with 
this crop ; the out-turn of green fodder was at the rate of 38,400 lb. per 
acre, a very large out-turn ; but, the cost of production was great, for 
it was necessary to irrigate the land nearly every other day, from sowing 
until harvest. Beana is undoubtedly a very heavy producer, crops 
grown on the farm have given enormous yields, but further experience 
confirms the . ip _trding the crop in the last report: 

• On good soils, under liberal treatment, when it can obtain plenty 
of rain or irrigation water, the crop grows most rapidly and luxuriantly ; 
but it cannot withstand a drought. Indeed the experiments made 
showed that a drought, which scarcely affected the Sorr/hnm crops, was 
sufficient to check the growth of the Beana to such an extent as 1o 
render it useless to keep the crop standing longer. As a fodder crop 
in a damp warm climate, or where irrigation can be secured, it is well 
worthy of attention. There is perhaps no other crop, sugar cane 
excepted, which will produce such an enormous quantity of green plant 
per acre, but the fodder is very watery, and does not appear to be very 
palatable to stock when offered for the first time. The watery juices of 
m to be destitute of saccharine matter during all stages of 



buffalo grass. With rich cultivation this noble gr.i 
exhaustible supply of fodder for cattle. In special ii 
have been known to attain a height of IS feet, but in 



to extend the expi 



2Ss lbs. of drv fodder and I" lbs. of seed. The 
chiefly to obtain seed to meet the demands of 

rid I think it will be a good addition to tl 
of the monsoon season. At any other time tl 
irrigation, and I have a small field now under t 
which will be reported on when the results are fi 

Subsequent cultivation confirmed the truth of 
the great value of Teosinte as a food plant 1 
many parts of India. It -hould be grown on 
there are horse-, cows, and bullocks to be fed. I 
small plots are raised along the channel-, and in - 

The latest reports of Teosinto are as follows :— 

In a Report on Agricultural Work at Brit is. 

1 S*J1 — i>— , p. 68, Messrs. Harri-on and .Jcnman gi\ 

land from tli. seed -hod. It -con dies out. howcvei 

short, the stubble M uiekly spring again, and a sc< 

or 16 square feet of superficial apace, as it docs 
under which the yield is poor. The following 



Water .... - 12-75 

Fats 3-94 

♦Albuminoids - - - -9*94 

f Amides, &c. l'OO 

Pectose, gum, &c. - - - 8-22 

Starch 37*38 

Digestible fibre - - - - 16-4(5 

Woody fibre - - - . - 9(57 

Mineral matters - - - - 2 "44 



In the Journal ,,f tl,e J u ri.~ll»rl. Sonet,, of India, 1894, p. 78, it is 
stated: — "A very good crop was raised this season. After the stalks 
had reached a height of about 5 feet, they were cut down to within 
1 foot of the ground ; three weeks later a second crop was ready for 
cutting, varying in height from 18 inches to 3 feet ; a third crop was 
cut a month later, and yielded stalks about 2 feet high ; in this manner 
three good cuttings were made in four months. It was found that 
from 4| to 5 lbs. of seed were sufficient to sow an acre. The fodder 
is greatly relished by cattle." 

At Lagos, on the West Coast of Africa, Mr. Millen has successfully 
introduced " Teosinte " as a fodder plant and in June 1894 wrote: 
"I have planted a quantity of plants of Euchlcena luxurious ; it is the 
only fodder plant of those introduced which appears to be growing 
with good results." 

At Saharunpur, in the Report for 1893 just issued, Teosinte is 
mentioned as having suddenly grown into demand eta an annual forage 



nial swamp-grass ti 
has a somewhat sle 
panicled spikes. In the Philippine Hands this grass is regularly 
cultivated. t o ■, -.-_ r m - the purprwi of supplying Cool I 

for domestic animals. It is treated like riee, being transplanted to wet 
and previously ploughed meadows. I!aile\ found it to be one of the 
most relished by cattle amongst the aquaiie irrasscs of Kast Australia. 
In Singapore it is regularly gathered in waste places as a green fodder 
for cattle and horses. 

Panicum Colonum, J.. — An annual uia— wideh distributed through- 
out tropical countries. It prefers a rich soil, and is often found as a 
weed of cultivation. In some parts of India it is cultivated for its 
grain. The straw is much used in the .Madras Presidency and in 
Mysore as cattle fodder. Duthie gives the following account of this 
'irass {FmUhr Urnsscs ,,f Xo,-//iert,' hnlm, p. 5) : — 

- It is generally considered to he one of the best kinds of fodder 
grass. It is abundant all over the plains, and ascends to some few 

cattle both before and after it has flowered, the abundant crop of grain 
yielded by it adding materially to its nutritive value. It extends to 
Australia, where, it is reported, its very succulent stems grow from 



Jticy. (P. jumentov 
■of tropical Africa. Widely cul 






turn of jr.,!,!,,, ^s in India (/*> 



2 feet ap: 

i!» l Madn.sthi>lir i 



anting elsewhere, or tli.-y will 

,rm:ui: until rho appi-wl/of .< 



The " St. Mary's Grass 



Panicum molle, - 



Panicum muticuni, Fottk. (P. numidianum, Lam.; P. barbinodo, 

"Para grass," '• Mauritius grass," "Scotch grass," and " Water grass." 
A coarse and very vigorous grass. damp places. 

It has succulent stems and leaves, with the nudes distinctly hairy. 
It roots readily at the joints, and these are even said to grow after 

passing through animal-. Hence, this ".rass is regarded as unsuit- 



tjrow in the neighbourhood of cult 
"dder for ' 



specially kept for manure. 
For general pasture purposes it is, however, one of the best of tropical 
grasses. In Barbados, 40 acres of this grass, well manured and 
irrigated, are said to yield in good years cut-grass of the annual value 
of (500/. It is largely cultivated elsewhere in the West Indies, 
in Florida (where it is said to make heavy growth on high pine-ridges), 
in Curacoa (where it is regarded as capable of resisting drought), and 
also in Ceylon, Mauritius, and in the plains of Bengal. It is readily 
propagated by seed and by cuttings of the root and stem. 

Seeds and plants of Para grass were first introduced from Caracas to 
Barbados by Colonel Eeid, Governor of the Windward Islands, in 
1 S i 7 . Later a supply was received in this country, and forwarded to 
Kew, with the following letter from Earl Grey, Secretary of State for 
'"': William Hooker, 

" I am directed by Earl Grey to transmit to von a copy of a despatch 

mitted a few roots of the Para <rrass. and proposed to send some seeds 
when he should have been able to collect a sufficient quantity. 

"The roots and seeds having arrived, they are also now forwarded to 
you, together with a copy of the despatch from Colonel Keid, late 
Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Maud-, in which the valuable 
qualities of this grass are described. Lord Grey requests that you will 
have the goodness to take charge of these roots and se^ds, and to cause 
them to be DP | «to the differenl Australian Colonies, 

to the Cape of Good Hope, and to the Mauritius. 

" I am also to transmit to you a case containing some slips of ibis 
grass, which has been forwarded to Lord Grey from the Caracas. His 
Lordship would be glad to be furnished with any suggestions which may 
occur to you as to the best mode of proceeding in order to introduce 
these seeds and plants into those colonies for which they are best fitted. 
—I have, &c, (Signed) B. Hawes." 

The correspondence in regard to the introduction of Para grass to 
Barbados is given by Dr. Lindley in the Joxm. Hoy. I fort. Soc, iv. 
(1847) p. 148. Adapting ihe name given to the grass in Curacoa, 
Dr. Lindley called it Panicum jumentorttm, thus confusing it with 

r". : ,f ': Mij plies of Para grass wore received at Kew in six Wardian 
cases, shipped from Caracas by Her Majesty's Consul, Mr. J. Riddel. 



to assist industries in the colonies. Such operations, since that time, 
have been consistently carried on for nearly 50 years. 

The following extract from ilu- report of the Government Experimental 
Farm, Poona, for the year ending March 31, 1894 (p. o), gives the 
results of the experimental cultivation in India: — 

" Mauritius Water Grass or Buffalo Grass.— This is the chief fodder 
grass of Ceylon. There it remains green all the year round, and is 
einplo\ ed larti'dy tor Ir.-ding milk cattle. A few routs wen' obtained from 
the School of Agriculture Farm, Colombo. The plant can be propagated 
either from the roots or from the stoloniferous stems which grow out 
laterally along the ground, and root at every node. From these rooted 
nodes straight shoots spring up. When ready to ml. the grass is very 



method •..[ propazin hi: - n, cut ,t,. ion- tanrat stems into shoi 
Broadcast these sparingly over the surface, and cover lightly 
The plot on the farm since it has become fully established has 
twice, at an interval of 87 days. The yields of green fodder w 



Panicum spectabile, 

de Angola." Accordh, 
stem is stout, o to 6 1 


k-HiigV^vilh ih 
r and about an 


SS 


der plant 1, 
It iskinn 

broad. ' T 


>ng established 
i liana."' The 


I5S5S 


lils 


1 


:(EH 


\ Cr^s-nalln. 
species. The 

, well marked. 
ras., ii., pt. 2, 



desirable 

luce into the East Indies. Seeds of" Cnpim de Angola" 
by Glaziou (Kew Reports, 1880, p. 16) proved to be 



Panicum texanum, 



Paspalum conjugatum, 
ri ^, " ,,: Singapore. A 
ian I to 2 bet high, lease 



ileal America and Africa. Introduced to" Ceylon 
Jamaica this grass forms tlie evcedl.-nl "low-bite" 

lie exclusion of everything else. In Ceylon this 
by Dr. Thwaites as growing well in shade, and in 
.• sun, and it retained :i- fre.-Ii green appearance 

ass is equally valued, and it deserves 



i in the Eas 



Paspalum di 

Water couch." A corns 
nd convolute, nm 4y tlal 



anion grass in pastures and wet place- in tropical 
ing also into temperate countries, It i- said to he 
Western France. Probably indigenous to Australia, 
ne frost, and is temporarily inundated. Will grow 
mllow pools or wet meadows, and proves quickly 
It keeps beautifully green throughout the year, 
"sntly adapted to 



Paspalum sanguinale, Lam (Panicum -aiiguinalc. Lam.). — A widely 
diffused annual grass, found in all warm regions of the globe. The 

from three to six slender flower -pike-, each from 4 to (i inchc- long. 



Panicum pabulare. Aitck. ,\ Hans!. 



Mueller. It -was nr also at AsC( 

!luiiri>hes on the singularly arid volcanic rock- of thin 
|>i;mt 1m- in < ', _ ••■•■ i I.'.- m >u\ ■, , :i i - in [to - 



idia. By J. F. Duthie B.A., 
States. By Dr. George Vasey. 



ington, 1889. 

s.ses of New South Wales. By Fred. Turner, F.L 



>ter IX. Grass. Grazing. Hay- 



Dictionary of tin i.. India. By Greorge Watt, 

M.B., CLE. London and Calcutta, 1889-93. (Indian Fodder" (in.-, ■«. 
vol. III., pp. 420-427.) 



CCCCXXL— DECADES KEWENSES. 

Novarum in Hekbakio Hokti K K< i 1 1 CONS] 



is orientalis, Iltiml Uiiamnaceiv] ; arborescens, glaber, 
inuiil- (Witeris m nipt r iueri-iiliii- < inereis detmnu ni-j i < ,-eentibus, foliis 
rogen'eretti tis ovatis vol fere rotun- 



crenulato-dentatis trinerviis supra demum suluiitidi-, iloribus breviter 
)',is<icul;ito-paniculatis graciliter pedic rifi ovatis sub- 

fructu amplo crispato obscure \6bu\ato. — Pa liur us aiistralis, Gtertn. var. 
oriental is, Franchet, PI. Delavav. p. 1 ;Y2 ■ Pa Hums australis, Franchet, 
PI. David, p. 71, non Gaertn. 

Habitat. — Cbiua: in woods near Tali, Yunnan, Delavay ; South 
Wushan, Szeehuen, A. Henry, 7,205 ; Kwangtung, C. Ford, 325. 

Arbor usque ad 30 ped. alta (A. Hon)/). Folia cum petiolo usque ad 
5 poll, longa et 3 poll, lata, sed in speciminibus Delavayanis minora. 
Panieuhc 1-2 poll. long®. Flores circiter 3 lin. diametro. Fructus 

As Mr. Franchet very truly observes, there is little in the flowers and 
fruit to distinguish this from the Mediterranean P. austral**, bal Hi 
habit, size, aod foliage it is very different. Franchet describes the 
trunk as being armed with stout spines. 

102. Paliunis hirsutus, Hemsl. [Rhamnaceae] ; arborescens, ramulis 
lloriferis grnciliusciilis pubescentibus angulatis flexuosis ad nodos 
1-spinosis, -pinis brevibu- ri^idis rccur\ i-„ I'ohi- «ri-;ttji liter petiolatis 
chartaceis amplis rotundato-ovatis basi obliquis subcordatis vel rotundatis 
apice breviter acuminatis subaeuiis minuti-sime calh.>o-crenulato-dentatis 
trinerviis cum venis lateralibus conspicuis supra strigillosis subtus 
praecipue secus venas fulvo-pubescentibus, iloribus breviter cymoso- 
paniculatis pubescentibus breviter pedicellatis, sepalis crassis subobtusis 
qiiam petala paullo brevioribus, filarne .<■« (u.-Liiti lm>. 

fractal inaturo ignoto sed ut videtur angnste cupulato-alato glabra. 

Habitat.— China : Kwangtung, For d, 280. 

Arbor parva (Ford). Folia, cum petiolo circiter 6-9 lineas longo, 3-4 
poll, longa. Spina U;-.'i linear Ioiili'.c Ci/nta circiter pollicares. 
/■'/oris 2k lin. diametro. 

It is noteworthy that no member of this genus has been found between 
Persia and China and only one species is known in the western area of 
the genua. Carridre [Bettu Horticole, L866, p. 380) mentions a 
Pa/iimts luridm from China; but as he merely states that it is less 
spiny than P. act/Hat us, Poir., with very shiny leaves, it is impossible 

The svnonvniv of the Mediterranean species has been misunderstood 
and should be as follows :—P. Spiua-C/tristi, .Mill., syn. /'. australis. 
(iarin.. and P. aculeatus, Poir. 



Habitat. — Transva 

Galpin, 916 ; Shire ] 

Planta U ped. al 



to Bothrioclinc 



104. Bothriocline longipes, 
eaulibus rnmulismic sulcato-s' 



pu'i'i'sccntibus. 
iiltiiiiuniM 



peduneuHsquc pnbes< 






Li-uiat.i «nl)(Iuplo brevioribus, pappi 

khrmjHfi, Oliver and Ilu-rn var. h 

Jr. IIL, p. 266. 
//,,/,//,//. -Monbuttulan.L Scfncviufm 
Foliornm petioli 4-6 Iin. lonjri, la 



lis is very distinct, from Ii. 

lax inflorescence, flower-he 
han half as many flowers and 



106. Strobopetalum carnosum, A'. E. Brown [Aselepiadea>] , caulibus 
rostratis ut videtur glabris, i',..liis petiolatis anguste vel late oblongis 
blongodanceolati- v.-l ellipri-'o-nl.longis acntis obtusis retusisve mucro- 
atis basi rotnndatis vel conlatis i'arim-i> ^r I ; 1 1 » i - 1 - . .ymis pauei-vel 
lurinoris unibcdlifbnnibus -iiosessilibus vol brovissiiur pedunculatis, 
r.i«-!, iv miniilis laiuvolatis, acuti- cum pedioellis sepali-que lanceolatis 
•ummati- glabris, corolla 1 tubo camp.,: is paten tibus 

>vt\- oxfus glabris intus basi cum tuba' tauiv don-o et minute adpresso- 

nthera? brevioribus. 
Habitat.— South Arabia, El Harm, Schweinfurtk, 180. 

Fotionn,, potioli 1-8 lin. longi. lamina- '.-2} poll, long*, £-l£ poll. 
it.-. Pr,hn,r»li l-l lin longi. Pedicelli 2-3 lin. longi. Sepahi 
Corolltr tubus 1 lin. longus, lobi 4-4^ 1 



lobi £ 1 


in. longi. 












The flowers ar 


e noted as green o 


n the label. 




107. 


Peliostomum calycin 


urn, 


N. E. Br, 


yum [Scrophularinea,] 












i" decumbenti 














is subrigidis 


- - !- i glabri- 




is prope i 




ibrftd 
















corollaB tubi quam calyx breviore lobif 








spar 




■ ibesoontibus, staminibu? 


djdynai. 


lis ipiam 


corolla ( 


llipl,. 


bn 


ivioribus filai 


mentis glabris. fiutlit-ri- 



ram ul i 2-*> poll, longi. Folia \-\ poll. I 
\-'.\ lie. longi. liracteec 1-5 lin. louga*, 



prominent mid-rib on their ur 
) on the upper Btizbee. This i 



108. Gladiolus (Hebea) flexuosus, Baker [Iridose] ; cormo parvo 
globoso, caulo graoili clongato simnluv lleximso, t'oliis productis 3 
brevibus dis.-iris liiieari-romplmatis rigididis glabris, floribus paucis 
in spicam laxam secundam dispositis, spathae valva exteriori oblonga 
vel oblongo-lanceolata firmula viridi, perianthii tubo brevi cylindrico, 



longioribus 


longe 


..ng.ii.;. 


ilatis, g. 


LMiitalil 


jus ae 


irmeiiti* 


s.iprrioribus brevk 


>ribuf?. 














Habitat.— Fwai 


nbo, Lake Tanganyika 


, Jan. 189 


3. J A,. 


'•antler . 


r«/w«. 


Caulis pedalis > 


rel sesc 




8. .Fo/ 


'io/vw lin 


ibus 1 


iber 1- 


:; p -it. 








■. Pe 


,7^,,/,/, r 








segmenta superior 


* 6 li 


u. longs. 


, 3-4 


lin. lata; 


segm 


enta ii 


tferiora 


Near G. Thomst 


,,,/and 


unguicu 




3aker. 








109. Morsea Carsoni, 


Baker 1 


Irld-a- 


]; caule 


graci 


Uimo e 


,"' Pl «"" 
















spat his pancis ex 


lindriei 


s pube>( 


leotibus 


. 2-:;-iloi 


•is in 


-].ic ;l iii 


laxam 


dispositis, pedicell 
































styli appendicibaa 






,tis, fructu parvo 








Habitat.— ¥ wn\ 


Dbo, Li 


ike Tang 


anyika, 


Feb. 189 


3. Ales 


■ a^/cr 


(\n-s»n. 


Caulis pedalis. 


Po/« 


//;;■ sub 


pedale. 


Spatha> 


! 8-2 


1 lin. 


bogse. 






;riora 12 












Nearly allied to 


M . 2 


'hiimsmti, 


, Baker 


of Nyas 


saiand and the Cape 


J/. «fe&4 Ker. 
















llO.Lapeyrousi 


a hole. 


itachya, 


Baker 


I.i.U.e -, 


cormo 


parvo . 


■vui...,. 






CCCCXXIL—NEW ORCHIDS. DECADE 11 

. Bulbophylluill pteriphiluin, AW/< ; eaulo s.-amh'nte pi 



Pedicelli 1 


tin. longi. Sepal a 1 \ 


lin. longa. Petala \\ lin. Ion 


Labellum \ 


lin. longum. Colwmna 


^ lin. longa ; denies \ lin. longi. 


A very di: 


ies, which "w 


as found growing intermixed w 



rhizomes of L< m, ><>i>t< sis nirm>sa, Blume, sent to Kew by Mr. C. 
Curtis, of the Forest Department, Penang. It flowered in the collection 
in September last, and technically belongs to the group containing 
B. reptans, Lindl., but has no very near ally among Indian species. 
The scapes sometimes appear with the young growths, and push out 
from tbeimbi > protect the young pseudobulb and 

leaf, but the majority are borne at the nodes below the mature pseudo- 
bulbs, each being protected at the base by a number of imbricating 
sheaths. The flowers are white, and rather under a quarter of an inch 
in diameter. The specific name is given in allusion to the plant's habit 
of growing intermixed with the rhizomes of the fern, which, however, 
may not be constant. 



102. Lanium Berkeleyi, Rolfc; p 
confertie vagi is oblongia 

subacutis v. apiculatis, scapis parce ramosis v. simplicibus pubescen- 
tibus, braeteis triangulo-ovatis acutis, pedicellis pubescentibus, sepaiis 
patenlibus binccolatis acntis extus pubescentibus. pe talis patentibus 
filiformi-linearibus acutis, labello basi columnse adnato erecto ovato 
neuto I'onrnui disco basi Imh-ntato, columna clavata. 
Hab.— Brazil. 

Pseudobulbi |-1 \ poll, iongi. Folia \-\\ poll, longa, 3-5 lin. lata. 
Scapi 2-4 poll, longi. Bractete \\ lin. longfe. Pedicelli 2^-3 lin. 
longi. Sepala 2£ lin. longa, ^-f lin. lata. Petala 2\ lin. longa. 
Labellum 2\ lin. longum. Columna i\ lin. longa. 

The third specie* of this curious little group, which Lindley con- 
sidered as a section of Epirfenrfnim, though li.ntliam afterwards 
elevated it to the rank of a distinct genus. It was found in a clump of 
Cattleya guttata by Major-l iemial K. S. li< i'kei..-y, Spelehley. Hitterm- 
Park, Sooth wered in January 1891 ; and now 

Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, have also flowered it among their 
rira/.iliau importations. It is easily distinguished from L. Avicula, 
Benth., the other Brazilian species, by its much longer and narrower 
pseudobulbs and leaves, and less branched raceme. The flowers are 
light green with numerous minute red-brown dots on the sepal ->. petals. 



liueari-oblongis obtusis. 

Hab. — Costa Rica, Pfau, 

Planta 4-6 ped. alta. Folia . . . Spathtc 2-4$ poll, longa?. 
Racemi 3-4. \ poll. l.,ugi. llruvtcu o-ti lin. longa-. I'ldintli \\-±\ 
lin. longi. Sepala et petala 10 lin. longa. Labellum 7 lin. latum. 
lin. longa. 



104. Polystachya villosa, RnlJ) .- foliis Inu-nri lanrool; 


Ltis acuti- 


















oblique oblongis obtnsis inicnuoilio late orbiculari-ovato apice 








Hab.— Upper Zambesi, E. Tropical Africa. 




Folia 10 poll, longa, 5 lin. lata. Scapi 3 poll, longi. Brt 


t/<v/ 4 lin 


louga'. Pcdicellt ?, lin. longi. Scjxila 1 lin. ionga. /Vft 









plant, whn-h 
fill, in Srpteinl 



10,5. Chondrorhyncha bicolor, Rolfe ; 



>longi> cierti^ intcnnedio patente renifornii-orbi 
btuse carinato ceallo-n. columna elavata. 
Hap,.— Costa Rica, Pfau. 

1^-2 ped .. Scupi 

hi 1 poll. Ion 



«' / :',(> I poll longa, | M-iicii 
' poll, long 
m| poll. 






arc, lobis Interalilms 
ngulari acuto reflexo, 
s apice confertis.— 
Xov., L, p. 128 (non 



Srapi ,-l pel. longi. llnn-lcu- !-."> poll. Ion-;. /W/<W// 7-!) lin. 
l.-ii.iii. Sepula *» lin. U-n^a, .') lin. lata. Peloid \) lin. longa, 5 lin. lata. 

This species was imperfectly described by Barbosa Kodrigucs. in 
1877, under the nana. ..f r,//,/.„ ///«, rosnmt'. but as 1 huv is alread\ a 
species of that name {Co tax, turn ,-<>*( inn. Rchb. f., in Gard. Chron., 
IS72, p. 100.-J) the p.vM-nt one must be renamed. It is therefore pro- 



107. Catasetum Randii, liolfe ; pseudobulbis ovoideo-oblo 

oblongo-Janceolatia ftcutis, sepalo postico erecto oblongo- 
acuto concayo lateralibus paten tib us eonformibus, petalis e 
parallels lanceolatis aeutis eonvexis, labello infero trilobo 
lateralibus late oblongis obtusis firabriatis interniedio oblongo 
gine et facie longe setaceo-fimbriato apice rostrato recurvo : 
saceato basi cristate, crista .recta lata apice 



apis erectis l)ifluris, bra'jteis oyato-oblongis acuti 
riexis oblongis subacutis, labello supero galeato 
inute denticulato, columna brevi crassissima apic 


s, sepalis petalisque 
apiculato margine 


Hah,- Brazil, liand. 




I'xnuhlndbi U-2A poll, longi. Folia 5-7 poll. 1< 


)iiga. Scapi 4 poll. 



the details of llu' lip, e-peeially ui the crest, which in the pre^m 
?cies i- ;i sliort and broad brush-like appendage with many teeth, but 
the other a singl- slender -pine-like organ. The female flowers are, 
very fleshy, and of a uniform clear apple green, becoming 
nd 



whil 



membranaceous 
1 ground, the spots c 



108. Ornithidium nanum. !'<>!/, eaniibu- repcntibus vaginis imbri- 
catis oKtecti-. |is.'uili)inilliis [ .nr\i- lineati-oblongis inonophyllis sub- 
confertis. f'olii- lineal i-Ianceolati- acuti- earno-isshnis Mipra canaliculate, 
llm'ibus lateralibus solitariis, pcdunculis hrevibus, bracteis ovatis acuti.-, 
sepalo postico ovato-lar.ceolato acuto, lateralibus tiiaiigulari-lanceolatis 

ccolatis suhacutis, lahello integro spathulato obtuso, callo lineari obtuse 
carnoso, eolumna clavata alis triauguiari-ohlwngis acutis. 

Hab.— W. Indies. 

Plantu 1-1 1 poll. aha. Pscdobnlbi 3-3| Ifn. longi. Folia \-l poll, 
longa, 1-1} lin. lata. Pedu»cn!i 7-S tin. longi. liractca- 2 lin. longEe. 
Sr/mhiiii lioslicum I lin. Ionium, \\ lin. latum ; hiteralia lin. longa, 
2)f lin. lata. I'vtalu \\\ lin. ionga, H lin. lata. fjtbtlhnn 5 lin. longum, 
If lin. latum. Columna 1\ lin, longa, ahe \ lin. longa'. Mviititm .". lin 
longum. 

A remarkable little pi.-inl. not much e\ct edmg an inch high, and quite 
unlike any other known species. It was sent to Kew by Mr. Wilke. 
Superintendent of the Rotterdam Zoological < ! ard. -n-, ami bloomed in 
the collection dating September last. The flowers are yellowish white, 
and bear much resemblance to those ot I)< udrobinm ,-rn,>n „<ir»,i> in 



Trichocentrum Hartii. R 
hre\ ibus univelpaucifloris, bracteis late ovatis acut: 

elliptico-oblongis subacutis concavis, petalis j 
usis. lahello bre\i-sime unguiculato pandurato- 
lamellato lamelli- bhlentati>, ealcaiv qmim labellun 



\ lin. lata. Labellun, 



':{:;::: 



hail' a- long, The flower i> light \dlow with tlie exception of the lip, 
which is white, with some brownish red -tripes on the crest, and a few 
minute .-pot- of the same colour on iiie eohunu-wings. A. flower of 
what is evidently the -ame specie- was -cut from the collection of Sir 
Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Burford, Dorking, in September 1892. but 
could not be identified. The plant had been obtained from Me--rs. 
Linden, of Brussels. 



110. Sarcochilus crassifolius, Rolfe ; caule ancipite scandente dis- 
tiehnphyllo. tolii- hroviter petiolatis ovato-oblongis subacutis crasso- 
cartn»H >npra canaliculars -nbtu< - . . peduneulis 

hrevibus teretibi is subacutis, 

sepalis petalisque elliptico-oblongi- subobtusis eoncavis, labello un- 
guicukto n .Icato-oblongis membranaceis, inter- 

medio triangulari ovato obtu-o earno-.., rallo par\o didymo, columna 



. lati. Folia lf-2 poll longa, 6^9 lin. lata; petiolus 



■ecies, with curiously flattened siom. which flowered in 
' M. A. Van Imschoot, of Mont-St.-Amand, Gand, in 
f is apparently allied to tin- -lavaii V. anceps, Rchb. f., a 
)wn from the very short description, but which, however, 
duncle. The flowers are yellowish white, with the front 
ellow, and an orange blotch behind the crest. 



CCCCXXIIL— PLAGUE OF CATERPILLARS AT 



(Metanastria punctata, Walker.) 

In the Ketr Bulletin, 1890, pp. 224-229, there appeared an account, 
communicate.! \,\ the Foreign Olh'ce, of a. Prions foivM plague in Bavaria 
caused by the cat Tpillars of a moth known as Li parts Mmnicha. The 
\\\\ w an plu". wa optimal .1 to emis* the loss amongst pine trees in 
one year of nearly 40.000/. In some of the forests attacked the excreta 
from the caterpillars was lying 6 inches deep. 

This year a somewhat similar plague of caterpillars appeared on pine 
trees in the island of Hong Kong and on the mainland of China, in 
British Kowloon. These caterpillars also belonged to a large moth 
{Metanastria pn aetata. Walker). Thi.- species isapparently not known 
out of China, but it is not remote, according to Mr. W. F. H. Blandford, 
F.E.S., from the European Gastropacha pini. 

.'. . • 

■■.:■•...•■_■•:.■■ '■■■: 

the caterpillar plague at Hong Kong lias recently bc-n communicated to 
Kew by the Secretary of State for the Colonies. This was prepared by 
Mr. "W. J. Tutcher, the acting superintendent of the Botanical an.l 
Afforestation Department. The caterpillar* were first -ecu towards the 



(•..llcrii'd was over < 50,000 cat 

estimated that about 35,000,C 
5,000 dollars. 

The cause of the large inc; 
buted to the exceptionally *ei 

caterpillars in check. The n 
closely with scars on the br: 
tlic caterpillars are very difficu 






several years past, hut previous to the winter of 1892-93 i 
tnown to do considerable damage. 

Allows : The first eggs were laid at the end of April T 
>eeame ehrysalids at the end of May or beginning of June 
ippeared in the middle of June, and they were depositing 
>feggsinjuly. 

The report concludes ftfl follows: " It is satisfactory to 
nethods employed for the extirpation of the scourge have 1 
successful ; of the many thousands of trees attacked, onl 
>er-eentage have been killed, and many of those that ha\ 

of all the pine tree- in the c 
;OSt successfully coped with." 



CCCCXXIV.— MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



The Director has been ele 
Zealand Institute in recognition, 
[or rather Kew] has ?o cordial 



inhabits then 

existence of trees on the island had been observed eighty years pre- 
viously, but not until Mr. Perry sent a specimen to Kew, was it known 
to be the same (Phylica arbor ea) as that inhabiting the 5,000 miles- 
distant Tristan d'Acunha group. Subsequently, when stationed in the 
lied Sea. Mr. Perry obtained, with the assistance of Captain Hunter, 
specimens of the Myrrh and Olibanum trees of Somaliland. He was 
also the first to bring to Europe living plants of the plant yielding 
Socotrine aloes, which proving new to science was named in his honour 
A /or I'erryi. He further succeeded in procuring a specimen of the 
Dragon's Blood tree of Socotra, which yields the drug called cinnabar 
bv Dio-coride$. It has since been de-cnbed under the name of 
l)r<uo tin ('uniabar'i. Independently of 1 1 1 « ■ foregoing important acqui- 
sitions. Mr. I'errv collected at Aden, on the Somali coast, in the Persian 
Gulf, in Seind. and in Madagascar and .lohntiiui Island. These collec- 



-i ai Temperate House, or Winter Garden, was 
) from designs by Decimus Burton. In 1861 the octagons (50 feet 
er) were finished. In 1SG2 the centre block (212 by 137 feet 



.roposed work- are being already taken in hand. It is proposed 
un in this a warm greenhouse temperature so as to allow the 
cultivation of many economic and large succulent plants of 
le existing accommodation afforded them at Kew does not 
le satisfactory development. 



Lecanopteris carnosa, Blume. — The genus Lecauopteris is alii 
ralMisi'r d U wa Folgpodmm, and £ c$ 

lume, wissui.ik.hmI by Sir William I looker to be an abnormal fo 



»ints or mammae, which occur about an inch apart all over the rhizom 
aere is a good picture of this species, with a note on its peculiarities, 1 



■ _ 

a pretty lilt 



Tuesday by noon th 
a record in plant co; 
other thinsrs which 



Interesting Cryptogams. • 



MM) 



Korarima Cardamom.— The plant Eorniahii 
appears to have never been seen by botanists 01 

hotaniealU . tlioii'rh IVreira proposed for it the name of Jmomxm 
Korarima. There are specimens of dried fruits in the Kew Museum, 
received from Bombay and Aden through the Indian .Museum, from 
Altyssinia (Countess of Mayoi. and from the late D. Hanbury. The 
few facts of the history of this Cardamom are given in Fliickiger and 
II in .un - Pharm ,, q ,/>!< a i Second Ed., pp. 650-1) :— " The Arab 

which was later known in Europe, and is mentioned in the most 
ancient printed pharmacopoeias as Cardamomum majns, a name 
occurring also in Valerius Cordus and Mattiolus. Like some other 
K.nstern drugs, it gradually disappeared from European commerce, 
and its name came to he transferred to Grains of Paradise, which 
to the present day are known in the shops as Sembia. Cardatmaiii 
majoris. The true Cardamomum majns is a conical fruit, in size 
and shape not unlike a small fig reversed, containing roundish 
angular seeds, of ' an agreeable aromatic flavour, much resembling 
that of the Malabar cardamom, and quite devoid of the burning taste 
of grains of paradise. Ivicli fruit is perforated, having been strung 
on a cord to dry; such strings of cardamoms are sometimes used by 
the Arabs as rosaries. The fruit in question is called in the Galla 
language Korarima, but it is also known as Cnn'/i/i spire, and by its 

As th" plant I'le-uishing SvTarima < 'ardauioms appear- ■ 
over the whole mountainous region of Eastern Africa from the Victoria 
NVanza to Abyssinia, it may soon be possible to obtain fresh seed or 
rhizome- in order to cultivate it in this country. We hope European 
travellers in Eastern Africa will make a note that the plant of Korarima 
Cardamom is at present a much desired acquisition at Kew. 



C0C0-de-Mer. — The Museum of the Royal Cardens is already in 
a line set of specimens illustrating the mode of germination, 
abit, ami ec - ( 'oeo-de-Mer (Lodoicea sechel- 

(truni). One of the features of 
rhich range from the usual bidobed fori; 
ix-lobed. A very fine example of this latl 



Index Kewensis : Fasciculus : 



liritij, India. \ \irniu\W* Forest Flora, m.l to othei iinporiiint work*. 
There are also keys to the orders, genera, and species. Of course, the 
real merits or defects of such a hook are discovered by using it : hut 
from a cursor} examination ii appears to have been prepared \ery 
carefully, and it is eeitainly singularly free from typographical errors. 
The arrangement, paper, and typogmpln are g..,,d ; and the book is 
certain to prove useful. a; ■ ••■ the study of botany 

by forest oilieers. The author expresses a hope that it may form 
the framework of a future Fore-t Flora • t the Bombay Presidency. 



Charles Fraser. To 


wards the end of the y. 


■ar 1SSU Dr. J 


. 11. Scott. 




y, visited the island, an 






l!). including two such conspicuous plant; 






Phu nullum cm 










the former the mair 






ither interesting plant, and one of the > 




Azorella 






Zealand bliim 




estward distribution 


in the Marion, Croze 






nds, and in Fuegia. 








Ir. Thos. Kirk has 






. 




source, collected b\ Mr. A Ha; , 


■—Ranunculus crast 


ripes, a Kerguelen plant 






champsia crrspitosa 


in a depauperated 


condition; Fe 


■ ' 



leet of paper as the original 
harles Fraser. This wideh .lis 
E" the other islands south of New 



Flowering of Camoensia maxima in England- 









id the River Congo 



Quassia as an insecticide- 



Coffee and Tea i 



1 li follow i _ inf. rniii n < i» . r i _ , ,tl . I t t - 

Report on the Forests of Tmv'ancoiv bv Mr. T. F Hoimlillon. F.L.S, 
dated 29th December 1892 :— 



3 again much higher 
tssible that the area 
lightly increased, but 



a million Lbs. of made tea, but there are no statistics on the subject 
available. The area under tea is probably about 3,000 acres. 

The tea plant is found to thrive equally well at sea level and at 
6,000 feet. In the former situation it is diiHcult to start on account of 
the drought ; and the greater heat causes it to winter more thoroughly, 



during the monsoon months the growth is remarkably rap 

Uthehighe 

I the growth is more regular, but less rapid, and the yield 1 



fully makes up for its cessation in the dry weatlu 



quality is better, so that the advantages of either 
equally balanced. Probably the best elevation is about midway between 
the two at about 3,000 feet. It was here that the first success was 
secured, and here a very considerable yield can be obtained, while the 
climate is more favourable for Europeans than in the low country. 

strv in Travancore is decidedly 
e class of tea is on a level with 
that of Ceylon. The mistake of planting steep lands, made in the case 
of coffee, has been avoided, ami the plants have been singularly free 
from diseases or attacks of insects. Only one or two of the e.-tates at 
lower elevations have suffered from the tea mosquito (Belopeltis 
Antonil), whieli pum.-tuivs tin- leaves and prevents the plants Hushing. 
The low prices now ruling, which are the result of extended cultiva- 
tion, do not admit of large profits, but it i 
obtain a very fair return on the capital expended. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 
BULLETIN 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 

No. 96.] DECEMBER. [1894. 

CCCCXX V.— CULTURAL INDUSTRIES IN DOMINICA. 



. Rom;: ,, .,,u. ns . K 



WlNGFIELD. 



As the coffee cultivation decreased Miixar cult m 
but it never flourished like the old staple produci 
so long as the price of sugar kepi up there was 

prosperity in t lie island ; b it .mow that it scarce! 
cultivation, unless under the nr>s! favourable <• 



which can only be profitably 
down, or of moderate undul 
therefore, in mv view, lies n 



But there is another 



Coffee, too. ish el no- 


planted, tbouah not to the extent it ought. The 


kind km> vn as Liue'ri; 




1ms the advantage of 1 ... 










m coffee, the old coffee of the island, is being 


illtHKlll.--.! 


er elevations, where the effect of the blight upon 












sars after they are planted, limes until ten years, 


and coffee until from 


four to six years, according to the elevation at 




inted, and, to some extent, .also to their exposure. 




nay, therefore. !>e cmsmntly expected from these 






mainly of shim 11 prop ■ 


ietors, who owe their origin to tie- . : 






progress exists in die- 


want of knowledge of the people. They speak a 








hive 1 , 1 s.id, i uvut tie m„ ,a hohl.T_.oi 








- limgam , 1 n , e,, u un 1 






cultivation, and few p 


eople have any money to spend, there is scarcely 


any market at all. 01 


jviously what these small holders should do, and 


are beginni 


ng to do, is ai of those other 






il take- time for the-c 






3y know little of the best methods of cultivating 










the Leeward Islands. 


Sir Wil urn Ifavnes Smith, h ,. .M ,i hd, d a 


botanical station at I 


loseau, at which plants of these trees can he 


purchased at a small e 


est, as well as plants of oranges, in which a huge 


trade with Kn^l-md i 










uitable. This I regard as a matter for which he 


is most higi 


mmended. 


It is impossible to o 


ver estimate the value of the assistance which our 






III fart, but i'.T their il 


.etion in directing attention to the benefits to bo 




.iislinienr of botanical stations, i doubt whether 


Td-'ltXL-'v-^ln 








t she also finds curators for them, supplies them 


with plants, :u i isa.lv 




p n- !( . .-- i! 






most suitab'e for the different colonies, and the 



in IX-n.miea, Iiouvvct, t!io;i-ii t 
.iaiii«'.-il station at Unseaii sh^vs tin 
H-roasi..]- on th<> part of the owners 



In a Foreign Office Report [No. M!G, M m< .us - ries, 1891 | on 

the "German Colonies in Africa and the South Pacific " bitelv forwarded 
to Lord Kimberley by Mr. Martin Le M. Gosselin, CM?., 1I.M. Charge 

the development of agriculture under German auspice-; in Tropical 
Africa. The principal it c following extracts : — 



TOGOT.AND. 

This is the first I farmtua Colony on the West Coast of Africa, ft lies 
immediatfly -i-t id' the British Colony of the Gold Coast and he; ween 
it and the French Colony of Dahomey. The estimated area is 60,000 
square kiloms. The population is said to number two and a half 

millions. < )f these, in lS'h), only .V> wvre Kuropeans. The port of the 
Colony is at Klein Popo. Lome is also a thriving town with 14 factories 
or European trading houses. " Togolnnd, from a linan'-ia! point of view, 

only African Colony which pays its way without asking for a subsidy 
from the Imperial Government." 

" The chief products of the Colony are : — 

"Palm-oil. Palm-kernels. Cocoa-nuts. Those were planted until 
quite recently only for the consu option of the natives , latterly the 
cultivation has much inerca-"d. The Furopeans have planted from 
60,000 to 7<!.0 ti s, ;u d ;!„ i, uivos are following t\u ir example. 

most of the crop is wanted for home consumption. A considerable 
quantity, was, however, sold hist year to the French Commissariat for 
the supply of the troops engaged in the Dahomey war. 

" Ground nuts are now only planted in small quantities, almost 
exclusively for native consumption. 

" Caoutchouc grows well on the hills in the interior, and it is intended 
to plant a large quantity ot'iridiarubber trees. 

"Trees resembling maimi'tin i/, and in less quantity ehomj, are to be 
found in the forests along the llaho and Sio Rivers. 

"Oranges, lemons, figs, pine-apples, melon-, yams, ;m( l bananas. pepper, 
and tomatos are all to he found in Togoland, and an attempt is now- 
being made to rear the cotton-plant. The coffee plantations are doing 
well, and the first coffee harvest will be gathered this year. Very 
successtul experiments have been likewise made iu arboriculture, 
Eucalyptus and mango trees thriving particularly well. As for 
regi tables tn ad asparagus are success- 



The Colony of Cameroons is situated in the Bay of Biafra opposite 
the Spanish Island of Fernando Po. Before the recent agreements with 
England and France the area of this Colony was estimated at I1.;,0Cm> 
square Idioms. The coast region is composed of primeval forest with a 
fruitful and rich soil, but unhealthy for Europeans. Adjoining this is 
a high-lying, grassy, thickly-populated, tableland, with a cool 'tempera- 
ture ^and a healthy climate. Beyond is the unexplored hinterland 
forming the basins of the Upper Xyong and Upper Ngoko in the south- 
east of .the Colony. The future prosperity of the Colony is said H> 
depend on the development of the interior portions and the encourage- 
ment of trade with native states. The agricultural condition of rhe 
Cameroons is described as follows : — 

" The chief productions of the Cameroons are :— 

" Palm-oil, the staple prodi 

" Palm-kernels tmdPa/m hi 
by the natives, and seldom coming into 

" Kopra, the dried kernel of the cocoa-nut ; a great many plantations 
have been made. 

" Indiarubber, found in all parts of the Colony, but chiefly in the high- 
lands. Experiments are being made under Dr. Preuss, the Director of 
the Botanical Garden at Victoria, with the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea 
brtuilu hsU) ; some of the imported trees are already 4 to 5 metres 
high, and if they continue to thrive in the Cameroons they will be of 
great advantage to the Colony as they yield the best rubber in the 

" Ebony, chiefly found in the < 'ameroous Mountains. 

"Mahogany and other timber, the export trade of these articles is 
mostly carried on by Swedes in sailing ships. 

" Ivory, of which there is a pi v from the 

neighbourhood of the Mungo and Sannaga Rivers and the Batanga 
Hinterland. 

" Cacao, the cultivation of which is being largely extended, though ih« 
plants are still too young for a large yield: one plantation rtfoed la the 
year ended July, 1893, 200 kilos, cacao, and the Imbas Bay Trading 
Company exported 6,928 kilos. 

"Coffee plantations are thriving well, 12,000 Arabian coffee tree* 
have been planted in the Victoria district, also trees from Liberia 
and Jamaica ; three year old plants have already borne a very heavy 

" Tobacco, 6,600 kilos, were produced l;i< year, realising an average 
price of 5s. per lb. 

Experiments, so far satisfactory, are 1-eiug made in the Botanical 
Garden for cultivating vanilla, pepper, Jamaica ginger, cardamoms, 
ipecacuanha. ;md Kuropean vegetables. 

bananas, cacao, maize, sugar-canes, oranges, and pine-apples." 

The exports in 1^*3 were valued at -JO.'.. J.'A>f . ron-iytug of palm-od, 
palm-kernels, gum, ivory, and ebony. _ Hm trade is still carried on to a 



i Nyassa 



i ng prosperity of the country." There is no doubt the 
to Kew by the IXutMii-( Mafrikanische Gesellschaft and 

•uspicion that the d- .,- «.,« Ih",,uh,u rastatrix. Mr. 

season in East Africa. Every effort is being made to . ^terminate it, hut if 
it spreads it will naturally throw back the cultivation of what promised 
to be one of the most successful crops in the Colony." 



CCCCXXVIL— SISAL HEMP IN THE BAHAMAS. 

The gradual development of the Sisal hemp industry in the Kalian 
continues to be watched with a good deal of iuterest. It is now i 
position when exports of prepared fibre have begun to he made and 
value quoted as a regular ariiele of commerce. An impoi 
on the subject (in continuation of that in Kew Bulletin, 1894, p. 189) 
is contained in the following extract from the Annual Report on the 
Bahamas for 1893, submitted by the Governor, Sir Ambrose Shea, to 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies [Colonial Reports, Annual, 
No. 110, 1894.] 

The export of Bahama hemp amounted in 1893 to 1,200/. as against 
692/. in 1892. The area of Crown land now disposed of is 85,000 
acres, while about 15,000 acres of private land is also in course of 
cultivation, The quantity planted at the end of 1893 was 17,000 acres, 
and an annual increase of about 6,000 acres will be the rate of progress. 
The history of the origin and growth of this industry has so often 
been written that but little remains to be said in that regard. 
It will, hereafter, be a record of increasing development and social 
advaneement which results now appear to be as assured as is possible 

concerned there ~« ,-ms to be the minimum oi uncertainty, for it is not 
conceivable that the value of the fibre can go below the cost of produc- 
tion, though the profit, as in the case of all commercial enterprises, must 
ever be an uncertain and varying quantity. The export of 1893 was 
far below the expectations, though not from want of an ample supply of 



degree on the 11 


.lomn 


-inn'uenVv wi 


product for ma 




The husdnos 


nient in the n 




)f the scutehi 


proved useless. 


'"it i' 


highly -atisf, 






me in.mufacti 


York has beei 






cleaned perfecl 


h. at 




Bulhtin, is*)!, 






will be univer 






operated, a woi; 


nan to 


\\'rd tin: in:i 



been for some time a subject of much thought as to how the small 

cases, they were too poor and their plantings too limited to admit of the 
cost ol a machine. A satisfactory solution, however, ha-; now been found 
which will be a great boon to this class and will bring the blessings of 
the industry home to the humblest peasant jn the Colony. The process 
is as simple as it is available to all, and consists of a slit being made in 
the thick end of the leaf, when it is torn asunder, leaving the inner part 
exposed, and by then soaking it in salt water, which is never far to reach, 
in about a week the pulp may be removed by hand and the fibre 
preserved. No waste whatever is found i:i this method ; audit is under- 

50 to 60 pounds of fibre as the result of a day's work. The plan is 
being adopted throughout the Colony, and what was for some time 
deemed a missing link is thus effectively supplied. 



damage to various kinds of property. In one or two cases fibre field.-, 
by unusual rising of the tides, were laid under water, and i; was sup- 
la all other fields, though exposed to the force of the storm, the plants 
escaped without anv injury and their power of resistance was thus 
established. Hut even in 'the submerged fields, the damage proved 
eventually to be trifling. The leaves were much knocked about, but 
they finally recovered to a great extent, and they are now 1, in- dressed, 
producing a fibre not much inferior to the best, but classed aa No. 2, 
becausa of some small spots being discoloured which detracts from 
the appearance, though not, it is believed, from the strength of the 

Labour continues in good supply and is not likely to be a cause of 
difficulty for many years. Railways are bein-laid down in the principal 
estates, and this will be found a most profitable investment in saving 
labour on the carriage of the leaves to the dressing establishment. 
100 pounds of leaf 'yielding not more than four or five pounds of 
fibre. Of the large plantations one has over ,3.uM acres under cultiva- 
tion, one about 3,000, one 2,00<>, and two others l.tiOD acres each. The 
smaller farms are from !?00 to about 700 acres. Now that a standard 



The generally accepted standard of 600 plants to the a 
many cases being changed to 800 and in some instances 
this increased number be not found to impede 
inconvenient crowding of the plants, the yield per acre should, of course, 



Two 


p..n;i 


,u,;i 




1 Thus instead 


1 of 1 


si return 


of 1 


,200 lbs. from 


The 




:r pli 










r tire 






'tied 


by 


want of 




full 


develop 




of the plants, 


'■2SH 

the 


K> lh- 


. will 


be the e 5 


:pected yield 




e 1,000 


plants are given to 












(Signed) 


A. Shea. 



eCCCXXVUL— SAGO CULTIVATION IN NORTH 
BORNEO. 

{Metroxyloa Sagu, Etottb. Metroxylon Rnmphii, Mart.) 

The sago of commerce is a kind of starch prepared from the soft 

Internal stems ': 'dago, Borneo, 

New Guinea, and possihly of Fiji. The word sago or sagu is said to be 

Papuan for bread. 

There are two well-reeo_iui:-ed species of sago palms. The smooth or 
spineless sago palm (Mch-o.ri/ltht s, i it in Sumatra 

and adjacent islands. It does not reach -o far eastward as New Guinea. 
In North Borneo it is known as rumbia benar. Wet rich soils, especi- 

is regarded as the principal botanical source of the sago received in 

The thorny sago palm {Metroxylon Rumphii) is found further east 
than the other species. It is plentiful in New Guinea, and in the 
Moluccas and Amboyna. 

Both sago palms resemble each i nice, but the 

latter is a smaller tree, audit has it- leafstalk and the sheaths enveloping 
the lower part of the flower spikes aimed with sharp spines from 

tendencies, and. is abundant along the shores of many -mall islands 

palm is known as rumbia berduri or 



■i}:. 


,a saccharifera) 

ie sago palm of 
•unk of old trees 
lay Hands. In 

Cycas such as 
nee of the latter 


:5?i 


onfined to the 
' elsewhere, and 



ripened. The life of the plant lasts for about 15 to 20 years, at the 
of which period the terminal inflorescence is formed. In spite of 
abundance of flowers very few fruits are produced ; these occupy tw 
three years in ripening. Tin* [ » i * >| >:i ur.-i t i t .1 1 <>i these palms is usn 



An interesting 

" tish North Bo 
Blue Book 

Annual 1894.] As the subject has not hitherto been 
these pages the report which has evidently been eatvfulh 
the spot by Mr. J. G. G. Wheatley is reproduced 
information : — 



Province Dent. 



The sago palm, from which 
flour of commerce, resembles 
former is valued for its trunk 1 
dies if allowed to fruit. 



1. There are only two kinds of sago palm which are cultivated, the 
"rumbia benar" (true sago), and the " rumbia berduri " (the thorny 
sago), also known as " rumbia salak." In appearance, both are the 
same, but on close inspection th.' sinus ,.t tlir latter, to which the leave- 
are attached, known as il pallapa," will be found to be covered with 
bunches of thorns about 1£ to 3 inches long. 

Mode of Planting. 

2. Sago grows chiefly on damp ground subject to floods at certain 
times of the year. If grown in swamps, less sago is produced and the 
trunks do not attain as great a height as when planted on clayey damp 
soil subject to floods periodically. Once planted, the tree withstands 
floods and brackish water, but in t" 



Sago is planted chiefly by suck 

efully cut off under groum 

planted out at once, but in oth 



the parent tree which are carefully cut off under ; 



shoots are tied together in bundles and placed in 
until they have begun to send out roots, when they are planted out in 
holes 12 inches deep, 1 foot in diameter, and 4 to 6 fathoms apart. No 
earth is placed about the roots, but the plant- are support, d in an 
upright position by two -ticks fixed on either side. The earth gradually 
fills the holes during ruins and floods. ( Inn man with an assi-tant can 

necessary for a year, and in some cases iwo year-, when the jungle 
growth is cleared around the graving live. Some planter- regularly 

Rinnhia herein ri is preferred to the rumbia benar, chiefly because the 
wild pigs do not attempt to destroy young plants, on account of the 
thorns. In planting rumbia h, uar, fences have to be made to keep out 
the pigs, which are very de-tructive. BmmKa b,reh>ri is also reported 
to produce more raw sago, but the quality of flour is the same in both 
species. Each tree produces from four to five pikuls of raw sago 



Wmte'l bLi-i.V-s 1 n .M.-Jl "of 
le sago tree is lost. The 






>. trip every two days. 
raves recorded in the r 




The present price oiS.-i;,,. Hour at Singapore is .>2..j5 per pikul. The 
Chinese traders buy the raw material at from 81 1o SI. 20 per piknl. 
according to the market price at Singapore, and, after allowing for the 



uing of the raw sago and washing it in tin- fact 
it of at le 



profit of at least fit) cents per pikul to the Chinese manufacturers. The 
freight from Labuan to Singapore at present is 22 cents per bag of 
115 catties=I50 lbs. A royalty of C cents per pikul is charged on sago 
flour exported from Province Dent to Labuan when the Singapore price 
is below $2.50, and 8 cents when above that sum. On raw sago, a 
royalty of 8 cents is charged to protect the sago factories. The sago 
trade is increasing rapidly on the Borneo Coast, and at the present time 
over three-fourths of the flour and raw sago exported from, and 
imported into, Labuan conies from British North Borneo ports. 
(Signed) J. G. G. Wheatley, 
Mempakul, Magistrate, Province Dent. 

September 15, 1894. 



CCCCXXIX.— THE CLOVE AS A DYE PLANT. 

{Eugenia cnryophijllata, Thunh.) 



Zanzibar. 



.piantity exported is n 

One of the best eloi 

was lately described 

Gardens 'in Mauritius 



trProVe a ssor'lL.nm:eh(»f th- 



would be likely to interest, we should be very much obliged to y 
We send you the tin ; we do not know whether you have s< 
specimen of this fruit before. 

We are, &c. 
(Signed) Gouffe & J. 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, Esq., C.M.G., &c, 
Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Proffessor Hummel to Royal Gardens, Kew. 

The Yorkshire, Leeds. 
My Dear Sir, November 6th, 

Ox June 3, 1894, I received a letter and a sample of t 
fruits of the clove {Eugenia caryophyllata) from you, with the st 
that they are used by the natives of the Seychelles in dyeing, at 
the request that I would give you my opinion as to their merits. 
Unfortunately the intervening summer holidays have prever 
from reply' 

dyed 

As a dye stuff it is of little value. It behaves really lil 
matter, and I have therefore handed over the remainder of n 
Mr. Proctor, asking him to examine it for tannic acid and 



i and buff-yellow 
d'.J. Hummel. 



CCCCXXX.— THE LAHAINA SUGAS-CANE. 

Lahaina cane of the Hawaiian Islands has been regarded as one 
n03t valuable varieties cultivate 1 in that Archipelago. It has of 
u's been introduced to other su^ar-producing countries, such as 
uthern United States and the West Indies. It very closely 
tea the white canes brought to Jamaica from the Pacific in His 
y's ships by Captain Bligh in 1796. The Lahaina cane may 
>3sibly, therefore, be the original of the canes now known in the 
ndus, ami other sugar countries, as the Cuban, Bourbon, or 



,U b, 



Hawaiian Islands. 

Origin of the " Lahaina" Cane. 
following account of the " Lahaina cane " and its history has f 
i possible value in view of the inquiries now beiug made in th< 
our to trace the facts connected with the origin and propagation 
ain diseases of the cane. 



Man, 






few and far between, he gave them to Consul Chase, who planted some 
in his garden. Mr. F. A. Oudinot, a resident of Lahaina, known as 
''.Marshal Oudinot." also planted some of this cane on his premises. 
From these few plants sprang what is now known as Lahaina cane. It 
proved to be a remarkably rapid grower, very sweet, and as the leaves 
dropped off readily, an easy cane to handle and take care of, and in 
appearance wry handsome and attractive. 

The Lahaina cane has obtained the preference over the Cuban, its 
advantages being : — 1. Rapid growth, thus quickly covering the ground 
and requiring less labour for cultivating and irrigating. 2. Deep 
rooting, drawing nourishment from the subsoil, or from soil the surface 
of which has already been exhausted by other varieties of cane. 3. 
Possessing, when mature, a hard rind which prevents the ravages of 
rats. 4. The superior richness of its juice, generally weighing one- 
third more than the juice of other varieties of cane cultivated under like 
circumstances. 5. It possesses a compact, firm fibre, which renders the 
trash easy to handle, and enhances its value as fuel. With these ad- 
vantages may be mentioned the peculiar whiteness of its juice when 
mature, which exceeds that of any other island variety, and with its 
superior density would naturally insure white grades of sugar. 

About the year 1870-72, the Lahaina cane began to take the place 
generally throughout these islands of other canes, increasing the average 
yield from two or three tons per acre to four, five, and even six tons, 
under similar conditions of cultivation and manufacture in various 
localities of the group. 

This increase of yield from Lahaina cane has continued from year to 
year under more favourable mill work, until now it is not uncommon to 
bear planters report eight, nine, and ten tons of sugar obtained fn.in 
favoured portions of the plantation. Where this cane is well cultivated 
and eared for, there appears to be no appreciable deterioration in any of 
its leading characteristics of easy cultivation, easy stripping and band- 
ling, the juice maintaining its high, excellent qualities as the purest, 
richest, and ino^t productive of an\ variety known, at least so far as our 

of our plantations fur o\er 20 years, and remain-' as thrifty ami 



ir stations, Antigua. Dominica. St. Kitts, and Montsei 



(Colonial Reports, A 
are given respecting t 

The work of the A 1 1 \ . . 
during the past year. Besides 1 
rockery was added to the station and stocked with valuable succulents 
from Kew. A series of manurial plots were laid out with different kinds 
of vegetables, &c. The number of sisal plants in the nurseries was 
largely increased. , 

■ In St. Kitts the work was somewhat interfered with by the change of 
curator. The many plants put in the grounds are l.efrinning to show. 
Verv large plant sheds were erected and .stocked wirh ornamental and 

The botanical station in Dominica has proved its usefulness by the 

very great number of economic plants sold, over 22,000 having been 
sent out (taring the year, principally in small lots. This increased 
demand for plants ha- i.-i\.-d the resources of the st ition to the utmost. 



The small botanic garden in Montserrat was slightly enlarged, 
new walks and seats were added. The station was without a cur 
for a good part of the year, H can be reported. 





Arthrosolen spharocephalus, 


A. 


Artocarpus liiumei, 10 J 


Abutilon Ranadei, Wcodrow $ 




Stapf, 99. 




Acanthoses horrida, 166. 




to Gardens, 75, 135, 


Austin grass, 385, 


— —'Herbarium, 135, 136, 166, 




19-1, 195, 227, 370. 




Library, 78, 137, 167. 


B. 


Museums, 76, 110, 135, 




164, 226, 100. 




Adeniummieranthum. S/aj>(\ ,;.;♦ 


Manama*. Sisd Hemp at the. \>\). 


Affon-tree, 359. 


Bailey, F. M., 108. 


Africa, South, dried plants, 166. 


lJ.-^ManyuU,,.!-. .S7,/,j/;]20. 




- hnmhymtha, Stapf. 125. 


— Tropical, dried plants, 166. 




African species of Mats, 225. 




Agaricus augustus, 399. 




Agricultural Progress in Jamaica, 




159. 




\_-iiniltiiiv in British Honduras. 


Bamboo Herbarium, Gambles, 


1 St. Vincent, 367. 


BattUla or sweet plantain. 2.33. 


Alafia caudnta, Stapf, 123. 




















AlocasiaCurtisi. A". 11. />7r</r,>. 3-17. 




Aloe Luntii. Baker, 342. 


— — in England, 279. 


Anabamu Flos-aqme, 399. 




— , Hassolli, 399. 




Angola, Coffee cultivation in, 161. 




llig, Hemsl., 7, 197. 




Anthistirin australis, 377. 




— avenacea, 377. 




Antigua Bot. Station, 420. 




Appointments, 10S. 133. 192,34s. 




Arboretum, Lake in. 131. 




Ari.oih-uh-uro and Horticulture in 








Ardisia megaphyUa, Hemsl, 6. 




Argyreia?(;r S .ntii, /laker, 67. 




— Hanningloi.i, liakrr, 67. 








— macrccaivx, Baker, 67. 


Central America, 285. 



Bananas in Ceylon, 262, 27 3. 


Black Walnut, 140. 


Fiji, 273,281, 286. 




Guatemala, 298, 


Blumea Balfourii, Hennl., 213. 


India, 260, 288. 


Bombay Presidency, trees and 


Indian Archipelago, 263. 


shrubs of, 401. 


Jamaica. 270, 27.1. 25)7. 3i>2. 


Books, preservation of, in the 


310, 312. 


Tropics, 217 




Borers of Jarrnh Timber, 78. 


Mauritius ai.d Mada<raM-ar. 


Bornean Collections, Dr. G. D. 


266. 


Hav Hand's, 136. 




Borneo, N.E., Timbaran tree of, 


Nicaragua. 27s'. ~ 


108. 


Peru, 2(58. 




Philippine Islands. 263, 280. 


366. 


Polynesia, 265, 273. 


— Stations, Leeward Inland-;, ll ( ' 


Queensland, 281. 


Botanical Department, Jamaica. 


St. Helena, 275. 


159. 




Botany of the Hadramaut Expedi- 


South- East Africa, 284. 


tion, 328. 


Surinam, 306, 310,313 


i. laxa, A". IC, Brown. 


Tahiti, 246. 28(5. 




Trinidad, 270, 276. 283, 


1 — longipes, A T . E. Brown, 389. 


302, 304, 313. 




Tropical Africa, 2(55, 274, 






— griquensis. X. /'. Broirn. 355. 


United States, 311. 


Breweria Imocliaroides, Baker, 68. 


Venezuela, 2(59, 278. 


— buddieoides. Baker, 69. 


West Indies, 270. 275. 2*5. 


— oampanulata, Baker, 6S. 




— conglomerate, Baker, 68. 




— Ueudelotii, Baker, 6H. 




— microcephala, Baker, 68. 


— , summary 1 information re- 


— sessilifiora, Baker, (58. 




British Honduras, Agriculture in. 




97. 


— \ wine from, 294. 


— India, flora of, 225. 


Beech, table oils from, 218. 




Beer Casks, destruction of, in 


flora of, 200. 




1 Broadway, W. E., 192. 


Belmentia olatvpti ;;., linker. 25. 


Btiddh-ia puleitella. A r . E. Brow,,, 


— pumila, Baker, 25. 


1 389. 


— zambesiaca, Baker, 25. 


1 Buffalo grass. 385, 387. 


Bent, Mr., Expedition to the 


Uuiteii/.org. I'liotographs of, 155. 


Hadramaut Valley, 194,328. 


JiiiM..jI>li\lliuii \>u ripliilmn. HolJ) , 


Uent.a. Half',: -en. nov., 338. 


■ 391. 


— frutioulosa, Rnlfe, 338. 


Bulbous violet iu trie Himalayas, 


Bcntham Trust. Bonks presented 


3(58. 


by, 137. 




Bermuda grass, 377. 




— minor industries in, 352. 


c 


B ; fr. i;ariM < l.arl.-sworthii, Bolfe, 










t'aleutta, lUn-.d Botanic Garden, 


Bitt.i Vetch, 349. 


Annals of, 195. 


— Wood, 402. 


California, dried plants, 194, 570. 



Cauaigro, 167. 



Rolfe, Clitnrnlni liarteri. Stuff, 1 

— Mannii, S/npf. -Jo. 

— Sehweinfurtlni, .SV«/>/: 



n.hma, llolfe, 1S3. 



China. Fion 
I'hii-onia lax 



Montsenat, 137 
[ai-a.u.-ij).'. l(i;>. 



Cultivation of bananas in England, 


Drawings of Indian and Malayan 


279. 


plants, 135. 


Coca in India, 151. 


Mauritius plants, 136. 

Dry rot, 33. 


Vanilla in Tahiti, 206. 


vegetables, 219. 


Dutch nriass, 383. 


Cutch in India, 323. 


Dyes of India, 321. 


Cynodon Dactylon, 377. 




Cynoglossum Johnstoni, Baker, 




29. 


E. 


Cvnometra Lvallii, Baker, 344. 


Cyphia tortilis, N. E. Broun, 


East Africa, German, 410. 


356. 




Cyrtopera flexuosa, Rolfe, 363. 


— ano'olrrws Baker, 29." " 




— divarir-ata,' Baker, 2S. 






D. 


KpM.. : idru!n Kni-ii ; Rolfe. 184- 


Death Valley dried plants, 194, 


— Pi'avii,' Ro/fe,:V.)2. 


—'^Expedition, 191. 


iZmthenm m wl.i ,i .ii'ianum, 


Dec-ad'- Ki-wt-nsf-. 4. it!). :; \ \, 353, 


Items!., 214. 








Errata, 112, 314. 


155. 




— hamatum, Rolfe, 183. 




— Hildebrandii, Rolfe. 182. 


in Ceylon, 152. 


— sanderiannm. Rolfe. 155. 




— subchusum, Rolfe, 361. 


Enehhrna luxurians, 380. 


Diagnoses Afrir;ma\ 17.67. 120. 

•'Dianlaea plant," 193. 


^ " vj : : 1 : 1; :; C, ^,' ; ;^\ "^ ^^f^f tv ^ i 1 s<> ^ 


315. 


FagoniaLuntii.^,,330. 




— j^raveol.' 'uTBaker^G.' ' 


Disi-ascs of plantains and bananas, 


— pusilla, Baker, 26. 


281. 




I)i -<e.x\? ervptantha. Raker, 315. 




Ditch Millet, 3,s0. 


Todd, 189. 


Doiichandrone Ilildebrandtii, 


Fibre, plantain and banana. 289. 


/laker. 31.^ 


Fibres of India, 321. 


zHSiiSlisi. 


---fva'iUa' 1 ^^' 1 ' 


Z Si .Ti 1 ; ^^3a m ' 


— —^^t^hlh^^ 














D.MH-va urass, 377. " 




Doub gra<s, 377. 


34, 227." 


Draeann serrulata, Baker, 342. 


China, 225. 



Flora of Formosa, 227. 

Macquarie Island, 401. 

the Malay Peninsula, Ma- 
terials for a, 34. 

Solomon Islands, 211. 

Tonga or Friendly 

Islands, 370. 

Fodder grasses, Annual, 375. 

, Tropical, 373. 

Formosa dried plants, 227. 

— , Flora of, 227. 

Friendly Islands, Flora of, 370. 

Fruit, cold storage of, 187. 



Galpinia, A 7 . E. Brown, gen. nov., 
345. 

— transvaalica, N E. firm,;,, 346. 
Gambia Cotton industry, 191. 

— pagns or native cloths, 191. 
Gareinia Uuehanaui. linker, 354. 
Gardens, addition* 1o. 75. 135, 193. 

371, 398. 
German Colonies, African, 410. 

— East Africa, 411. 
Gladiolus flexuosus, Baker, 390. 
Gloeosporium Musarum, 281. 
Glvevrrlii/a <dabra, 141. 

Gold Coast, Visit of botanical 
officer of, to West Indies, 227. 

Grasses for Dry Regions, 374. 

Grass-gn-Aving in India, 375. 

Gray, Samuel Frederick, Portrait 
of, 76. 



Hadramaut, Mr. Bent's expedition 

to, 194. 
Hamilton, Sir R. G. C, 405. 
Haviland, Dr. G. D., Bornean 

Collections, 136. 
Hawaiian Sugar-canes. 41,s. 
lleliehryMim reflexuni, X. E. 

Brown, 356. 
Ileli.-pldla tenuis, N. E. Brown. 

99. 

- 

336. 

— drepanophyllum, Baker, 336. 

— phyllosepaium, Baker, 30. 
Herbal ium. s.dditit n- to, 13.5, 136, 

166, 194, 195, 227, 370. 
Heterophragma longipes, Baker, 

31. 
Hill Garden (Cinchona), Jamaica, 



■ 
Holalafia, Stapf, gen. noi 
— multiflora, Stapf, 123 



Green-grass, 385. 
Grenada Botanic Sta 

ment of Curator. 1 
Grewia aldabrensis. Baker, 1 
Guide to Timber Museum, 7 

-- ;;-2 
Gun. Tragacanth, 36. 
Gumming of Sugar-cane in 

South Wales, 1. 
Guzerat Rape, 96. 
Gvmnosfaehyum decurrens, 



, Appoint- 



Icones Plantarum. Hooker's, 

372. 
Index Flora- Sinensis. 225. 
— Kewensis, 74, 400. 
India, Cinchona in, 327. 



326. 



, 151. 



Hadramaut Expedit 



ing materials of, 5 



Jamaica Botanical Department, 



idi t ;rfv* 



Insect posts of Su^ar-cane, 1 
Iphiona subulata, Baker, 33.' 
Ipomoea acuminata, Maker, ", 

— aspericaulis, Baker, 70. 

— Barteri, Baker, 70. 

— beiigueiensis. Baker, 09. 

— UucliHiiatii, Baker, 73. 

— Carsoni, Baker, 71. 

— ct.'iili:iliintha, Baker, 69. 

— dip*©calyx, BnAer, 71. 

— discolor, Baker, G9. 

— Elliottii, iio^er, 69. 



- Iniillcii.M.s /ft/for, 70. 

- iucoii.-picmi, 7iaAer, 71. 

■ mrgaiocldaiuys. Baker, ' 



J nan Fernandez, Sandalwood 

110, 372. 
Juglans jamaicensis, 138, 371. 



K. 

Kangaroo grass, 37 

Kasari, 350. 

Kew Bulletin, V< 

Key Plan, 74. 

Khaya senegalensis, 8. 

King's House Garden, Jamaica, 



out of 



Kingston Pn 



.;,.!:. 



— sU'llaris, Baker, 7o. 

— tambelensis, Baker, 72. 

— vagans, Baker, 70. 

— Voge)n, Baker, 71. 

— Wukrii, -ldii, Baker, 72. 

— Woodii, X. E. Broicu, 1 

— xipliOM-jiala. Baker, 69. 

— /.ambesiuni, Baker, 70. 
helm-mum an-ii^tituiiuni, 3i 



133. 
Labium, Sago, 414. 
Lahaina Sugar-cane, 418. 
Lake in Arboretum, 134. 
Lanium Berkleyi, Rolfe, 392. 
L;i[»«-\ionsia holostachya, Baker, 




Lepiota Friesii, 399. 
Library, additions to, 78, 137, 
Lilium Ilarrisii in Bermuda, c 
Lime, West Indian, 1 1 3. 
Linden, table oils from, 218. 



Munby, Giles, photograph of, 194. 

Musa acuminata, 215. 

— , African species of, 225. 



meats, \c„ Appendix III. 


— Cavendishii, *M4, 


• seeds of hardy herbaceous 


— elillbrtiana, 257. 


plants and of trees and shrub-. 


— coccinea, 258. 


Appendix I. 


, — corniculata, 246. 


obostemon cryptocephalum, 




Baher, 30. 






— Enset'e, 237, 240, 


iodoicea sechollanim, in Kew 


— Fehi, 246, 247, 2! 


Museum, 400. 


— Fitzalani, 247. 


.omaria egenoliioides. Baker, 7. 




,unt, W., 348. 






— Hillii, 246. 




— Hooker i, 256. 


M. 


species of, 238. 


laopiarie Island, flora of, 401. 


— lasiocarpa, 243. 



Melon. Sai 
Merulius i; 
Motiu,a>tri 



Momx !■ 



M,,a violascens, 257. 


Ordnance Map, Revision of, 134. 


Muslims. ad.!iii..n"to, 76, 110, 


! Ornithidium fragi-ans, Bolf'e, 157 
! — nanum, Rolfe, 395. 


135, 164, 194, 226. 


— No. III., Guide to, 74. 








.l.iction of, 1(58. 




Mvosotis a-.pnno.-tialis, Baker, 29. 




Myrsine eryph.phlebia, Baiter, 






Paliurus hirsutus, HemsL, 388. 




— orientiilis, Iltmd.- 38" 








spp. from Fiji, 195. 




1 — Thurstoni, Wright, 348. 




! Panicum bulbosum, 383. 


Xeoouv.ia, //f« IS /., gen. nov., 354. 


— Colonum, 382. 


— gracilipes, Hems]., :>55. 


— maximum, 382. 






^^"i 1 !'.'!^-:^;^!!. 


— muticum, 384. 






— South Wales, Cold storage of 


: Para g a rass?384 5 ' 




Paspalum conjugatum, 385. 




— distichum, 386. 


— 'Zealand contributions to 


— saiiguiiiale, 386. 


Museum, 110. 




Institute, 397. 


Pavettn tricanthn, Baker, 148. 



)ak, Turkey, in South Afric, 



, 154, 182, 361, 391. 



Pipladenia Buchanani, 
Pitt.i)>pr;>niui resin i feruiii. 


Baker, 
HemsL, 


Plantain , 


a „d banana fib 


re, 289, 


I'i.in! iin>. 


fng banana, 254 


informa- 


i 


a of, 281 ? 


Bromn, 


- eaculen 


tu>. .Y. A'. Br***, 12. 



— ternatus, 14. 

Pleiocarpa bicarpellata, Stapf, 21. 
Pleurothallis inflata, Rofe, 154. 

— pernambucensis, Rolfe, 361. 
Podochilus longicakni;, 

186. 
Polycardia centralis, Baker, 3.: 4. 
Polycycnis Lehmanni, Rolfe, 365. 
Polystachya yillosa, Rolfe, 393. 
Preservation of books in the 

Tropics, 217. 
Pulicaria leucophylla, Baker, 333. 
Pyrus crat£egifolius, 193. 



— Vincent Hotanic Station, HO, 
366. 

Salsola cyclophylla, Baker, 340. 

— hadramautica, Baker, 340. 

— Kali in United States, 139. 

— leucophylla, Baker, 340. 

>f duan Fenian.,- /. 
110, 372. 

. . _■. 

crassifulius. /?„//,. 
396. 



| Scotch grass, 384. 
Seeds of Hardy Plants Appen- 



Serrastvlis. Rolfe, gen. nov 
— niodesta, Rolfe, 15S 
Seychelles, Clove fruits, 41 : 
Sierra Leone, Coffea sp., 7f 



Rape, Guzerat, 96. 

Rauwolfia macrophylla, N^////. 20. 

— Mznmi, Stapf, 21. 

Rhigozum zambesiacum, linker, 
32. 

i, Funlii, l/e„is/.. ,). 
Win n.duwia comosa, ^«*cr, 99. 
Rice -grass, 382. 



■ ahVtomento-uni, Wright, 12 

- aldabrense, JVright, 149. 

- canipanuliflorum, JVright, 12 
■ ni, JFW^, 129. 
FPngrAf, 127. 

FPrs>**, 129. 



!:;•■'.;, -'■■.:;(. i.l.-- . Wright, V2> 

- Monteiroi, Wright, 127. 
A'. £". BnncH, 6. 

- pauperum, JVrigkfa 127. 



/?o//e, 186. 
Sago cultivation in North "Born 



Strobop.-talum, X. E. Brown, gen. 

— Benti, X. A'. Brown, 336. 

— carnosum, X. E. Brown, 390. 
Structural Improvements, 75. 
Sugar-cane diseases, 1, 81, 154, 

169. 

disease in Old World, 81. 

Gumming of, in New South 

Wales, 1. 
1 Improvement of by chemi- 

Labaina variety, 418. 

Seminal variation in, 84. 

Treatmeni of .. 



Tabernacle citron, 181. 
Tabernsemontana angolensis, 
Stapf 23. 

— brachyantba, Stapf, 22. 

— contorta, Stapf, 23. 



IL'1. 



-- durissima.. Stapf 2\. 
- eglandulosa, Stapf, 24. 

- elegans, Stapf 24. 

- ineonspicua, Stapf, 120. 

- niti.la, Stapf 22. 

■ ^ tn pfi 22. 
~ \ 23. 



lii-i-'.i 



Togoland, 410. 

mis, Flora of, 370. 
Coffee and Tea in, 



Treculia a 
— affbna, N. E. Brown, 3 
N. E. 



— obovoidea, N. E. B 

— , three new species of, 359. 
Trees in pastures, 374. 
Tiiealvsia euneit'olla, /laker. I 18. 
Trichoc-ntrum Ilartii. AW/J-, :-,U.\ 
__ rr r; ,n,lifoHutiK linker, 29- 

— Medusa, Baker, 29. 

— pauciflorum, Baker, 29. 

- vc^iitum, llakt r, 7 
Trichosphaeria sacchari, 81, 154, 

169. 
Tropical Africa, dried plants, 166 
, German Colonies in, 410. 

— Fodder grasses, 373. 
Truelove, William, death of, 74. 

I > .,\' i.. i oca, 152. 
Tuberous Labiata?, 10. 
Turkey-oak in South Africa, 111. 
Turnip seed, production of, 233. 



Tinted States. I [..rticultmv an- 
Arboriculture in, 37. 

? Bussian Thistle in, 139. 

Ursinia saxatilis, X. E. Brown 



Tea in India, 326. 

itensis, Baker, 30. 
Teff, 378. 

Temperate House, 75, 398. 
Teosinte, 380. 

Teplirosa .lura, /laker, 331. 
r ('b;elavi..p>is ethaeeticus, 84. 
Thin ia bi vun rial a, Rolfe, 156. 
Tibet, C.-iitral. Fh.raof, 136. 
TimbMran tree of N. E. Borne< 

108. 
Tim'-r Museum. Guide to, 74, 



1!-!U. 



- 

Vamla r. 

Vanilla l 

— cultivation of, in Tahiti, 206 
Vegetables, cultivation of, 219. 
Veitch collection of Japan 

Vegetable products, 14. 

— Memorial medal, 108. 



Verbascum Luntii, Baker, 337. 


West African Cinchona Bark, 1 19. 


Viola bulbosa, 370. 


Mahogany, S. 


Violet, bulbous, in the Himalayas, 


— Indian Lime, 113. 


368. 


Wheat Cultivation, 167. 


Visitors during 1893, 32. 
Viticulture in Malaga, 34. 


_ in India, 327. 


Wheatley, J. Gr. Gr., 415. 


Vitis apodophylla, Baker, 330. 


Wild products of India, 315. 


— glossopetala, Baker, 344. 


Wrightia parviflora, Stapf, 121. 


Voacanga bracteata, Stapf, 22. 




— Schweinfurthii, Stapf, 21. 
Voyria platypetala, Baker, 26. 




x 


— primuloides, Baker, 25. 




W. 

Walnut, Jamaica, 138, 371. 


Xyleborus perforans, 138. 




-— , Peruvian, 140. 


Z. 


Water couch, 386. 


- grass, 384. 


'■ Zacate, 382. 


Watson, W., 108. 




Weldenia Candida, 135. 


Zygodia urccolata, Stapf, 122. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS IXFOMATIOX. 



APPENDIX I.-1894. 



LIST OF SEEDS OF HARDY HERBACEOUS PLANTS 
AND OF TREES AND SHRUBS. 

The following is a list of such Hardy Herbaceous Annual and 
Perennial Plants as well as of such Trees and Shrnks as have matured 
seeds under cultivation in the Royal Gardens, K< \v, during the vear 
1893. These seeds are available for exchange with Colonial, Indian, 
and Foreign Botauic Garden.-, as well as with regular correspondent- 
of Kew. The seeds are only available in moderate quantity, and are 
not sold to the general public. It is desirable to add that no application . 
\cept from reniole colonial possessions, can he received for seeds after 



the end of .March. 



HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 



Actena evlindrostachya, R. & P., 


Achillea— cani. 


Chili. 


.Millefolium, L., Eur. 


macrostemon, Hk. fil., N. 


Ptarmica, L., Eur. 


Zealand. 


rupestris, H. P. K., Tyrol. 


microphylla, Hk. fil., N. Zea- 


setacea, W. & K., Eur. 




Aconitum heterophyllum, Wall, 


myriophylla, Ldh, Chili. 




ovalifolia, Ruiz et Pavon, 


Lycoetonum, L., Eur., etc 


Peru. 




Sanguisorbae, Vahl, New Zeal. 


isapellus, L, Eur., Temp. 


Acanthus longifolius, Host., S. 


Eur. 








Achillea Ageratum, L., Europe. 


SchMd., W. HimaL' S ' 


aegyptiaea, L Eur. etc. 
decolorans, Schrad., Eur. 


filipenduliua, Lam., Caucasus. 


Actaea spicata, L., N. Amer. 


ligustica, All., Eur. 


Actinolepis coronaria, Gray, Calif. 



■ris squarrosa, Nutt., N. 

Adenophora liliifolia, Bess., 

Hungary, etc. 
Adlumia cirrhosa, Eaf., Unit. 

Adonis aestivalis, L., Eur. 
^gilops triunciah's, L., S. Eur. 



mi Buxbaumii, DC, 
Thrace, 
grsecum, B.S., Greece, 
pulchelluin, Boiss., Armenia. 
saxatile, R.Br., S. Eur. 



--- •. ■ -■<:■>,■'. ... [.. j 
interrnpta, L., S. Eur. 
vulgaris, With., Eur. 

Ain-.v.M'i iii;i co.'iiaf.i. Boiss., Asia 

Alchemilla alpina, L., Eur. 
Don., Eur. 



argente 
vulgaris I... 



U Ki 



folium, Regl. 
, R2I., Turkestan, 
n, Vill., Eur. 



polyphyllum, Kar. et 1 
pulchellum, Don., Eur. 



senescens, L., Eur.. Siber, 

stipitatum, Rgl., Turkestan. 
subhirsutum, L., Eur. 
un-eolatum, ly-L Turkestan. 



Alopeourus agrestis, L., Eur 
geniculatus, L., Eur. 
nigricans, Hornem., Eu 
pratensis, L., Eur. 



trcemeriaaurantiaen, Don. Chili 
hasmantha, R. et P., Chili. 

baaa ficifolia, Cav., Dalra., etc. 
Heldreichii,Bois> , Macedonia 
rosea, Cav., Eur., Orient. 
sulphur*';!. Boiss. et H., 
Persia.. 



Amaranthus chlorostachys, Willd. 
hypochondriacus, L., Anier. 



Amhlyolepis (see Helenium). 
Ambrosia trifida, L., N. Amer. 
Amsinckia intermedia, F. and M., 

Anacyclus radiatus, Loisl., Eur. 

Anagallis arvensis, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. carnea, (Schrank.) 

Anchusa italica, Retz., Eur. 

officinalis, L., Eur. 
Androsace filiformis, Retz., Eur. 

lactiflora, Fisch., Siberia. 

nana, Horn, Eur. 






n:i it'....:; 



Madeira. 



Ait., 



Anemone albana, Stev., Orient. 


Arabis— cont. 


baldensis, L., Eur. 


alpina, L., Eur., N. Afr. 
eebennensis, DC, Eur. 




decapetala, L., N. Amer. 


petraea, Crantz., Eur. 


multifida, Poir., 1ST. Amer. 


pumila, Jacq., S. Eur. 


pratensis, Mill., Eur. 
Pulsatilla, L., Eur., etc. 


Soyeri, B, et R., Pyrenees. 


stricta, Huds., Eur. 


rivularis, Buchau., Himal. 


Turezaninowii, Led.. Siberia. 


sylvestris, L., Eur. 


i ( :!ii-ii.alis, Hoffm., 


Anethum graveolens, L., Eur. 


Eur. 


Angelica dahurica, Benth. et 


Arctium majus, Sehk., Eur. 


Hook., Japan. 


— var. Kotschyi, Hort. 


Anoda hastata, Cav., Mexico. 


Arenaria fascieulata, Gouan, Eur. 


Wrightii, Gray, Mexico. 


gothica, Fr., Eur. 


Antennaria dioica, Gaertn., Eur., 
etc. . 


graminifolia, Schrad.,S. Eur. 
— var. multiflora. 


— var. parviriora. 


Anthemis setnensis, Schouw., Mt. 


gypsophiloides, Schreb., 


Etna. 




Bourgoei, B. et B., Spain. 


laricilolia, L., Eur. 


Kitaibellii, Spr., Hungary. 


purpurascens, Ram., Pyren. 


nobilis, L., Eur. 
— var. diseoidali;'. 


Argemone hispida, Hook., Calif. 
mexieana, L., Mexico. 


peregrina, Willd., S. Eur. 


— var. alba. 


Anthericum Hookeri, Colenso, N. 


Armeria maritima, W ilia., Eur. 


Zealand. 


— var. alba. 


Liliago, L., S. Eur., N. Afr. 


vulgaris, Willd., Eur. 


— var. algeriense, B. & R. 




ramosum, L., Eur. 


Arnica ami.lexicaulis. Xutt, X. 


Anthoxanthum odoratum, L., Eur. 




Puelii, Lecoq. et Lamotte,Eur. 


montana, L., Eur. 


Aiithii-cus Cerefolium, Hoffm., 
Eur. 
sylvestris, Hoffm., Eur. 




Artemi-ia annua. L.. S. E. Eur. 


vulgaris, Pers., Eur. 


Arthraxon Langsdorfii, Trin., 


Anthyllis Vulneraria, L., Eur. 


China, etc. 


Antirrhinum Asarina, L., Italy, 
majus, L., Eur. 


Arum italicum, Mill., Eur. 
maculatum, L., Eur. 


meonanthum, HfFgg., Spain, 


Asparagus officinalis, L., Eur. 


Orontium, L., Eur. 


Asperula azurea, Jaub. et Simdi. 
Syria. 
galioides, Bbrsf.. Eur. 


rupestre, Boiss. et Reut., 


Spain. 






Aspbodelus albus, Willd., Eur. 


chrysantha, Gray, N. Amer. 




flavescens, S. Wats., Californ. 




vulgaris, L., Eur. 


Aster aljiinus, L., Eur. 


Arabia albida, Srev., Caucas. 


corymbosus, Ait., X. Amer. 




Curtisii, Gray, N. Amir. 


alpestris, Schl., Eur. 


punieeus, L., N. Amer. 



Aster — cont. 


Bahia lanata, DC, N. Amer. 


— var. lucidulus, Gray. 


Baptisia austral, >, R. Br, N. Amer- 


(A. vimineus, T. et Or.) 




pyrenseus, DC, Pyren. 
Radula. Ait., X. Amer. 


Barbarea intermedia, Bor, Eur. 


praecox, Br., Eur. 


>il,iricM S , L., Siber. 


vulgaris, R. Br, Eur. 


tricephalus, C. B. Clarke, 




ilimal. 


erue;eformis, Host, 




Eur, etc. 


A>trag;ilu- o?gyptiacus,Spr, Egypt. 


Beta trigyna, W. et K, E. Eur. 


boeticus, L, Spain, Italy, etc. 


vulgaris, L, Eur, Afr, etc. 


ehinensis, L, China. 


Bidens humilis, H. B. K, Chili. 


chlorostachys, Ldl., Himal. 
Cicer, L, Eur. 


leucantha, Willd, N. Amer, 


.lasvglottis, Fisch., Siber. 




frig'idus, Gray, X. Amer. 
glyeyphyllus, L, Eur. 
hvpo glottis, L., Eur. 


Biscutella ciliata, DC, S. Eur. 


didvma, L, S. Eur. 


erigerifolia, DC, Spain. 


— var. albus. 


Blitum (see, Chenopodium) . 


seorpioides, Pourr., Spain. 




sulcatus, L., Siber., Taur. 


Blumenbacbia insiguis, Schrad, 




Monte Video. 


Caucas. 

belleborifolia. S.-.lisl). Ca-ticas. 


Bocconia cordata, W, China. 


Boissiera Danthoniae, A. Br, S. 


major, L., Eur, etc. 


Eur. 


— var. carinthiaca, (Hoppe.) 


Bonaveria Securidaca, Reh, Eur. 


Athamanta cretensis, L., Eur. 
sicula, L, Eur. 


Boykinia major. Gray, X. Amer. 




Braehycome iberidifolia, Kenth., 


Atriplex Babingtouii, Woods, 
Eur. 
hortensis, L., N. Asia. 


* Australia. 


Brachypodium distachyum, R. et 






sibiriea, L, Siberia. 


Brassica balenriea, P, Eur. 


Atropa Belladonna, L, Eur. 


--"var. sSmtang Cabbage. 


Aabrietia deltoidea, DC, S. Eur. 


(B. chinensis. L.) 


— var. grasca, (Griseb.) 


Eruca, L, S. Eur. 


— var. grandiflora. 


Erucastrum, Vill, S. Eur. 


— var. Leiehtlinii, Hort. 


juncea,Hk. f. et Th, N. Ind. 


— var. Richardi, Hort. 


nigra, Koch, Eur. 


trubescens, Griseb., Greece. 


oleracea, I,, Eur. 


,,eiii S S P run,Eur. 


Pollichii, Shuttl. 


. Ilth.. Eur. 
di-tiehophylla, Vill, Eur. 


Tournefortii, Gouan, Spain, 


- w L hi^edia, Lindgr. 


Bri/.a maxima, L, Eur. 




media, L., Eur. 


, llud-. Eur. 


minor, L, Eur. 


- :irl... Ear. 


Brodisea congesta, Sm, N. 








peduncular!-. Wats, Calif. 


gracilis," Gray, W. Calif. 


uniflora, Bth, Buenos Ayres. 



Bromus adoensis, Hochst. 
Biebersteinii, R. et S., 

breviaristatu?, Thuvb., > 

ciliatus, Huds., Eur. 
erectus, Huds., Eur., etc 
madritensis, L., Eur. 
maximus, Desf., Eur. 
mollis, L., Eur., etc. 
propendens, Jord., Eur. 
racemosus, L., Eur. 
Taena, Steud., Chili. 



Browallia viscosa, H.B.K., Peru. 

Bryonia dioica, L., Eur. 

■ ;' 

Bunias orientalis, L., Orient. 

[mum specie-sum, Schreb., 



Campanula aliiana-i'nlia. Willd., 
Caucas. 
carpathica, L. fil., Carpath. 



— var. macrantha. (Fisch.) 

— var. versicolor, (Sib. ci Sm. 
latiloba, DC, Olympus. 



Butomus umbellatus, L., Eu 
Calais (.see Microseris). 
Calamintha Clino})odium, '. 



achehum^L., Em' 



Calceolaria mexicana, Benth., 

Mexico. 
Calendula arvoiiM*, L., S. Eur. 
hybrida, L., S. Eur. 

officinalis, L., S. Eur. 
Calliopsis (see Coreopsis). 
Callirhi'c invnlucrata, Gray, N. 

pedata, Gray, N. Araer. 
Callistephus chinensis, Xees., 






rfris, L, Eur., ( 



lagopodioii 

leporina, L., Eur. 
paniculata, L., Eur. 
svlvatiea. llu.K, Kr.r. 
vulpina, L., Eur. 
Carpocera.->ibiricum. Bo->. ? ! 



Oathcartia villoma, Hk. f., Himal. 

Caumli- ',.. u-- Me-, L., Eur. 
Centaurea alba, L., var. deusta, 



nigrescens, Willd., Eur. 

nigra, L, Eur. 

Scabiosa, L., Eur. 

~- var. alba. 

— var. olivieriana, (DC.) 

* ; ■■ :■■""'■'■ '' 

tatarica, Schrad., Siberia. 
Cerastium chloroefolium, F. et M. 
Orient, 
frigidum, Bbrst., Caucas. 
ovatum, Hoppe, Eur. 
tomentosum, L., var lani- 
gerum, Clem., Eur. 
' tmioloides, DC, S. 



a tenella, DC, Cauc, etc. 
Chlorogalum pomeridianum, Ldl., 



coronarium, L., S. Eur. 

— var.' fl. pi. ' 
corymbosum, L., Eur. 
latifolium, Willd., Eur. 
maximum, DC, Pyrenees, 
macrophyllum, W. et K., Eur. 
multicaule, Desf ., N. Afr. 
Parthenium, Pers., Eur. 
segetum, L., Eur. 
setabense, Duf., Eur. 
Tchihatcheffii (Pyrethrum, 

Kegel), Siber. 

viscosum, Desf., Spain. 

Cicer arietinum, L., Eur. 

Cichorium Intybus, L., Eur. 

Cimicifuga fcetida, L., Eur. 

— var. intermedia, 
racemosa, Nutt., N. Amer. 

Circaea lutetiana, L., Eur., etc. 
Clarkia elegans, Lindl., Calif, 
pulchella, Pursh., N. Amer. 



Claytonia perfoliata, Don., 



Cheiranthus Cbeiri, L., Eur. 
■ 

— var. fl. pi. 

— var. laciniatum. 
Chelone Lyoni, Pursh, ]S T . Amer. 
Chenopodium album, L., Eur. 

aromaticum, Hort., Berlin. 
Atriplieis, L., China. 
Bonus-Henricus, L., Eur. 
Botrys, L., Eur. 
capitatum, Wats., Eur. 
fcetidum, Schrad., Eur. 
graveoleus, Willd., Mexico. 
opulifolium, Schrad.. Eur. 



Clematis integrifolia, L., S. Eur. 

ochroleuca, Ait., N. Amer. 

recta, L., Eur., etc. 
Cleome speciosa, H. B., Cartha- 

violacea, L., Eur. 
Cnicus altissimus, Willd., N. Amer. 

arachnoideus, Wall., Himal. 

canus, Willd., Eur. 

ciliatus, Willd., Eur. 

fimbriatus, Bieb., Taurus. 

horridus, Bbrst., Cauc. 

intermedium, Heller., Eur. 

lanceolatus, Willd., Eur. 

monspessulanus, L., Eur. 

syriacus, Willd., Medit. 
Cochlearia glastifolia, L., S. Eur. 

officinalis, L., Eur. 



Colhnsia bartsiaefolk, Benth., Calif, 
bicolor, Benth., Calif. 

grandiflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 
parviflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 



|h i-fnllara, Link, Eur. 
i majalis, L., Eur., Amer 



undulatus, Cav., Medit. 
Coreopsis auriculata, L., N". Amer. 
coronata, Hook., E. Texas. 
Douglasii, B. et H., Calif. 
Drummondi, T. & G., Texas, 
grandiflora, Nutt., N. Amer. 
maritima, Hook., Calif, 
lauceolata. L., 1ST. Amer. 

— var. villosa, Michx. 
tinctoria, Nutt., N. Amer. 

— var. bicolor. 

TO sativum, L., Eur., etc. 
Cori-prrmum byssopifolium, L., 

S. Eur. 
Coitusa Matthioli, L., Eur. 

— var. grandiflora. 
Corydalis glauca, Pursh., United 



Cotula coronopifolia, L., Eur. 
filicula, Hk. fiL, Australia. 



Crepis Candollei, Spr., Eur. 
grandiflora, Tausch., Eur. 
hyoseri<li folia, Tausch., Eur. 
pulchra, L., Eur. 
rubra, L., S. Eur. 
setosa, Hall, f., Eur. 
tectorum, L. fil., Eur., Siberia 



Crocus bannaticus, Houffel, Tran- 
sylvania. 

gargaricus, Horb., W. Bitliy- 

Imperati, Ten., Italy, 
medius, Balbis, Riviera. 
iiuilitionip, Sm., Eur. 
pulchellus, Herb., Greece. 
reticulatus, Bbrst., Caucas. 
sativus, L., Cult. 
— var. eartwrightianus. Herb. 



versicolor, Ker., Eur. 

zonatus, Gay, Cilicia. 

Crucianella ajgyptiaea, L., Egypt. 



n Cyminum, L. Egypt, 

lanceolata, Ait., M-xic 

osissima, J acq., Amer. 

Zimapani, Roezl, Mexico. 

Cynodon Dactylon, Pers., Eur. 

Cynoglossum officinale, L., Eur. 

pictum, Ait., Eur. 



Cuphci 



Cysticapnos africauus, Gtertn., 

Cape. 
Czackia Liliastrum, Andrz., S. 

Eur. 

Dactylis glomerata, L., Eur., etc. 
Dahlia coccinea, Cnv.. Mexico. 

scapigi-ra, L. & O., Mexico. 

variabilis, Desf , Mexico. 

Datura laevis, L. fil., Africa. 
Stramonium, L., Eur.* 
Tatul.u L., Eur., etc. 
— var. gigantea. 

Daucus Carota, L., Eur., etc. 



Delphinium Aiacis. Rridik. S. 
Eur. 
— var. fl. pi. 

brunoniunum, Royle, Himal. 
cardiopetalum, DC, Eur. 

Consolida, L., Eur. 
crassifolium, Schrad., Cauc. 
dictyocarpum, UC, Siberia, 
elatum, L., Eur., etc. 

formosum, Hort. 
grandiflorum, L., China, etc. 
Maackianum,. Kegel., Asia 

orientale, Gay, Eur., Orient. 
Staphisagria, L., Eur. 
triste, Fisch., Siberia, 
trollii folium, Gray, Amer. 
vestitum, Wall., Himal. 
Deschampsia eaespitosa, Beauv. ; 



la, Dmrt., Eur. 
L., Eur. 



Transyl. 

'ar\o|.li\l]ii 






. Serf 



libiiniicus, Bartl., Eur. 
longieaulis, Ten., Italy. 
monspessiilanus, L., Eur. 
Mussinii, Hornm., Caucas. 
pclvifunui?, Heath 1 ., Transyl. 
petrous, W. & K, E. Eur. 
pininariu^, L., Eur. 

prolifer, L., Eur. 



tenuifolia, DC., Eur. 
Dipsacus asper, Wall., Himal. 

atratus, Hkf. & Th., Himal. 

Fullonum, L. 

laciniatus, L., Eur. 

sylvestris, L., Eur. 
Dodecatheon Meadia, L., N. Amer. 

— var. inaerocarpum, Gray. 
Dorycnium herbaceum, Vill., Eur. 
Draba aizoides, L., Eur. 

arabisans, Miehx., N. Amer. 
borealis, DC, Isl. of St. Paul, 
frigida, Saut., Alps, Eur. 
incana, L., Eur. 

— var. stylaris, (Gay.) 
Kotschyi, Stur., Transyl. 
lasioearpa, Reichb., S. Eur. 
Loiselriirii, B«WB., Corsica. 
longirostra, S.N.K., Transyl. 
stellata, Jacq., Transyl. 

inm Moldavica, L., 
Siber., etc. 
nutans, L., Siberia, 
parviflorum, Nutt., N. Amer. 
peregrinum, L., Siberia 
Dry as octopetala, L., Eur., Amer. 
H. hinops _l. 1 i i. ! i k i. I ransyl. 



Elyimi 



d., S. Eur. 
N. Amer. 

var. glaucifolius Gray. 

sibiricus, L., Siber. 

virginicus, L., N. Amer. 
Emex spiuosa, Camb., S. Eur. 
Encelia subaristata, Gray, N. 

Epiliibinin alpestre, Jacq., Eur. 
al-iiiciuliuin, Vill., Eur. 
un-ustifolium, L., Eur. 



. Eur 



Dictamnus albus, L., W. Eur., Jap. 

Digitalis Intra, L., Eur. 
purpurea, L., Eur. 
— var. alba, Hort. 



nulariaefolium, A. Cunn., 



roseum, Ketz., Eur. 
rosinarinifolium, Ilsenke, Eur. 

Erantliis hyemalis, Salisb., Eur. 
Eremurus altaicus, Stev., Altai. 

Kaufmanni, Kegel., 

Turkestan. 
Erigeron aurantiacus, Regel., 
Turkestan. 

bellidifolius, Mulil., N. Amer. 

glabellus, Nutt., N. Amer. 

— var. asperus, Gray. 

pulchellus, Kegel., Turkestan. 



3 alpinus, L., Eur, 



serotinum, Stev., Orient, 
Ervum Lens, L., Eur., etc. 
Eryngium giganteum, Bbrst., 



Euphorbia exigua 
flavicoma, D' 
hierosolymit.*! 



Ears.- tin elypeata, Br., S. Eur. 
Fedia Cornucopias, G., Eur. 
Ferula communis, L., Eur. 

glauca, L., S. Ear. 

— var. candelabra, Ileldr. 

Linkii, Web., Canaries. 
Festuca capillifolia, Duf., Spain. 



deliratula. La^ 
duriuscula, L., Eur 

— sub-var. crassif( 
elatior, L., Eur., et 

— var. pratensis, ( 
gigantea, Vill., Em 
Halleri, All., S. Eu 
heterophvlla, Lam. 
Myuroa,L^ Eur. 
Pancicia: 



. Km, 



sciuroides, Roth, Eur. 

si-nparia, Kern., I'yren. 
•iihiria sirmena, Boiss., 



oliverianum. Delar. Orient. 
Erysimum auivum, Bbrst., Eur., 
Orient, 
marshallianum, Andrz., Siber. 
perowskianum, Fiseh.et Mey., 



Erythrsea Cei 

Escbscboltzia 

Calif. 



major, Bad., Eui 



Ynull: 



. 



. Spr, 



ata, irort. 
sieboldiana, Lodd., Japan. 
Gaillardia pulchella, Foug., N 



ageratoides, L., N. 



O.li. 



, L., Eu 



saccharatum, All., Eur. 

tiicoirie. With.. Ear. 

uliginosum, L., Eur. 

verura, L., Eur. 
Gaudinia fragilis, P.B., S. Eur. 
Gaura parviflora, Dougl., N. Amer. 
Gentiana acaulis, L., Eur. 

asclepiadea, L., S. Eur. 

cruciata, L^Eur. Siber. 
lutea, L., Eur. 
Pneumonanthe, L., Eur. 
septemfida, Pall., Caucas. 
tibotica, King, Himal. 
Geranium albanum, M. B., Tauria. 
armenum, Boiss., Orient, 
columbinuiu, L., Eur. 
eriostemon, Fisch., Caucas. 
gymnocaulon, DC, Caucas. 
Londesii, Fisch., Siber. 
lucidum, L., Eur. 
maculatura, L., N. Amer, 
molle, L., Eur. 
nodosum, L., Eur. 
pratense, L., Eur. 



.,. Fi- 



, Siber. 



Gerbera Anandria, Schultz., China, 

Geum chiloense, Balb., Chili. 
— var. grandiflorum, Ldl. 
_ var. miniatum, Hort. 
hispidum, Fr., Spain. 
macrophyllum, Wffld., Siber. 
montanum, L., Alps, Eur. 

triflorum, Pursh., N. Amer. 



Gilia — cont. 

squarrosa, Hook, et An 

tricolor, Benth., Calif. 

— var. alba. 

Gladiolus segetum, Gawl., S. E i 

Eur. 

— var. rubrum, Hort. 



Gnaphalium indicum, L., India. 
Gunnera scabra, R. et P., Peru, etc. 
Gypsophila paniculata, L., Siberia. 

Rokejeka, Del., Egypt. 
Hablitzia tamnoides, Bbrst., 

ll-.-tiuifit alba, S. Wats.,N. Amer. 
Hebenstreitia dentata, Thunb., 
Cape, 
tenuifolia, Schrad, Cape. 

Il'cdysnruin boreale,Nutt.,N.Amer. 
microcalyx, Baker., Himal. 
neglectum, Ledeb., Altai, 
obscurum, L., Eur. 



-H'u'I mi 



et H, Cali- 



Helianthemum polifolium, Mill., 
Eur. 
vulgare, Gaertn., Eur. 
Helianthus annuus, L., N. Amer. 
Helichrysum bracteatum, Wiild., 

— var. luteum. 
Heliophila amplexicaulis, L. fil., 



Helipterum Manglesii, Bth., 

Milleri, Hort., Australia, 
roseum, Benth., Australia. 



[ elleborus colchicus, Regel., 
Hort. x. 
fcetidus, L., Eur. 
orientalis, Lam., Greece. 



Helminthia echioides, G., Eur. 
Helonias bullata, L., N. Amer. 



Hemerocallis flava, L., S. Eur. 
fulva, L., S. Eur., etc. 
— var. Kwanso, Regel. 

Heracleum Panaces, L., S. Eur. 



Heuchera Drummondi, Hort. 
glabra, Willd., N". Amer. 
pilusissima, F. et M., N. 

Hibiscus Trionum, L., Cosmopol. 

Hirriii'imii alpinum, L. Eur.. 
aiirantiaeum, L., Eur. 
integrifolium, Lge., Eur. 
Jankse, Uechtr., E., Eur. 
longifolium, Schleich., Eur. 
maculatum, Sm., Eur. 
nigrescens, W., Eur. 
onosmoides, Fr., Eur. 
pallidum, Biv., Eur. 
pratense, Tausch., Eur. 
saxatile, Jacq., S. Eur. 
stoloniflorum, W. et K., S. Eur. 
villosum, L., Eur. 
virgatum, Pursh., N. Amer. 
vulgatum, Fr., Eur. 

Holcus lanatus, L., Eur. 

Hordeum murinum, L., Eur. 

pratense, Huds., Eur. 

vulgare, L., Sicily. 
Horminum pyrenaicum,' L., Pyren 
Hyacinthus amethystinus, L. 
Spain. 

romanus, L., S. Eur., etc. 



Hydrophyllum canadense, L., N. 
virginicum, L., N. Amer. 



Hyoscyamus niger, L., Eur. 

— var. albus, Hort. 
orientalis, Bbrst., Cauc. 

Hypecoum procumbens, L., S. Eur. 
Hypericum Richeri, Vill., Eur. 

— var. Burseri, Sp., Transs. 
Hypochseris arachnoidea, Poir., N". 

Afr. 
Iberis amara, L., Eur. 

ciliata, All., Alp. Marit. 
garrexiana, All., Pyrenees, 
lagascana, DC, Spain, 
pectinata, Boiss., Spain, 
umbellata, L., S. Eur. 

Impatiens parviflora, DC, Siberia, 

Roylei, Walp., Himal. 
tricornis, Wall., Himal. 

Inula ensifolia, L., Eur. 

•rramlitlora, Willd., Caucaa.,etc. 

Helenium, L., Eur. 
Iris aurea, Ldl., Himal. 

fulva, Muhl., N. Amer. 

Pseudacorus, L„ Eur., etc. 

setosa, Pallas, Siberia. 

— var. atropurpurea. 



J uncus balticus, Willd., Eur. 
compressus, Jacq., Eur. 
effusus, L., Eur. 
lamprocarpus, Ehrh., Eur. 
platycaulis, H.B.K., S. Amer. 

Kochia scoparia, Schrad., Eur. 

Koeleria Berythea, B. et B., Syria, 
cristata, Pers., Eur. 
phleoides, P., Eur. 



tuca canadensis, L, N. Amer. 
flavida, Jord., 8. Eur. 

ludoviciana, ' Riddel, N. 

Amer. 
Plumieri, Gren. et Godr., S. 

Eur. 
Scariola, L., Eur. 



Lasthenia glaberrima 
obtusifolia, Cas; 

Latliy s a 1 t 

Aphaca, L., Em 



iilii'unnis Lam., S. Eur. 
hir»uh.s,L, Eur. 
latifolius, L., Eur. 
— var. ensifolius, Bad. 
luteus, B. et Hk. f., Eur., et< 
macrorrhizus, Wimm., Eur. 



}»:» 1 • T!.->l 1 3<-: i ~. 

Sol, Eur 
pisiformis, '. 



;itanus, L, N. Afr. 
osus, Muhl, N. Ame 



Lavia Callitrloasa, Gray., Calif 
elegans, T. et G, Calif, 
glandulosa, Hk. et Ar 
Calif., etc. 

Leontodon Ehrenbergii. 
Mullen, (S/..), Eur. 

Leontopodium alpinum, Oalfc, 



Lepturus cylindricus. Triu, " 
Leuzea conifera, DC, Eur. 



Douglasii, R. Br., 
?randiflora. 



dalmatiea. Mill, Dalm. 
^eni-ia-folia. Mill.. Kiir. 
— var. linifolia, Grab. 
minor, Desf, Eur, N. Afr. 
MLej., Caacas. 



spartea/nofrTu,^ Km: 
tristis, M'ill.. S. Eur/ 

Lindelophia spectabilis, Lehm 
Himal. 

Liuum alpinum, L, Eur. 

an-ustifolium, L, Eur. 
m-aiulillonnn, [>r>f.. X. Afr. 



Lobelia cliffortiana, L., N. Araer. 


Lysimachia — cont. 


Erinus, L., Cape. 


quadrifolia, L., N. Amor. 


Lolium perenne, L.,Eur. 


vulgaris, L., Eur. 




Madia elegans, Don., N. Amer. 


Lonas modora, Gasrtn., Sicily. 


sativa, Molin., Oregon. Calif, 


Lopezia coronata, Andr., Mexico. 


Malcolmia africann, ll.Br., S. Eur., 


Lophanthus rugosus, F. et M., 


N. Afr. 


China. 


ehia, DC, Greece. 










ornithopodioides, L., Eur. 




tenuis, W. et K., Eur., etc. 


Malnpe trifida, Cav., N. Afr. 



densiflorus, Benlh. Calif. 
elegans, 11. B. K„ Mexico. 
hilariensis, Benth., Brazil. 

Intent L., Europe. 



va Alcea,L., Eur. 
Duria-i. Spaeh., X. Afr. 

oxyloba, Boiss.. ( 'rienl 
parviflora, L., Eur. 



nivea. Desv.. Ku 
Lychnis alba. Mill., I 



diunia. Sihth., Eur. 
Flos-jovis, Desv., 8. Eur. 
Githago, Lam., Eur. 



, Hook., llimal. 



Iba, Desr., Eur. 

officinalis, Desr., Eur. 

parviflora, Lam., Eur. 

Melittis Melissophyllum, L 

Mentzelia Lindleyi, T. 

Calif. 
Mercurial 
Mesembr 



, L., Eu 



clabrat.iv. II I?., Mexico, 
luteus, L., N. Amer. 
moscbatus, Dougl., N. Amer. 
Mirabilis Jalapa, L., W. Ind. 



Nicotiana affinis, T. Moore. 
Langstlorffii, Weinm., Br 
paniculata, L., 8. Amer. 
rustica, L., S. Eur., etc. 
Tabacum, L., S. Amer. 



N 






Nolana prostrala, L., Pe 

Nothoscor bun fra-raii- 



collina, Hoffm., Eur. 

sylvatica, HoiTm., En 
Myosurus minimus, L., E 
Myrrhis odorata, Scop., E 
Nardurus tenellus, Rchb., 
Nardus stricta, L., Eur. 



latifolimn, L., Egypt, etc. 
narbonense, L., Eur. 
orthophvllum, Ten., Italy. 

teiuiii'olium. Guss., Eur. 
umbellatum, L., Eur., etc. 



Pachypod 
Pa?onia ar 



Papaver apulum, Ten., Eur. 
Argemone, L., Eur. 
dubium, L., Eur. 

— var. Lecoqil (Laraotte), 
Eur. 

gariepinum, Bureh., S. Afr. 
glaucum, Boiss., Orient, 
lateritium, C. Koch., Arinen. 
nudicaule, L., Alps. 

— var. album, 
orientale, L., Orient. 

— var. bracteatum, (Lindl.) 



pavoniuuin, C. A. 

Afghan. 
persicum, Ldl., Persia, 
pilosum, Sibth., Greece. 

Rhceas, L., Eur. 

— var. Hookcri, ( Baker). 

— var. " Shirley." 

n!liU, ^ !! ^!Sum S BaU' 
M-mnitcTHiii, L., China, etc 



M-v.. 



Parnassia nubicola, Hook, fil., 

palustris, L., Eur. 
Pentstemon barbatus, Nutt., N. 



ca?ruleus, Gray., N. Amer. 
confertus, Dougl., N. Amer. 
diffusus, Dougl., N. Amer. 
glaber, Pursh., N. Amer. 
Hartwegii, Benth., Mexico. 
lavi-atns. Sol., var. Digital US, 
Gray., N. Amer. 

pubescens, Sol., N. Amer. 



Perezia multifloi 



Peru, 



Petroselinum sativum, Hoffm.,Eur. 
Petunia nyctaginiflora, Juss., La 



parisiense, DC, Eur. 

paiieitoliuin, I.edeb., Sib.-r. 
sal i\ urn. Benth., Eur. 



, DC, Eur. 

ularia.Grav 
i;.;.v.,GaliV 



l>| 1 al ;1 ri,.-ah il nr..v,s L.S.Eur, 
parauoxa, L., S. Eur. 
tuberosa, L., Eur. 
j Phaseolus multiflorus, Lam. 
riceiardianus, Ten. 
tuberosus, Lour., Cochinchina. 
vulgaris, L., India, 
wbditianus, Grab., India. 



Phk'um a-prnini 
Bojhmeri, V 
pretense, L. 

Phlon 



11, (L.) 
*liana, Lagas., Orient, 
umbrosa, Turcz., Siberia. 
I Phlox Drummondi, Hook., Calif, 
stellaria, Gray., N. Amer. 



Physalis Alkekengii, L., Eur. 
Physostegia virginiana, Beftth., 
var. speciosa, Gray., N. 



Pint, 



Sin.. 



Michelii, All., Eur. 

nigrum, Schmidt, Germ. 

orbiculare, L„ Eur. 

spicatum, L., Eur. 
Phytolacca acinosa, Roxb., India. 
Picridium tingitanum, Dsf., Eur. 
Pimpinella Anisum, L., Eur. 
Pisuiu sativum, L., Eur. 
Plant ago arenaria, L., Eur. 



Platycodon grandiflorum, A.DC, 
Siber. 

— var. Mariesii, Hort. 
Platystcmon calif ornicus, Benth., 

Calif. 
Pleurospermum pulchrum, Aitch. 

et Ilomsl., Afghan. 
Poa alpina, L., Eur. 

— var. badensis, Hke. 
compros«a, L., Eur. 
glauca, Sm., Eur. 



, Km. 



Podophyllum Emodi, Wall.,Hii 



Polygonum aviculare, L., Eur. 

Bistorta, L., Eur. 

capitatum, Don.. Himalaya. 

molle, Don., Himal. 

viviparum, L., Eur. 

\ 
Isl. 
Polypogon monspcliensis, I ).-!., 

Eur. 
Potentilla alchemilloides, Lap., 
Pyrenees. 

argyrophylla, Wall., Himal. 

chincn-is, Ser., China. 

collina, Wib., Eur. 

crocea, Hall f., Eur. 

Detommasii, Ten., Eur. 

digitata X flabellata. 

glandulosa, Ldl., Calif. 

heptaphylla, Mill., Eur. 

kotschyana, Eenzl., Kur- 



kurdica, Boiss., Orient. 
leselienaulliaiia, Ser., Ind., Or 
malacophylla, Bunge., Orient, 
montenegrina, Pane, Mon- 

nepalensis, Hook., Nepal. 
nevauVusis, Boiss., Spain. 



— var. pahnata. 
rupestris, L., Eur. 
schrenkiana, Kegel, 
semi-argentea, Hort. x . 
semi-laciniata, Hort. x. 
Sibbaldia, HaLUr til., Hii 
Thurberi, Gray., N. Am 
Visianii, Pane. Kur. 
wrangeliana, Fi.--.vh., SHx 
Poterium canadenso, B. et II. 



Primula — cont 

obconica, Hanee, China. 


Rudbeckia amplexioaule, Yah I 
N. Amer. 


rosea, Royle, Hinial. 




verticillata, Forsk., Arabia. 


rulumiiaris, Pursli, var. pul 


Prunella grandiflora, L.,Eur.Cauc. 


cherrima, Don., N. Amer. 


var. laciniata,Hort. 




— var. rubra, Hort. 




vulgaris, L., Eur. 


occidental, Nutt., N. Amer 




purpurea, L., N. Amer. 


l'-oralea macrostachya, DC, N. 




Amer. 


Rumox alpinus, I... Kur. 


physodes, Dougl., N. Amer. 


Brownii, Campd., Austral. 


Pyrrhopappus earolinianus, DC, 


ohtusifoliu^L^Einr ' 


Florida, Texas. 


— yar. sylvestris, (Wallr.) 


Raraondia pyrenaica, Rich., 


]>ulcher, L., Eur. 


Pyrenees.- 


purpuivus, Poir., Eur. 


Kaniin.'iilusabortivus, L.,N. Amer. 


salieifolius,Weinm.,N.Amer 
vesicarius, L., N. Afr. 


Broteri, Freyn., Spain. 


acris, L., Eur. 
arvensis, L., Eur. 


Rata graveolens, L., Eur. 


brutius, Tenore, Italy. 


Sagina glabra. YVilld.. S. Eur. 


cassius, Boiss., Taurus. 




caucasicus, M.B., Caucas. 


Linna>i, Presl., Eur. 


chasrophyllus, L., Eur., etc. 


Salvia ethiopu, L., Eur. 


Cymbalaria, Pnrsh, X . Amor. 




faleatus, L., Eur. 


IJeck«-ri, Tra'utv., Caucas. 


nmrhatus, L., Eur. 




parviflorus, L., Kur. 


Tloriniiuim, L., S. Eur. 


trachy carpus, R etM., Orient. 


hians, Royle., Ind. 


llaphanus sativus, L., Eur. 


intorrupta, Sehousb., Marocco 




napifolia, Jacq., S. Eur. 


Rapistrum linna3anum, All., Eur. 


nutans, L., Transyl. 




pratensis, L. } Eur. 


Reseda abyssiniea, Fres., Abyss. 




all >a, L., S. Eur. 


— var. Baumgarteni, Grsb. 


glauca, L., Pyren. 


Transs. 


lutea, L., Eur. 




Luteola, L., Eur. 


Sclarea, L. ; S. Kur. 


i stellatua, Gaertn, S. 


' M^ii'o EU1 


Eur. 


V.-rVi'nac-ii, L., kur." 


Rheum oollinianum, Baillon. 


rertieOlata, k, Eiir - 


Emodi, Wall., Himal. 


Sanvitalia pro<-umbens, Lam.. 


maeropterum, Mart. 




officinale, BnilL Thibet. 


Sapnuaria orirntali-, L.. Orient. 


palniatum, L., Ind., etc. 


Satareja hortenria, L., Taur. 


Riiaponticnm, L., Siber. 


montana^ L, S. Eur. 



i, L., Eur., Alps. 
. Clmrchillii, Kern. 
. Gaudinii. 



Scandix Balansoe. Keut., Orient, 
brachycarpa, Guss., Sicily, 
macroryncha, C. A. Mey.,Eui 
" Pecten -Veneris, L., Eur. 



— var. recta, (Lap. ) 

— var. rosularis, Scbleich. 
ca>spitosa, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. decipiens, t Khrh.) 

— var. hirta, (Don.) 

— var. sedoides, (L.) 
oartilaginea, Willd., Caucas. 
Cotyledon, L., Eur., Alps. 

— var. pyramidali.-, t Lap.) 
crustata. Vent., Alps. 

ra. I,, Eur. 



kolenatiana, Hegel, Siberia. 
lactea, Turcz., Temp. Asia, 
lingulata, Bell., Mam. Alps. 

longifolia, Lap., Pyrenees. 

■.■> ' .,-. V-. , : , i:.. . 

Frost ii, Sternb., Eur. 
rocheliana, Sternb., Bosnia. 

rotundifolia, L., Eur. 

sponhemica, Gm., var. hirta. 

Don.. Eur. 
tenella, Wulf., Alps, 
trifurcata, Schrad., N. Spain, 
umbrosa, L., Eur. 
valdensis, DC, Savoy, Alps. 
Soabiosa arvensis, L., Eur. 
atropurpurea, L., Eur. 



Selnzantbus pinnatus, K. et J 

Cbili. 
Scbizopetalum Walkeri, Sims, 

Chili. 
Scilla campanulata, Ait., Spaii 

— var. alba, Hort. 

— var. rubra, 
chinensis, Benth., China, 
lingulata, Poir., Eur. 
nonscripta, Hotfiu., Eur. 
verna, Huds., W. Eur. 

Scirpus setaceus, L., Eur. 



Scorpiurus vermieiilata. L.,Eu 
Seropliuhiria aquatica, L., Eur 

Ehrliartii, Stev., Cauca>. 

nodosa, L., Eur. 

vernalis, L., Eur. 
Scopolia lurida, Dub., Himal. 
Scutellaria alpina, L., Eur. 



Sedum Aizoon, L., Siberia. 
Ewersii, Ledeb., Siber. 
glaucura, W. et K., Eur. 
magellense, Ten., Italy, 
middendorfianum, Max., Si- 

Rhodioia, DC, Siber. 

stellatum, L., Eur. 

villosuni, L., Eur. 
Selinum Candollei, DC, Nepal. 
Seinpt-rvivura boutignyanum, Bill , 



— var. purpurea, 
ja])onicus, Scb., Japan. 
macropbvllus, Bbrst., Caucas. 
thyrsoideus, DC, Siberia. 



Sorratula coronata, L., Siberia. 
— var. macropIiyll:i. 
Gmelinii, Ledeb., Caucas. 
quinquefolia, Bbrst., Caucas. 
tinctoria, L., Eur. 

Seseli gummifcrum, Sm., Greece. 
Setaria glauca, Beauv., Eur. 

italics, Beauv., Eur. 

macrocbseta, Link, Eur., 



Silpbium perfoli.it u in. L.. X. An 

triVoliatum, L„ xMnnr. 
, P.B., Eur. 
auv. ! Silybum eburneum, Coss. ct Di 

i Eur. 

isis, L., Eur. mariaimm Ga?rtner Eur. 

, Hk.etArn.,Cbili. j Sisymbrium Allinria, Scop., Em 



cities, L., Eur 
. Jitc].. Alp.». 



Spinea astilboides, Hort. 


• 


Aruucus, L, N. Amer. 


S. Eur. 


palmata, Thunb., Japan. 
Ulmaria, L., Eur. 


— var. (T. nigricans, DC), 
Eur. 




aquilegifolium, L., Eur., etc. 


Stachys alpina, L., Eur. 




— var. intermedia. 


flavum, L., Eur. 



Desf., 



densiflora, Gus*., Eu 
Goielinii, Willd., Eu 
gongetiana, Girard, ! 



.lava 



minus, L., Eur. 

— var. affine, (Jord.) 

— var. elatum, Regei, 
trigynum, Fisch., Dahur. 

Thelesperma folil'oliuin, Cray, N. 

Th. rui<>].-i< lance. data, R.Br., 



Stipa pennata, L., Eur., etc. P ra 

Symphyandra Wanneri, H-uff., I Thy mil! 

Eur. ' SfJl 

Symphytum officinale, L., Eur. ^ofieldi 



Tellima grandiflora, R.I 



Trifolium f 



hyrcanirmn' '[,., Caucas. 


IVnvvillolllii.^rl'n'!'' 


multiflorum, L., Orient. 


prateuse, L., Eur. 


Scorodonia, L., Eur. 


repens, L., Eur. 


—var. variegutum. 


resupinatum, L., Eur. 



TriMium — cont. 


Valeriana — cont. 


rubens, L., Eur. 


officinalis, L., Eur. 


squarrosa L., S. Eur. 


var. exaltata, (Mikan.) 


tomentosum, L., Eur. 


— var. sambucifolia. 


Triglochin maritimum, L., Eur. 


Phu, L., S. Eur. 




Valerianella Auricula, DC, Eur. 


orniculata, L., S. Eur. 


carinata, Loisl., S. Eur. 


eretica, Boiss., Crete. 


eriocarpa, Desv., Eur. 


fcenuni-grascum, L., S. Eur. 






Venidium fngax, Harv., Cape. 


polycerata, L., Eur. 


Veratrun. album, L.. Eur. 


Trial* Hoffmann., Bbrst., Eur.,etc. 




Kiraibellii, Bbrst., Russia, etc. 


viride. Ait.. N. Ain.-r. 


Triptoris cheiranthifolia, Schultz., 

Triticum caninum, L., Eur. 

chinense, Trin., N. China. 


Verbascum Blattaria, L., Eur. 
phoeniceum, L., Eur. Siber. 
pyramid at um, Bbrst., Ciitiei- 
speeiosum, Schrad., Eur. 
thapsiforme, Schrad., Eur. 


desertorum, Fisch., Russia. 


durum, Desf., S. Eur., N. Afr. 


Verbena Aubletia. L., N. Amer. 


monococcura, L„ Eur. 
ovatum, G. et G., Eur. 


I^nS^M^uiXer. 


violaceum, Horn., Eur. 


voiK.sa, (Yilhet Hook., Buenos 


Tritonia crocosmaeflora, Garden 


Avres. 


Hybrid. 


Vernonia* altissima, Nutt., N. 


Pott si i, Bentli., Cape. 




Trollius asiaticus, L., Siber. 


V,ronica agn-stis. L, Ear. 


europaeus, L., Eur. 


aphylla, L.. Eur. 


'I , r..]>;>'ol!ini .■nluiuMiiii, Sin., Peru. 


austnaca. L.. Eur. 


'"imr L" Peru' 


eIaltaVa! , Maud.. ( SilHM-. 


Ubu s im, 11. et P., Peru. 


f,H",n? L^bJST T *"' 


Troximon glancum, Nutt., N. 


inHs'u'.Vii:, Siber!" 


Amer. 




var. laciniatum, Gray. 








Tunica illyrica, Boiss., Eur. 


— var. rosea. 


Urospermum Dalechamnii, Desf'., 
Eur. 


LyalliiVlIk. 1'.. X. Zeal. 


picroides, Desf., S. Eur. 


officinalis, L., Eur. 




repens, I'hir.^Coraica. 


Ursinia pulehia, N. E. Brown, 




-%!' 8 ulphnrea,H6rt.,Kew. 




Urtica dioic-,. L, Bar. 


T.;'!nc::, l', Kir' 


?SSS T' 


?S^^cB) 


Valeriana alliariasfolia, Vahl, 


Vesica™ ooiymbosa, Hort. 


Caucas. 


edentula, Poi'r., Eur. 
grandiflora, Hook., Texas. 


montana, L., Eur. ' 



cassubica, L., S. Eur. 
Cracca, L., Eur. 
dijjii-nna. DC, France. 
Ervilia, Will,].. S. Eur. 
Faba, L., cultivated. 
— var. equina, (Pers.) 
fulgens, Hort. 
macrocarpa, Bert., Eur. 
narbonensis, L., S. Eur. 
pannonica, Cr., Eur. 

~ T.,P y m 



Jooi, Jankn, Tr.-uisylv 



Viola — cont. 

lactea, Sm., Eur. 
odorata, L., Eur. 



Zinnia elegans, Jacq., Mexico. 

multirlora, L., Mexico. 

pauciflora, L., N. Araer. 
Zizipbora capitata, L., Taur., < 
Zollikoferia elquinensis, P 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



, Hort. 

intusglan.lulosus, Desf'., Japan. 

us cordifolia, Ten., Italy. 
firma, S. et Z., Japan, 
glutinosa, Gaert 



Alnus — cont. 

incana, Will., N. Hemispb 

— var. laciniata, Hort. 
japonica, S. et Z., Japan, 
serrulata, Willd., N. Am. 

— var. latifolia, Hort. 

,DC. 






'm 



Amorpha fruticosa, L., N. Ai 
Aralia edulis, S. et Z., Japan 

spinosa, L., N. America, 
Aucuba japonica, Tbunb. 

vera, Hort. 



Azalea rhombica, Kegel, Japan. 
Berberis buxifolia, Lamk., Chili. 

stenophylla, Hort. 

virescens, Hook, f., Hima- 
laya. 

vulgaris, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. purpurea, Hort. 
wallichiana, DC, Himal. 

Betula alba, L., N. Hemisph. 

— var. Youngii, Hort. 
Ermanni, Cham., N. Asia, 
lutea, Michx. f., N. Amer. 
populifolia, Ait., U. S. Amer. 

Buddleia japonica, Hemsl., Japan 
Biota orientalis, End., Orient. 

— var. gracilis, Hort. 

— var. intermedia, Hort. 

— var. pyramidalis, Hort. 
Caragana arborescens, Lamb., 

Siberia. 

DC, Siberia. 



Redowskii, DC, Siberia. 
Carpinus Betulus, L., Eur., etc. 
Cedrus Deodara, Loud., Himalaya. 
Celastrus scandens, L., N". Amer. 
Celtia occidentals, L., N. Amer. 



Cerasus lusitanica, Lobel, Por- 

Chamaecyparis (Cupressus). 

Lawsoniana, Pari., Calif. 

obtusa, S. et Z., Japan. 
(Retinospora obtusa.) 
Cistus laurifolius, L., Spain. 
Cladrastis amurensis, Benth. et 

Hook., Amur. 
Clematis erecta, L., Europe, etc. 

Flammula, L., S. Eur. 

integrifolia, L., S. Eur. 
Colutea arborescens, L., Eur. 

— var. cruenta, (Ait.) 

_ var. haleppica, (Lamk.) 
Cornus alba, L., N. Amer. 

alternifolia, L- f., N". Amer. 

circinata, Herit., N. Amer. 

paniculata, L'Herit.,N. Amer. 

sanguinea, L., Eur. 

sericea, L., N. Amer. 

sibirica, Lodd., Siberia, etc. 



Cotoneaster acuminata, Lindl., 

bacillaris', Wall., Himal. 

— var. floribunda, Hort. 

— var. obtusa, Hort. 
buxifolia, Wall., Himal. 
Fontanesi, Spach. 
frigida, Wall., Himal. 
horizontals, Dene. 
laxillora. Lind.. India. 
micro phylla, Wall., Himal. 
reflexa Carr., China, 
rotundifolia, Wall., Himal. 
Simonsii, Baker., Himal. 
tomentosa, Lindl., Eur. 

Crataegus Carrierei, Vauvel. (C. 

Lavallei, Herincq.) 

coccinea, L., N. Amer. 

— var. acerifolia, Hort. 

— var. gland ulosa, Hort. 

— var. indentata, Hort. 

— var. Kelmanni, Hort. 



Crus-Galli, L., N. Amer. 

— var. pruinosa. 
Downiiijzii, Hort. 
flava, Ait., N. Amer. 
oru-ntnlis, Pall., Orient. 
Oxyai-juitha, L., Eur. 

— var. fusca, Hort. 

— var. Gumperi bicolor, 



: V li; 



:., N 



landii, Hort. 

tan aceti folia, Pers., Orient. 

tomentosa, L., N". Amer. 
Cupressus nootkatensis Lainb., 
N.W. Amer. 

Thyoides, L., N. Amer. 
Cytisus albus, L., S.W. Eur. 

_ var. incarnatus, Hort. 

biflorus, L., Herit., Eur. 

calycinus, Bieb., Caucasus. 

capitatus, Jacq., S. Eur. 

hirsutus, L., E. Eur. 

leucanthus, W. et K., E. Eur. 

X praecox, Hort. 

monspespulauus, S. Eur. 

nigricans, L., Eur. 

purpureus, Scop., E. Eur. 

scoparius, L., Eur. 



Cytisus — cont. 

— var. Andreanus. 

— var. pendula, Hort, 



Dabcecia polifolia, D. Don.,W. Eur. 

— var. versicolor. 
Deutzia crenata, S. et Z., Japan. 

— var. Sieboldii, Hort. 
scabra, Thunb., Japan. 

Ela?agnus longipes, A. Gray., 
umbellata, Thunb., Japan. 






— var. rotunditulia, Hort. 
li;iiTy:i . liptica, Dougl., California. 
Guultheria Sliallon, Pursh, N. 



...-'.- ,,'., S.Vnr. 3 ' 
sagittate, L., Eur. 
virgata, DC, Madeira. 

Hamamelis virginica, L., N. An 
Hedera Helix, L., Eur., etc. 
Hippnpbar rliaranoides, L., Eur 



I'M- 



Androsaemum, L., 



i dpinum, Griseb., Eur. 
Alschingeri, Vis., E. Eur. 
vulgare, Griseb., Eur. 

— var. Caiiieri, Hort. 

— var. involutum, Hort. 

— var. Parkesi, Hort. 

— var. quercifolium. 

— var. sessilifolium. 

L.-dum latitoiium. Ait., N. Amer. 
Leucothoe Catesbaei, Gray, N. 

racemosa, Gray, N. Amer. 
Leycesteria formosa, Wall., Himal. 
Ligustrum medium, Fr., Japan. 
Lonicera Morrowii. Gray, Japan. 

occidentaliis, Steud., N. Amer. 

orientate, Lam., Asia Minor. 

Suliivantii, N. Amer. 

Lyonia ligustrina, DC, N. Amer. 

Mahonia Aquifolium, Nutt., N. 

— var. murrayana, Hort. 

fascicularis, DC, N. Amer. 

Menispermura canadense, L., N. 

M^spilu.- Sinithii, DC. Cauca'u-. 
Morus nigra, L., Eur. 
Myrica cerifera, L., United States. 
Neillia amurensis (Spiraea, 
Maxim.), Amurland. 
opulifolia, Benth. et Hook., 



Ostyra japoniea, Japan. 
Paulownia imperial^, S. 



densiflormtt, Pursb, N. Amer. 
galioides, Lamk., N. Amer. 

— var. plutvphylla, Hort. 
verticillata, Gray, N. Amer. 



; }.un.ila. L., N. Amer. 
trit'nlidta. L., X. Amer. 
var. a urea, Hort. 



Pyrus americana, DC, N. Amer. 
Aria, Ehrh., Europe, etc. 

— var. angustifolia. 

— var. gi'teca, Boiss. 

arbntifolia, L., N. Amer. 

— var. grandiflora, Hort. 

— var. serotina, Lindl. 
Aucuparia, Gaertn., Eur. 

baccata, L., Asia. 
domestic*, Sin , var. mali- 
formis. 



Rosa — cont. 

lucida, Ehrh., Js. Amer. 

microphylhi, R..xh., China. 
moschaCi. Mill.. India, etc. 
multiflnra, Timid)., dapan. 



sericea, Lindl., Himal. 
spinosissima, L., Eur. 

— var. cistitiora. Hon. 






Wilsoni 
Rubus echin; 



. ei V. Km-.' 
; (R. discolor, 




^^21 



spfendens, Ho 

Symphor icarpus rac 



Tnxus baecata, L., Eur., etc. 

— var. Dovastonii, Hort. 

iuteo, Hort. 

— var. Washingtoni, Hort. 
Ulex europa^us, L., Eur. 
Vaccinium maderense, Link., 

' , L., N. Amer. 



dilatatum, Thunb., Japan. 



Lantana, L., Eur. 

— var. burejjBticum. 
Opulus, L., Eur., etc. 

Vitis heterophylla, Thunb., Japan. 

— var. huniuloefolia. 
Labrusca, L., N. Amer. 

Zenobia speciosa, D. Don., U. S. 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLETIN 



MISCELLANEOUS INPOEMATIOX. 



APPENDIX II.-1894. 




NEW GARDEN PLANTS OF THE YEAR 1893. 




The number of garden plnnr- ;ir>Mi;dIy described in botanical 


and 


,' i. '. ' - " «',„nplHe li-t of tl 




in the Kew Bulletin each year. The following list comprise all 






d.Ic 




Her 


botanical establishments in oorropondenee with Kew, which are.; 




rule, only scantily provided with Ik.: t;. nil in,)! periodicals. Such a 




will also afford infonn.-i^inn n-fpectinii new plants under cultivation 








regular course of exchange wirh ether butanie gardens. 






for 


the first time during 1SUJ. but the most noteworthy of tliox- which h 





f Horticulture. J. 0.— Journal des Orchidees. K. B.- 
I Miscellaneous Information, Royal Gardens, Kew. L — Lin- 
. (r. Z.—.M tiller'!? Deutsche Gartner-Zeituncr. 0.— L'Orchi- 
). R,~ Orchid Review. R. //.—Revue Horticole. i2. H. B. 
de l'Horticulture Beige. Veitch Cat.— Veitch & Sons, 



Illustrirte Garten-: 
Williams, Xew and General Plant C: 
& Williams, Orchid Album. 



era aequinoctiali;, ::•■ '■< •-. 



* Adiantum nebulosum, Hort. ( G. C. 



H. Hardy. //. H.— Halt'-h.-.rdy. 



Aglaonema rotunda, N. E. Br. (G. 

£ 1893, v. xiv., ,,.4. ./. ,/■ II.. r. 



Aerides platychihi 



Aglaonema versicolor, 



*Allomorphi 1 L G 



Ag'< : . ssir.: 



•A-locasia watsoniana, Hort. (G. C. 


v. riii., p. 41.5.) S. A seedl 




with dark ei-im~-.il spathcs. 


Aroideae. S. A near all vol A. Put- 




zeysii. It ha> lar..« ronlatelv lohel 
leaf-blades, with wavy margins. an«l 


Anthurinm crystallinum, 


coloured olive green and dark purple 


Andre, va: ; 


on the upper surface, dark purple 




beneath. Sumatra. (F. Sander & Co.) 


the leaves. ' . 


*Aloe imbricata, Hort. (ir. G. 1893, 


. . 







Anthurium Goidringi, Hort. (G.t 



Anthurinm Hollandi, 






*Amorphophallusoneophyllus,i > i'a "• 



Anthurinm scherzeriannm, Bd 



Lndrosace Bffl t- coloured 

fi. Are : *Aris»mE 



*Arundo madagascariensis. 



Ansellia nilotica, 



j *Asplenium marginatum r. • n i;. 



merald green colour. 



*Bletia& 

Apparently only a variety of B. vt 
cunda, E. Br.^h!l-.-iu- of.h in h;,v 



LzaleahybridaDaviesii,Hort. {Gfl. 

A garden hybrid with white fls., supposed 



Azalea rustica, I 



*Azaleodendron, li. .i-.-.s. ( c. < 

and Rhododendron John Wate 



They come proper!; 
*Bauhinia 

figure.-. I m 13. 31. t. 6818. Trop.Asia 



% Ghent.) 
iegata, Linn., var. can- 

< II. M. t. 7:112; ./. of 






*?'■ 



Brassia bicolor, Eolfe. (L., t. 378.) 

.1 i.-l to /»' \\'<n, ',... 
yellow and purple fls., the sepals being 
2\ in. lunsr. th«- petal-! 2 in. long, the lip 
patent and acuminate IVru. ( I/Hor- 
ticulture Internationale. ) 

Brassia Lewisii, Eolfe. (O. R. v. i., p. 



i yellow -potted wit 



*Brownleea ccerulea, 1 



Brugmansia aurea, Lag 



. {Gfl. 



Excelsior. {La 






. (V.Lemoine&Son.Nan, 

*Begonia fulgens, Hort 

Cat. 189.3, No. I .'.'!.) (,. 



*Bulbophyllum Eri 



B^'lodew Linden and j ™£$^g%$$ "t Al £ 






. 



Bignonia rodigasis 



Vwl. (lil.H. 
(X'Horticulture Inter- 



SjCtted Vitil II 

T. Lawrence.) 



*Bulbophyllum sandenanum, Rolfe. fig. 24.) S. A garden hybrid between 

(K. 8. 1893, p. 4.) S. Anew species | C sanderia, m 3I , t nt < u I < . 
allied to B. meridense. It has short 
four- angled, monophyllous pseudobulbs 
and long racemes of green brown spotted 



Pernambuco. (F. i 



Tco 6 ) r ° Wn * 

Bulbophyllum spathaceuni, Bolfe. 
(A.%./l893,p.l70.) S. Anewspecies 

leaves and a denser raceme ; fls. small 
light straw - yellow, the lip brighter. 
Burma. (J. O'Brien.) 
*Bulbophyllum viride, Kolfe. (K.B. 

allied to B. ' intrr'f turn, u rh -null 
pseudobulbs and leaves; scape 3 in. 
long; flowers small, ;:reen, with two 

h> P W^Trop 6 Africa** (KewT ° 

*Bulbophylhim vitiense, R-!*'. (A*. 

■'■'.■' 

pink'flowers. Fiji. (Ivew.) 

*Caladiumrubescens, N". F. Br. ( G.C. 



Ilra/il. (F. Sai 






p. 692.) S. A garden hybrid or seed- 
(B. S. Williams & Son.) 

Calanthe vestita, Waii.var. oweiiiana, 
Calanthe Victoria-Regina. (B. t. 63.) 

* ' •" hvbrid supper! f. he 

■eitchii and C. rosea. 



*Calceolaria andina, Benth. < n. M. t. 

ee. II. H. An under-shrub, 
with broadly-stalked, oblong, ovate, 

-. 
yellow flowers. Chilian Andes. (Kew.) 

imschootianum, L., Lind. 



the sepals and petals 
^BrlriL '(L'lTort'icnf- 



Cattleya Aclandii 



*Caladium venosum, N. E. Br. (( 

1893, v. xiv., P . ST.) S. Anewspecies culture imernanomuc, 

with leai'-hiad.- in i:i. ion<r, i m. broad, Cattleya Alexandra, I.m.l. \ Kol 

coloured given, with Yellowish nerves var. elegailS. M "lfe. (./>., t. 358.) 

and a red margin. Spathe 3 in. long, - : ... r flowers than 1 



Calamus gracillii 

" Foliage very n 



Cattleya Alexaiidrse, I 
var. tenebrosa, K.-ife. (A.t.;i.>r.i >. 



Calamus robustus, Lind. et Rod. (///. 



Calanthe burfordiense, Ho 

63.) MrchideiB. S. Agar.] 



Calanthe gigas, Hort. (G. C. 1893, v. I each 4 in. in diameter : the sepals and 
xii.. p. E»8 r J. of II., v. kxtL, p. 129, I petals are bright rose-purple and undu- 



Habitat not recorded. (F. Sander & 
Co.) 

Cattleya Chloris. (<?. C. 1893, t. xiv., 

:■. 470., S. A ,ir«r.l.ii hyb-id between 

Cattleya Eldorado, Lin.:., var. Treye- 



Cattleya guttata. I. : .■ .-.pernam- 

bucensis, Rodigas. (///. H. 1893, t. 
184.) S. Sepals and petals greenish 

(L'Horticait; 

Cattleya intermedia, Grah., rar. pic- 
turata, Rolfe. (O. R., v. i., p. 198.) 

S. A variety with spla-hes of rose in 
the sepals and petal-, and tl.e - ide lobes 

heavi'y flaked and stripe i with nmethy-t 
purple. (Messrs. Cappe, Vesinet, Seine- 

Cattleya johnstoniana. (G. C. 1893, 



■■ 



c.-.tt: 



A <LV-j,sii 



I. ,,/,//-,, 



II supposed natural hybrid 

'of C. 

irple flowers and 

li lip, the front 

lobe being deep rose-purple. Brazil. 

(A. A. Peeters, Brussels.) 

Cattleya Pheidona. (G. C. 1893, v. 

xiv.. p. 47n : (). /,'. v. i., p. 363.) S. 
and C. nut rimtt. (J. Veitch & Sons.) # 

Cattleya Trianse, Lind. & Rchb. f., var. 



Cattleya W;. 



(Due de Massa, France.) 
Cattleya Warscewiczii, Rchb. f., var. 

Sort. (<-;. C. 1893, v. 
deep purplish coloured flowers. (F. 

Cattleya Warscewiczii, Rchb. f. ; var. 



S;<::< 






;-<■:;-. 



Cattleya William Murray. (G. C. 

1893, v. xiii., p. CM'.i.) S. A garden 
hybrid between r. Mn„h-lii and r. 



Ceanothus Fenolleri, Gray. (G#. 1893, 

p. .VUi.) l^haiuna ■<..,. H. II. A much 
feet high witli egg-haped or elliptic 



misprint for C. Fen 

)entaurea o'dorata 

(B. T. O. 1893, p. 
Margarita; Sprengei 



Co., Naples 

*Cephalandra palmata, i 

7. o. it-.)3, p. ;;;u.) c.icu 



*Chlorophytum braci.v 



Chysis oweniana, Hort. (G. G 1893, 

I xiv., p. 756.) Orchidetr, S. Thi> 
is C. bruennotciana. Rchb. f., which 



Peru. (F. 



Cirrhopetalum brieniaimm, 



*Cirrhopetaliiiii robustum, 



eleven-flowered 

n'ej/'nV pur'":. 



Clematis Pitcheri x 



Clethra arborea, i 



*Ccelogyne sandera 



Crocus Tauri, Maw., var. melantho- 



iperbissimum 



lowianum, Rchb. 



: Crotalaria longirostrata, Hook. & 

Am. (B. M. t. 7306.) Leguminosa;. A *Cynorchis grandiflora, Ridley. (G. 

handsome greenhouse plant, growing to (J. 189:5, v. xiii., pp. 80. 197, fig. 29; 

a yard in height, with thin branches, O. U. v. i., p. .V.s.) ( rchidete. S. A 

clothed with trifoliate leaves, and bear- tuberous rooted terrestrial orchid, with 

yellow flowers. Mexico. (Kew.) two-flowered scapes a foot long. 



sepals and 

and coloured bright rose purple. Mada- 

Cy-penis aristatus, Hon. {B^T. O. 

hi"h ; said to be a pretty decorative 
plant. Mexico. (Dammann & Co., 
Naples.) 

Cyperus gracilis, Hort. (R. H. 1893, 



' v , • ] :' /',',,'',. Cypripedium JEson. (.G. C. 1893, 



l Sprenger. (E 
.., H.H. Accordin 



ripedium Alfred Bleu. . (R- H. 



wild in the n< l.rodite. (G. C. 

Cupania elegaus, r.ind. (<7. c. iS93, J;,!'' 'V^ e ' ' ' ■' v.-drhTs.'"^.) 



Cyanophyllum aspersum, Li 



Cypripedium appL 



Cypripedium bellatulum, Rchb. f.,var. 

luteopurpureum^ O'Brien. (O. C. 



Cymbidium grandiflorum 



Cypripedium Charles Rickman. (<?. 

, Griff., var. P.1&?, l 



Cymbidium lowianum, Rchb. 



♦Cypripedium Charlesw. . 

(t; ( . i>ys.v. <,:- .ji 



with rosy purple ; petals and lip 
white. (Charlesworth. 

Cypripedium Claudii. (A-, t. 397.) 

Bfbenc, Lede.) 

Cypripedium Cleola. (O. 1893, p. 

S'iilimii „,>''* ■ i'\uul 1 ' ' sw,'-,/- 

Cypripedium clinkaberryanum. (G. 

. : . 

Cypripedium Clonius. (G. C. 1893, 

:;:•;,, tig. :>s.) a -:.>■,!•■:. . 

Cypripedium Clymene. (G. C. 1893, 

betwo-n 1 ? '. r, .'.'•/,■/../«», and C. caudatum, 



Cypripedium Erato, (O. /?., v. i., P . 



Cypripedium eyermanianum, var. 
Diana. (O. A. v. i., p. 309.) S. 

A -arden hvbrM br!>.r,ii <'. h„rl>a>u:« 

lium fascinatum. (G. c. 

Iivbri.l benvri-n f' ./.' .tv-,',,,.,',,, and r. 
hirsittissimii,,,. (J.Hj.-Lcvsoii.Ghom.) 

?dill 
1. i 
ienl 
indicated by the name. (T. Statter.) 

Cypripedium Ganesa. (O. A. v. i., 
Cypripedium conco-lawre. (J.o/H. 

"Tl'^hv^-^'b-Uv^nC 4 lnr„hr and C yP ri P ediu111 greyailUm. (G. C. 

f\)uu-rrn m«J/'. ^ Sir 'I LaVromJ!) hybrid b,tV,e'n '( r^W««"au«tc\ JD^ 

Cypripedium concolor, Pariah, var. r 4"- ( ltc ier lSi ' a '" il '' 

p^vh'o' - '\ • ,'n « : "i ' ■', ',-., s! - Cypripedium Hebe. (G. ««</ .F. 1893, 

^X^^ Cy P 1 ^ d i7^^ e T i0 f;J t £ n C hvbrfd 

xiii., p. so.) 8. a garden hybrid be- Cypripedium liybridum corbeill- 

tweon C. wnanthum suvrrhum and (\ ense ( A'. //.H-W. p. 230.) S. Across 

harrisianum. (J. Veitch & Sons.) between r. AV/.W and C. z'w^ne. 

Cypripedium Deception. (O. 1893 ' • 

p. 97.) S. A garden bybridbatwsen r. Cypripedium msigne, ^ all., var. 



((.;... 



r; ;;:i'; 



Cypripedium Dibdin. ( 

(F. G. Tautz.) 
Cypripedium Edwardii. 



Cypripedium enfieldense, var. Hebe. Cypripedi- 



Cypripedium insigne, Wall., yar. 

(R.J. Measures.) 

Cypripedium leeauum ampliatum, 



i Ledouxiae. (O. R. v. I., 
Cypripedium Leonse. (L. t. 300 ; G. 

Ch.,nt!ni. '■ \ < . :' /'■-,.' (I/ilurti- 
culture Internationale.) 

Cypripedium lucienianum. (£. t- 
Cypripedium lynchianum. (G. C. 

1893, r. xiv., p. 692.) 8. A garden 



Cypripedium Mulus. (O. It. \. i. 
Cypripedium Murillo. (G. C. 1893, 

Cypripedium oeno-superbiens. (J. of 



il, 1 



i Iiy'.ii 



Cypripedii 



Cypripedium lime. Gibez. (O. 



Cypripedii 

between Char, ,»■■',>.. 1 C. .;.",■- ,-/- 
aitunt. (O. Block, Paris.) 

Cypripedium Melanthus. (G. C. 

C. , >/oo^Vr/an.rV'.'.S/ ( / H ;-/. (J.Veitch 

Cypripedium Memoria Mcensii. (X. 



Cypripedium Orion. (G. f imh. .-. 
Cypripedium Pari& 
Cypripedium Pauiii. ( O. /?. v., i., p. 
Cypripedium Penelaus. ( G. ('. 1 S93, 

Cypripedium Phsedra. See under 
Cypripedium pryorianum. {G. C. 

Cypripedium Saliieri pictum. (.(>'■ 
Cypripedium Sandero-superbiens. 

Cypripedium sibyrolense. V- H - 
Cypripedium southgatens: super- 



Cypripedium spicerianum, uchb. t., 
eilianuni, Pucci. (B. 

the type. (Mercatelli, Florence.) 



Cypripedium statterianum. (G. C. Cypripedium villosum, LtodL, 

1893, v. xiv., p. 536 : J. of H. v. mii., GtortOni, < I'Brien. ((;. < '. 1S93, 

the type chiefly in the" purplish i 



Cypripedium Sylvia, ( O. C. 188 1 t 

xiii., p. 682.) S. A pan!,', hyl.rid 
between C. Curtisii and C. lawrcnci- 

anum. (C. Winn.) 



urn. (H. Graves, New J 



«m. (P. ilcArthu 



«/// var. utruhon. (F. Sander & Co.) 

Cypripedium Vipani, var. roseum, 
Cypripedium villosum, Lindi.. var. 



Cypripedium tonso-villosum. (G. ' Cypripedium volonteanum gigaix- 

and I'. lb<»3, v. vi, p. 117.) S. A teum. Hurt, i C. C. lKt:i, v. xin., p. 

•lie name. (Pitcher & [ as large at the type. (H. Low & Co.)' 



Cy p:i] 



Cypripedium Turpe. . (O. 1893, p. 

6ci ,■/...'</,. var. fVuM/iandC.irjiw. 
(Godefroy-Lebeuf, Paris.) 

Cypripedium T. W. Bond. (G. C. 

" 1S;(3, v. xiii.. p. :W,. j 
simian. (C. L. N. Ingram.) 

Cypripedium thayerianum. (<?. C. 



Cypripedium tryonianam. (G. C. c - ieecn "" 

l.-'.i.j. v. xiv., p. 134.) S. A garden j mum - ^ 



(.II. Tate.) 

Cypripedium umlauftianum. (G. 

< . lb 1 .'.'!, v. xiv., p. 70.) S. A garden 



Cypripedium venustum, ^ ' ■ var. 
measuresiammi, Hen. <<,■. ( '. isw. 

white and green. (K. J. Measures.) 

Cypripedium vernixium puncta- 

(pTtcheT&Man.Ia.)' ' " 

Cypripedium vexill-Io. (G. C. 1893, 



Cypripedium winnianum. (G. C. 

|sv;;, v. xiii.. p . -j..;.) S. A -anlen 
hjhrid between C. rillosnm and < \ Dru- 

Cypripedium Zampa. ( O. R- v. i., p. 

Cyrtanthus intermedia. (£. C. 1S93, 

Cyrtopera papillosa, Koife. (A'. J9. 
. S. A new 



the lip. Natal. (J. O'Brien. ) 
Cyrtopodimn Alicia?, Linden & Rolfe. 

-;'•'■ 

■ 



Dendrobium Benita. (G. ( 



Dendrobium Bensoniae, Rchb. f., var. 

album, Hort. (G. C. 1893, v. xiii., p. 
rnents and less colour in the flowers 

Dendrobium Bryan. (G. C. 1863, v. 

xiii., p. 39,").) S. A garden hybrid 
amim. (N.'c. Cookson.) 

Dendrobium cheltenhamense. (G. 

• 

(J. Cypher.) 
Dendrobium Mentor. (G. G. 1893, v. 

Dendrobium Niobe. (G. G. 18 

A garden hybrid between D. i 



Dendrobium nobile, Lindl., var. 
Amesiae, Hort. (O.R. v. i., p. 115.) 

and petals and a large richly coloured 

Dendrobium nobile, Lindl., var. bal- 

lianum, Hort. (G. C. 1893, v. xiii, 
p. 322; O. R. V. i., p. 115.) S. A 

variety with white segments, tipped 
with pale pink instead of purple. (F. 

*Dendrobium owenianum. (G. C. 

86.) S. A garden hybrid between 

- ianum and D. wc " 

the parents of D. a 

(F. Sander and Co.) 

Dendrobium rceblingianum. 

i?. v.i., p. 211.) S. A garden 1 

Dendrobium Rubens. (G. C. 



va £:..ele- ! *Dermatobotrys Saundersii, 

what herbaceous sten 



in. long, and coloured bn 
yellow. Zululand. (Kew.) 

Desmodium penduliflorum, Oudem., 

var. fl. albo. ( !>'• G. 1893, p. 69.). 
tosese. II. A white flowered 

Deutzia parviflora, Bunge. (G. C. 

189:<. v. xi.. p. lf>2, f. :<;. , 
\ : ■ 
China. 

Dianthus hybridus, Gartenbau- 
Direcktor R. Brandt. (Gfl. 1893, 



. h 2J in. acn 
(F. Sander & Co.) 

*Disa kewensis. {G.C. 

p. 625 ; a. j 

flora and P." 






Dendrobium Sibyl. (G. G. 1893, v. 

185.) S. A garden hybrid 



*Disa Premier. (G. C. 1893, v. xiv., 

470 ; G. M., 1893, p. 658, fig.) G. 
garden hybrid between D. Veitchii a 
D. tripetaloides. (Kew.) 

^Dizygotheca leptophylla, Hem 



^Dolichos simplicifolius, Hook, f 

31. t. 7318.) ^Leguminosie. S. J 

off annual herbaceous erect stems i 
a foot long, bearing simple lance 
leaves 6 in. long, and axillary eh: 
of pink pea-shaped flowers. 

Dorstenia Walleri, Hand. (< 
1893, v. xiv., p. 178.) Urticacea 
A new species near I). Mavni/.vr 
tuberous rootstock, perennial ste 
foot high, and ovate dc-shr Uav,> 



t. long. Nyassaland. 



*Doryanthes Guilfoylei, Hort. (Gard. 

1893, v. xliv., p. 69, fig.) A 

- 

a form of D. Palmeri. It has leaves 

9 ft. long and 8 in. wide and a flower 

spike 16 ft. high, bearing numerous 

flowers. Queensland. (Botanic Gar- 



Liliaeex. S. \ Cirdyline, probablj 
a form of C. terminalis with coppery- 
lu-uwn Iravus shaded with green, leaf 

Internationale.) 



rac; 

n'f < 

Son 


ma Jamesii, Hort. (G. C. 1893, 

n-djline '/, rmhxilis. (J. Veitch & 




ama sanderiana, Hort. (G. c. 



Epidendrum pumilum, Rolfe. 

B. 1693, p. 171.) G. A news 



Epidendrum b 

I.) G. A new f 
to /•;. purum ; stems 5 in. 
4 in. long ; flow 
light yellow, witl 
Venezuela. (H 

Epidendrum Umlaufti, Zahiby. (W. 

rjce?iw,Rchb. £ 

Epidendrum wendlandianum. K: - .■- 

.' 

it has cnepiiLL'tl^hy stems. !in« ar leaves 
and flowers 2 in. across, the sepals and 

petals light green, and the lip snov,- 



•Eria albiflora, i 



bands of white. 1 v<> v . \\ est A trio*. 
(F. Sander & Co.) 

Ephedra trifurca, Torr. (G/7. 1893, 

- 

branches. Colorado, &c. (Spath, Ber- 

Epidendrum claesianum, Hort. (G. 

C. 1893, v. xiii., p. 641.) Orchideae. 
Epidendrum Endresio-Wallisii. ( O. 



between / 



*Eulophia Zeyheri, Hook. f. (B. M. 



Epidendrum forgetca; 



South Africa. (H. J. Elwes.) 
♦Euphorbia Sipolisii, x.K. i!r. < A 






■■ 

Cat. 1893, p. 4.) Liliaceae. H. A. 
very pretty species with bell-shaped 



leaf and flower ; but it has an orbicular 
msrcaa or a linear nectary. Taurus. 
(Whittall, Smyrna.) 

*Fritillaria zagrica, Stapf. (G. C. 
very' closely allied 'to F. tulipifolia 

*Furcrsea albispina, Baker. (G. c. 

1893, v. xiv., p. 586.) A 

G. A dwarf sp.-ie* allied to /•'. dcpau- 

p, >;i/(i. with leaves 18 in. long 2 in. 



*Galanthns Ikariae, Baker. (G. C. 

1893, v. xiii., p. 506.) H. A species 
with the bright up. on bro;id Lave- 
of G. Fosteri, the quadrate lobes of the 
inner segments of the | - 
the crisped edges ■ t G El rcsii. « .1 ;!:■■ 
ical blotch upon the inner seg- 
ments of G. madia. 
(Whittall, Smyrna.) 

G-alanthus maximus, Baker. (G. C. 

1893, v. xiii., p. 354.) 



latifulius. Caucasus. (T. Ware & Son.) 

*Galeandra Claesii, Cogn. (Z. t. 391.) 



down the face with distinctly reflexed 

'■'■ 



mg f< rni "f the species witn Droaaer 

Galanthus Elwesii,Hk. f., yar. robus- 



Gladiolus Papilio x gandavensis. 

(G. C. 1893, v. rfii., p. 



*Gladiolus platyphyllus, 






1893, v. xiii.. p. 596.) H. H. A 
hybrid h.-tuven G. communis 
cardinalis or G. CoU-iVii. Da 

Gongora Charlesworthii, 

(O 6 i?. T. i., p. 198.) Orcl'id 



Graderia subintegra, 



Galanthus grandiflorus, 






(Seeds offered by W.Nelsi 



*GrramtDatophyllum sanderianum, Hibiscus Lebelei, Nsodin. (R. H. 

Hon. (U- C 1893, v. xiv., p. 15.) 1S93, p. 449. ) 11.11. An uid.mnclied 

Orchideie. S. A clerical blander, the specie^ 3 ft. to -H ft. hi-),, w ith palm.ito. 

yellow with >vd brown hh.tchos at the 

♦Habenaria cinnabarina, Hoife. (A'. ha<.- of the corolla. China. (Naudin, 

eiVt h'n.'ir l-i- ••- V, ', >',. lo'.V and all Hoplophy tlllU iiUeatUUl, Hort. (G. 

Madagascar. (ff.!.,w«x(Vl " imts nf i i: ;m ;s n.louwl green with 

*Habenaria gigantea, Hook., var. ''^ ' ! <■ . | „| !l 'j^' i ,./ ^ /, 15lll 1 !' ) \^^ 



*Hapaline Brownii, Hook. f. (B. M. " *Hymenocallis concinaa, leaker. «?. 

1.7,325 \ . I. S \ new species £ 1893, % ^ ; 1 . ■ Vmar.vi'.ide 



Hedera Helix, 



Hypolytrum schraderianum, 



Heliconia 113 



*Incarvillea Dela 



Hibiscus crassin 



*Iris atrofusca, ft 



Iris caroliniana, Wats. 

1*93, v. Ti., [.. :s:W, f. 51. 
nearly allied to I.versicolo 

Iris germanica, L., \ 
Kodifas. (//-. //. l .■■.■.!. 

(L'Horticulture Internatic 

*Iris Grant Dnffii, Bakei 



Kniphofia modesta, 









linear pale green smooth edged leave* 
cies I in. long. Natal and Griqualand. 

*Kniphofia pauciflora x Ma"owani. 
,ea, ; (G c. \€<n, v. xiv., P . 424.) H. h. 

H. | A garden hybrid between the^ two 

Kniphofia Tuckii,Hort. Leichtlro. {G. 
resembling A', pnwi/u, lint ditVei-in.Lr in 
perianth tube widening from base to 



cember bore spik 



3 Lartia Euterpe. .(G. cm 893, v 

lilac with lark, r veins. i'ulestine. Lae li a finckeniana, O'Brien. ( 



Kalanchoe g'randiflora, Ho 






Laelia purpurata, L 



dis- Lalio-Cattleya ndoliia: 



Laelia Sanderae. (<v. C. ism, v. xiv„ 



Laelio vitellina 



Laelio-Cattleya .alba: 



L»lio Cattlej 

Laelio-Cattleya Epic a s t a . 
Laelio-Cattleya Eumaea. G. 

Laelio-Cattl°ya Nysa. (G. < 



S )' Laelio-Cattleya statteria: 
us speciosus, 1 



*Lonicera hildebn 



Lonicera muscav 



Lycaste Luciani, 



Lonicera Zabelii. 



'Lycaste macrobulbon, 



*Ludovia crenifolia 



Lycaste sclm . . 



Lycaste cinnabari: 



*Maranta Leonae, 

low growing planl 



Masdevallia Rushtoni. (O. R. 



Masdevallia veitchiano - Estradae. 



Masdevallia burbidgeana, Bolfe. 

(O. R. v. i,, p. 265.) Orcliideae. G. 


(Capt. Hincks,) 
Maxillaria sanderiana. Rch 


I v,r 


xanthoglossa, Hort (7. of 


//. 1 >■'.*:{. 










yellowish !ip. (F. Sander *& L 




greenish yellow with hrown spots and 


its .a a 


Grenada. (Glasnevin.) 


Maxillaria striata, K"!v i 


>. /•'. V. 


Masdevallia Chimaera, Rchb. f. var. 




vanneriana. ( O. R. v. i., p. 206.) 






G. A variety of garden origin, the 


















Roezlii. (W. Vanner.) 


Peru. (L'Horticuluue Inu-ni 


tionaie.) 


Masdevallia fragrans, Woolward. 


*Megaclinium minutum, 


. J {0l 5 


Orchideae. S. A diminutivt 






'h.'urmli' each a 
small leaves; scape short. 


p:.i'l-'..t 


Grenada. (Lord Lothian.) 


fedrtowerl! *^ 




Masdevallia harryana, Vara. (L. t. 


*Melothria abissinica, 





Masdevallia Henrietta. 



Masdevallia Parksii. (G. c. 



Miltonia joiceyana, o'l 

Supposed to be a natural) 



(Heath & Son.) 

Masdevallia Pourbaixii, Hoi 



*Momordica chinensis, 1 



Lia pilSllla, Kolle. ( 
33S.) G. A new E] 



Kolfe. (K. B. 



species ! Momordicamuricata, 



Masdevallia Rete< 



Mormodes igneum, Lj 
latum, Roit'c (/„., t.; 



brown, and a coppcn red Ubellum. Nidularium digeneum. (IF. G. 

Australian .peciea di the M. Mpfen- , NothocMsena mollis, Hort (G. C. 

*M/USa Manilii, Wendl. (B. 31. t. & J. Birkenhead.) 

stems' 1 not 8 exceeding*? ft P irTheightl Nymphaea Laydekeri ^ _ fulgens. 

A^ST'cSw 1 ') lug " lar ' and green " Nymphaea Laydekeri liliacea. 

Narcissi Hybrids. ^ (G. C. 1893, v. -^;< -^j" ';*;;, "'''VLersfiffin 

Narcissus intermedins. (Dwm p.Cat. Nymphaea marliacea ignea. (Gard. 

(Damruann & Co., Naples.) ' hardy*. Fibers nearlyo in. in diameter, 

Neodryas sacciana, Lmd. et Cogn. smnaon. (Latour- 

(./. O. 1893, p. 73.) Orchidea'. G. 

A Dew species with the habit of a small j Nymphaea marliacea rubra punc- 

Oneidmm. and S mail t'„.wer> coloured tata. (Gard. 1803, v. xliv., p. 297.) 



Nepenthes _aiiu:siana. ■ g. c. J >'.>.:, Nymphaea Robinsoni. (</<„■,/. My:?. 

Nepenthes mixta. ^ (''. C. IX1<:3, v. with 'veil,, w. < LatourAIarliac, France.) 

iietween .v. nnrthimui and .v. cY//-//*;. *Nymphaea Trickeri. (G.«»JF.,1893, 

(J. Veitch & Sons.) v. vi , p. 404.) S. A garden hybrid 

*Nerine elegans var. alba, Hort. (J. f j \ </,. ,'. m! \> u - jerscO 

,///. 1893, v. xxvii., p. 349, fig. 51.) 

Amaiyiiidea'. G. A distinct plant Odontoglossum baphicanthum.Bthb. 

with an erect scape bearing an umbel f. var immaculatum, Kolfe. (O.R., 



Voon'i. ^d'w.re.) 


«;th' j,rii,'!r.'.-.v.::,'.^ 't!,., v ,'' r * 'with...' 
any spots. (F.'Sander & Co.) 


Odontoglossum blandum. "o-hb. t 
var. albo cupreuin. < »' I '-n.-n. (<■. ( ^ 


Nerine mutabilis. (G. (.'. 1893, %. 


j;Hj:i in ^; ^''.ri/ir; v;«^. ; 'rH 






*NiC0tiana COloSSea, Andre, var. 

variegata. (/*. H. 1893, p. 9.) 

Sobiiiiw. <;. A variegated form of 

y.toiMnto<n (Sal'lier, Paris , 


Odontoglossum crispum, Lindi. var 

: :1 im, ii"-t. (G. ('■ 1893 

T.nr., P . lie ) Q a 

blotch on the , L 11 it .■ I".i 



ferrierense. 



owenlanumTiin.r 1 T, ' r ; . i ..,-,. \ l -' ; ' i .! n !*J T } m fc Hoi £ 

large flowerVh,av i ! v ^ned udh dark "W"^ 1 " ;itll - ! ^''^ V S,n?l,r* 

yellow on : , white ground. ( F. Sander °° 



Odontoglossum Insleayi, Barker 



Odontoglossum thompsonianum, 



th linger* oi' a Mdiowish ,,, (I/Hor- 

varietT ealled nuraim. tieulture Internationale. \ 

Internationale.) 



Odontoglossum Uroskin 



ontoglossum 1 



*Odontoglossum Krameri, Rrhh. 
var. album, Bolfe. (O. R. v. i., 

Odontoglossum Kranzlinii, O'Bri 

petals and 
with hrown biotelu-. and a lanceolate snots. (. 

Odontoglossum lanceans var. grave- tLomen m 



*0ncidium sanderis 



Odontoglossum luteopurpureum, ! 336, 515.) 

Lmdl.. var. coribianum, !!• -■■■■ ( <->■ /»'. (). serrat 



Odontoglossum mulu 



Odontoglossum Pescatorei, 



Oncidium unicolor, 



Bull.) 
Oncidium^ zonatum, Cojrn. (JO. 






*Ornithogalum natalense, Baker. ; Phaius Gravesii. (G. and F. 1893, 



.tal. (Kew.) 


i, ,>,-,!,. 


anthyllidifolia, LindL 


piTr 



Oxalis air..' 



Phalaenopsis fugax, Ki 



nhjt™. 



thera abyssinica, Mn 



Phalaenopsis intermedia var. Vesta. 



Philodendron notabile, 3 



*Pelexia maculata, 3 



Pentas quartiniana, 



Phoenix melanocarpa, 3 



Co., Naples.) 

Phaius amabilis. (O. ( 



*Pholidota Lugardi, 



Phaio-Calanthe sedeniana albiflora. j Physosiphon Lindleyi, Knife. CA"^7i. 



Phaio - Calanthe sedeniana rosea. 



the type the Phaius j *Pleurothallis maculata, Rotte. 
mt but in this variety j (A'. B. 1s'j:i. [•. :?34.) unhi.u . . >- 
arent. (J. Riley.) ! A new specie s allied to P. recurva ; 



Pyrus angustifolia, Ait. var. flore 

v:p. II. 



*Pleurothallis pergracilis, Bolfe. 



It has *Richardia Lutwychei, N. K. 



Iiriti-h Hon in.< (Kew.) 

Pleurothallis puberula, Eol 



,,m.Ts "Riclurdia Eel:- ; 



P. ■;:,. . 



.;::'.;rfrJ 



*Pleurothallis unistriata, R»l 



Polystachya imbrics 



2?. Salix amplexica 



Polystachya la«racian* Kranzih, Salix b.a:w, A >A J^^;. ^ : 

< CT ',,■,,';.■'/■ mis./****. csp«h,Brtm.) 

Salix nigricans, Sm. var. moabitica, 



♦Protea rl odantha, 



*Pteris serrulata, 



growing species Europe. (Geo. Pai 

"Selaginella pitcheriana, Hort. {G. 

r. ;?,;;., v;-,.. ,,*:.;.) sd.^indla^r. 
Introduced to Kew in 1S81 and since S. A garden name for .S ^tlm.pu.s, 

distributed but it did not flower until Spring, var. minor. (Pitcher & 

last summer. E. Trop. Africa. (Kew.) Manda.) 

:. (A". B. Selenipedium Ainsworthii- var. f eli- 



(Kew.) 

Sarracenia mandaiana. 



I sphaerocarpum, Ldl. (/?. 

givn k-av- ami an er.-< r scape 12 in. 
high, hearing about 20 Orchis-like 

*Scaphosepalum microdactylum 

K - . A /■ .- ■ 

with three apical teeth, and scapes 5 in. 
long, bearing small greenish-yellow and 
brown flowers. Habitat not recorded. 
(Kew.) 

Schomhurgkia rosea, Linden. ( O. R., 



Selenipedium Phaedra. (G 

A gai'd,-!!' hybrid "bet«voii .' 
Svn. CjpriptdiumPhadra. 

Selenipedium pulchellum. 



*Selenipedium sargentiauum. !• 

((t. H. v.i.,p. 23'J.; >. A n.u >peei. -. 



Senecio leucostachys, .Baker. {R.H. 

G. o'r H. H. A subshrub will, uhite 






*Scilla Buchanani, Bal 



ones. (Vallerand, France.) 

*Sphaerolobium grandiric a 



Anthony 



: k,r. ((;. c. 

1 *SpiraeaBumalda 



Scopolia carniolica, 



(G. C. 

8; G. If. 1893, p. 



(H. Low & Co.) 
*Stanhopea Lowii, I 



Tillandsia leodiensis- {OJL 



"Tillandsia microxiphion, 



i section, and differ 
New Grenada. 

Stenandrhun goossensianum. 

''■ larger, whiter leaves, longer iaf.ores 

ri-r.CG.) veantkaee : e. S. A free -row' [ Andre, L^a nee.) ^ ^ 

ing stove plant with opposite ovate i 

acumiiat.- > *Tradescantia elongata. I. : »'i. <<;.< 

when young, rich rosy-purple on a dark i V i,!, v. xiii., p. 47 1 ) Commelmacea 

green ground. Flowers on erect s. " Leaves longer and narrower tha 

spikes, funnel-shaped, an inch long, i " in T. repnue, dark green with hand 

violet-hlue. East Indies. (F. Sander ; « f silvery white, and a dull purpl 

Tamarix kashgarica. (G- C. 1893, nationaie.) 

',.";';'•;.;, I 1 , ;;; *Tradescantiavelutina,Lind. (G\ £ 



*Tchichatschewa isatidea, 



Leichtlin, Baden.) 

Tigridia grandiflora, 
filiacea, H 



Tigridia grandiflora, > '';- 1 

hybrid between T. Pavonia and 
conchiflora. It has yellow no 
tin^d with rose. (F. H. Hors 



Tilia miqueliana. Max. iG.,^/ F. 
H. A apt the Tulipa Harmonia, 

Arboretum.) [ form of T. undu 



Triteleia nniflora, Lindl. var. ccern- 

/,'. //. !-■:. p. -j.-,;. ,.:.. 

Lliiaeeie. H. A fori; 

the type in having porcelain blue 

flowers. (Andre, France.) 

Triteleia uniflora, Lindl var. Stella, 

Tulipa COncilina, Haker. (G. C. 1893, 

■ 



'■: inita, Desv. (< 



* Veronica Fa: 

t. 73-2.-1.) H. H. A n^ 

• n! In hi 



(Edinburgh Hot. Card.) 

*Veronica 

(Gard. 18' 
dwarf spec 




Vriesia hybrida Pommer-Escheana, 

(GJl. 1893, p. 12!>, f,k l:iss.) lirome- 
liar, . - .\ _ . hybrid between 

Vriesia purpurascenn, Hon. (<v. c. 

coloured plant, the leases dark green 



Vriesia tesselata. Morren. vtr. San- 

derffi, Hort. ((7. < . \>'x-. v. xiii., p. 



Verbesina pinnatifida. i 


'■■"• ' " ; • ' • i..' ; '!i.'. ;', 


C_V*f. 1MM, Xu. 21i',. p. 7, tiir- .) Com- 






if. Sander & Co.) ° 


" - '■ ' ' " ' '^ ' "■ 


*Wittsteinia vaccineacea, F. v. Mueil. 


QuateJL ^ruanT, 


A. /■' .- . • : ...^e <r. 
The only species known, and one of the 






*Veronica Colei 


in Australia. It is a sub-alpine uith 


; ■ 


pm-tiatt < reepinj -t t j - i-rending 
branches a font lonp, clot! . 1 with -mall 


A ^hrul.l.y <;■ - ; - elo.ely allied to V. 




thick roundish toothed Laves and small 



ROYAL GARDENS, KEW. 



BULLET IN 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION. 



LIST of the STAFFS of the ROYAL GARDENS, Kew, and 
of Botanical Departments and Establishments at Home, 
and in India and the Colonies, in Correspondence with 
Kew. 



Assistant-Director 
Assistant (Office) 



W. T. Thiselton-Dyer. C.M.G., 
C.I.E., F.R.S., Ph.D., M.A., 
F.L.S. 

Daniel Morris, C.M.G., D.Sc, 



liam Nicholls Winn. 



Keeper of Herbarium and Library John GilbertBaker,F.R.S.,F.L.!r 
Principal Assistant (Phanerogams) * William Botting Hemslcy, F.ll.S 

„ „ (Cryptogams)- George Massee. 

Assistant (Herbarium) - - Nicholas Edward Brown, A.L.S 

♦Robert Allen Rolfe, A.L.S. 
„ - - Charles Henry Wright. 



1375.— 11/94. Wt. 45. 



Curator of Museums - - John Reader Jackson, A.L.!? 

Assistant (Museum) - - John Masters Hillier. 

Preparer - - - George Badderly. 



Curator of the Gardens - - George Nicholson, A.L.S. 

Assistant Curator - - William Watson. 

Foremen : — 

Arboretum - - - *William J. Bean. 

II* rbaei'ous Department - *Walter Irving. 

Greenhouse and Ornamental Frank Garrett. 

Department. 
Temperate House (Sub-tropical *Thomas Jones. 
Department) . 



m-sity Botanic Garden : — 
Professor - Charles C. Bat 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Deputy Professor Francis Darwin, 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Curator - • *Richard Irwin 

A.L.S. 



A.L.S. 

Trinity College Botanic Gardens : — 

Professor - - E. Perceval Wright, M.D., 

F.L.S., Sec. R.IA. 
Curator - - *F. W. Burbidge, MA., 

F.L.S. 

Edinburgh.— Royal Botanic Garden :— - 

Regius Keeper - Isaac Bayley Balfour, 
M.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.L.S. 

Curator - - Robert Lindsay. 



Sydney H. Vin 

F.R.S , F.L.S 

*William Baker. 



Antigua. (See Leeward Islands.) 



i;:: 



rS. J,n 



Head Gardener - fJohn F. Waby. 
Second „ - *Robert Ward. 

Promenade Garden : — 
Head Gardener - William Jackson. 
Berbice - - Keeper - - Richard Hunt. 



British Honduras.— Botar 



. M.-X.-ih 



Dominion Botanist - Prof. John Macoun, 
M.A., F.R.S.C , F.L.S. 
Assistant „ - Jas. M. Macoun. 
Director of Govern- "| prof Wm Saunders ( 

nrent Experimental ^ F H S C, F.L.S- 

Farms - -J 

Botanist and Ento- James Fletcher, F.L.S. 

mologist. 
Director. University Prof. D. P. Penhallow, 



CapeColonj,- G( _ nt ^ ( _ prof M8c0wa „, FX . S . 

Gardens and Public Parks : — 
Cape Town - Curator - - H. J. Chalwin. 

Grahamstown - Curator - - Edwin Tidmarsh. 

Port Elizabeth (St. George's Park) :— 

Superintendent - John T. Butters. 

King Williamstown Curator - - 

Graaf Reinet - „ - - J. C. Smith. 

Uitenhage „ - - H. Fairey. 

Cevlon.— Department of Royal Botanic Gardens :— 

^ * Director - - fHenry Trimen, M.B., 

F.R.S, F.L.S. 
Peradeniya - Head Gardener - "Peter D. G. Clark. 
Clerk - - J- Ferdinandus. 

Draughtsman - W. de Alwis. 

Hakgala - Superintendent - *William Nock. 

Clerk and Foreman M. G. Perera. 
Henaratgoda - Conductor - - S. de Silva, Arechchi, 

Anuradhapura - „ - D. F. de Silva. 

Badidla - - „ - - D. A. Guneratne. 



Dominica. (See Leeward lslaiaN ) 



Gambia.— Botanic Station :— 

Curator 
Gold Coast.— Botanic Station :•— 

Grenada.— Botanic Garden:,— 

Curator 
Hong Kong.— Botanic and Afforestation Department :- 

Superintendent - fCharles Ford. F.L.S. 

Assistant Superin- *W, J. Tutcher. 
tendent. 
Jamaica. — Department of Public Gardens and Plantatic 



♦Daniel Yeoward. 
♦Walter Haydon. 
*William Crowther. 
* Walter E. Broadway. 



Director 

Hope Gardens - Superintendent 
Castleton Garden „ 
Cinchona (Hill „ 

Garden). 
Kingston Parade „ 

King's Honse » 
Garden. 


fWilliam Fawcett, B.Sc, 

♦Wiliiam'Cradwick. 
Eugene Campbell. 
* William Harris. 

John Campbell. 


♦William J. Thompson. 


Bath - - Overseer - 


W. Groves. 


LagOS.— Botanic Station :— 
Curator 

Assistant - 


♦Henry Millen. 
*F. G. R. Leigh. 
*T. B. Dawodu. 


Leeward Islands.— Agricultural Department:— 

Superintendent - fCharles A. Barber, MA. 


Antigua - - Curator 


♦Arthur G. Tillson. 


Dominica - „ 


♦Joseph Jones. 


Btontserrat - Head Gardener 


Henry Maloney. 


St. Kitts-Nevis - 


Joseph Wade. 


Malta.— Argotti Botanic Garden :— 




Director - - Dr. Francesco Debono. 
Mauritius. — Department of Forests and Botanic Gardens : — 
Painplemousses - Director - - * William Scott. 

Assistant Director of J. Vankeirsbilck. 

Gardens. 
Assistant Director of P. Randabel. 
Forests. 
Curepipe - - Overseer - - William A. Kennedy. 


Montserrat. (See Leeward Islands.) 




Natal— Botanic Gardens :— 




Durban - - Curator 


John Medley Wood, 



Pietermaritzburg Cu 



New South Wales.— Botanic Gardens:— 

Sydney - - Director - - Charles Moore, F.L.S. 

New Zealand :— 

Wellington.— Colonial Botanic Garden :— 







K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 




Head Gardener 


G. Gibb. 


Dunedin - 


Superintendent 


J. McBean, 


Napier 




W. Barton. 


Jnvercargill 


Head Gardener 


Thomas Wangh, 


Auckland - 


Hanger - 


William Goldie. 


Christchurch 


Head Gardener 


♦Ambrose Taylor. 


Niger Coast Protectorate — Botanic Garden : ~ 


Old Calabar 


Curator 


Horace W. 1. LMMinirt. r. 


Queensland. — Botanic Department :— . 




Brisbane - 


Colonial Botanist » 


F. M Bailey, F.L.S. 


Botanic Garden; 










♦Philip MacMahon, 




Overseer - 


J. Tobin. 


Acclimatisation Society's Gardens :— 






Secretary and Manager Wm. Soutter. 




Assistant; „ 


A. Humphrey. 


Rockhampton 


Superintendent 


J. S. Edgar. 


St. Kitts-Nevis. 


(See Leeward Islands.) 


St. Lucia.— Botanic 


Station:- 






Curator 


f John Gray. 


St. Vincent. — Botanic Station : — 






Curator 


*Henry Powell. 


South Australia. 


—Botanic Gardens :— 




Adelaide - 


Director - 


Maurice Holtze, F.L.S. 


Port Darwin 


Curator 


Nicholas Holtze. 


Straits Settlements.— Gardens and Forest Department :— 


Singapore 


Director - 


fH. N. Kidkv, MA, 

F.L.S. 
♦Walter Fox. 




Assistant Superin- 




tendent. 




Penang - 


indent ^^ 


j fCharles Curtis, F.L.S. 


Malacca - 


„ 


*Kobert Derry. 


Perak (Kuala Kangsar). — Government Plantations : — 




Superintendent 


Oliver Marks. 



Tasmania.— Botanic Gardens :— 

Hobart Town - Superintendent - F. Abbott. 

Trinidad.— Royal Botanic Gardens :— 

Superintendent - f John JI « Hart, F.L.S. 

Assistant „ - *William Lunt. 

Victoria.— . ^ _, *■ „ „ 

Melbourne - Government Botanist Sir F. \ on Mueller, 

K.C.M.G.,F.ll.S,F.L.S. 
Botanic Gardens : — 

Director - - W. R. Guilfoyle, F.L.S. 



Botanical Survey .- 



LNDIA. 

tector, George King, M.D., LL.D., C.I.E., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Bengal, Assam, Burma; the Andamans and Nicobars; North- KaM 
Frontier Expeditions :— 

Superintendent of the"] George King, M.D., 
Royal Botanic Gar- S LL.D., C.I E.,F.R.S., 
dens, Calcutta -J F.L.S. 

Bombay, including Sind : — 

Madras : the State of Hyderabad and the State of Mysore :— 

^ I D^or I of t S-V^ T V . LaWSOn ' ^^ 
cbona Plantations -J * L> - 
Western Provinces and Ouilh; the Punjab ; th.- ( '> ial Provinces; 
Central India-. Pajputana; North-West Frontier Expeditions : — 
Director of the BoO 
tanic Department If J. F. Duthie, B.A., 
Northern India, f F.L.S. 

Saharanpur, N. W.P.J 



Bengal.— Depar 


tment of Royal Botanic Gardens :— 


Calcutta 
(Seebpore) 


- Superintendent 


George. King, M.D., 
LL.D.,C.I.E.,F.R.S., 
F.L.S. 
Dr. David Prain, F.L.S., 

F.R.S.E. 
♦Robert L. Proudlock. 
*G. T. Lane. 




Curator of Herbarium 

Garden - 
Assistant „ 


Mungpoo 


- Superintendent, Go- 
vernment Cinchona 
Plantations - 
Deputy 

1st Assistant - 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 
4th „ 


•) George King, M.D., 

V LL.D.,C.I.E.,F.R.S., 
J F.L.S. 

*J. A. Gammie. 

*R. Pantling. 

♦Joseph Parkes. 
G. A. Gammie. 

*Amos Hartless. 


Darjeeling ; Lloyd Botanic Garden : — 
Curator 


♦William A. Kennedy. 


Darbhangah ; Maharajah's Garden : — 
Superintendent 


Herbert Thorn. 


Bombay — 






Poona - 


Lecturer on Botany - 


*G. Marshall Woodrow. 


Ghorpuri. — Bota 


nic Garden :— 
Superintendent 


A. R. Lister. 


Bombay— Muni< 


;ipal Garden : — 
Superintendent 


C. D. Mahaluxmivala, 



lout of *J. R. Ward. 



Central Provinces — 

Nagpur 

Public G 
Madras— Botanic De; 



chona Plantations 
Curator of Gardens *Andrew Jamieson. 

and Parks, 
s. — Agri-Horticultural Society : — 

Hon. Secretary - Col. H. W. H. Cox. 

Superintendent - *J. M. Glecson. 



Jative States.— 






Mysore (Bangalore) Superi 


atendent 


*J. Cameron, F.L.S. 


Curato 




*J. Home Stephen. 


Baroda - - Superintendent 


*G. H. Krumbiegel. 




New Work 


*J. M. Henry. 


Gwalior - 




|C. Maries, F.L.S. 


Morvi 




^Joseph Beck. 


Travancore(Trivandrum) „ 




*Frederick James 
gleby. 


Udaipur - - „ 




*T. H. Storey. 



North-West Provinces.- 

Agra (Taj Garden) Superiul 

Allahabad - „ 

Cawnpur - „ 

Lucknow - „ 



Punjab : 

Lahore 



V. J. Bulleu. 
*J. Phillips. 

G. H. T. Mayer. 
*Matthew Ridley. 

William Gollan.